A multiwavelength Brillouin/Raman distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser operating in the S-band region is proposed and demonstrated. The laser uses a 7.7 km long dispersion-shifted fiber with an effective mode area of 15 μm(2) as the Brillouin and Raman gain media simultaneously. Two 1420 nm laser diodes with a combined power of 372 mW are used as pump sources, while a fiber Bragg grating with a center wavelength of 1500 nm is used as a reflector in the cavity. The setup is capable of generating 6 clearly defined Stokes lines at the highest pump power, spanning from 1499.8 to 1500.3 nm with the even Stokes having relatively higher peak powers, between 1.4 and 3.5 dBm as compared to the odd Stokes, which have peak powers between -4.7 and -5.0 dBm. The output of the laser is very stable and shows little to no fluctuations over a monitoring period of 50 min.
Although heavy-tailed fluctuations are ubiquitous in complex systems, a good understanding of the mechanisms that generate them is still lacking. Optical complex systems are ideal candidates for investigating heavy-tailed fluctuations, as they allow recording large datasets under controllable experimental conditions. A dynamical regime that has attracted a lot of attention over the years is the so-called low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of semiconductor lasers with optical feedback. In this regime, the laser output intensity is characterized by abrupt and apparently random dropouts. The statistical analysis of the inter-dropout-intervals (IDIs) has provided many useful insights into the underlying dynamics. However, the presence of large temporal fluctuations in the IDI sequence has not yet been investigated. Here, by applying fluctuation analysis we show that the experimental distribution of IDI fluctuations is heavy-tailed, and specifically, is well-modeled by a non-Gaussian stable distribution. We find a good qualitative agreement with simulations of the Lang-Kobayashi model. Moreover, we uncover a transition from a less-heavy-tailed state at low pump current to a more-heavy-tailed state at higher pump current. Our results indicate that fluctuation analysis can be a useful tool for investigating the output signals of complex optical systems; it can be used for detecting underlying regime shifts, for model validation and parameter estimation.
We propose and demonstrate a tunable S-band multiwavelength Brillouin/Raman fiber laser (MBRFL) with a tuning range of between 1490 to 1530 nm. The proposed MBRFL is designed around a 7.7 km long dispersion compensating fiber in a simple ring configuration, acting as a nonlinear medium for the generation of multiple wavelengths from stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and also as a nonlinear gain medium for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) amplification. A laser source with a maximum power of 12 dBm acts as the Brillouin pump (BP), while two 1420 nm laser diodes with a total power of 26 dBm act as the Raman pumps (RPs). The MBRFL can generate a multiwavelength comb consisting of even and odd Stokes at an average power of -12 dBm and -14 dBm respectively, and by separating the even and odd Stokes outputs, a 20 GHz channel spacing is obtained between two consecutive wavelengths. Due to the four-wave mixing (FWM) effect, anti-Stokes lines are also observed. The multiwavelength comb generated is not dependent on the BP, thus providing high stability and repeatability and making it a highly potential source for many real-world applications. This is the first time, to the knowledge of the authors, that a tunable MBRFL has been developed using SRS to obtain gain in the S-band region.
This paper presents the characteristics of a multiwavelength L-band Brillouin-erbium comb fiber laser with a preamplified Brillouin pump (BP) power technique at low pumping powers. The issue of erbium-doped fiber gain depletion and Brillouin gain saturation are resolved by the proposed structure. For long single-mode fiber length, the Stokes line emission occurs at low pumping powers because of the high strength of spontaneous Brillouin scattering, which provides a strong seed for coherent regenerative amplification of the Stokes line in the laser cavity. The laser structure achieves a low threshold power of 17 mW and is able to produce high number of output channels at low pumping powers. We experimentally show that the fiber laser structure can produce up to 37 channels at 55 and 0.045 mW of 1480 nm pump and BP powers, respectively.
We experimentally demonstrate a simple method for generating a multiwavelength Brillouin comb by utilizing a linear cavity of hybrid Brillouin-erbium fiber lasers (BEFLs). The optimization of Brillouin pump wavelength, power, and erbium gain played a significant role in determining the maximum number of Brillouin Stokes signals generated. Simultaneous and stable multiple-wavelength laser output of 22 lines with 10.88-GHz channel spacing has been obtained with good flatness. Various parameters such as 980-nm pump power, Brillouin pump wavelength, and Brillouin pump power that affect the performance of a multiwavelength BEFL system have been investigated. An analysis of the tuning range of the system is presented.
The theoretical basis for simultaneous oscillation of 2N - 3 laser lines is due to interference of N (for all even N > or = 2) pump beams in a distributed-feedback dye laser is described. Multiple gratings are produced in a dye solution by interference patterns of N/2 pairs of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. N/2 pairs of mutually time-delayed pulses induce multiple gratings of different periodicities, of which 2N - 3 gratings support oscillation of 2N - 3 lines and the remaining gratings, because of their larger periods, cannot support Bragg scattering. The maximum number of laser lines depends on the mutual delay between adjacent pairs of beams, coherence, states of polarization, pulse lengths, and of course the number of pulses. For three pairs of excitation beams derived from the same source through wave-front or amplitude phase division techniques, the output lasing lines varied from a minimum of three to a maximum of nine. This research was carried out by pumping of a dye solution with two, four, and six pulses, but the principle may be extended to multiple output lines, depending on the number of pump pulses and on the gain of the dye solution.
The color of transformer oil can be one of the first indicators determining the quality of the transformer oil and the condition of the power transformer. The current method of determining the color index (CI) of transformer oil utilizes a color comparator based on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D1500 standard, which requires a human observer, leading to human error and a limited number of samples tested per day. This paper reports on the utilization of ultra violet-blue laser at 405- and 450-nm wavelengths to measure the CI of transformer oil. In total, 20 transformer oil samples with CI ranging from 0.5 to 7.5 were measured at optical pathlengths of 10 and 1 mm. A linear regression model was developed to determine the color index of the transformer oil. The equation was validated and verified by measuring the output power of a new batch of transformer oil samples. Data obtained from the measurements were able to quantify the CI accurately with root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of 0.2229 for 405 nm and 0.4129 for 450 nm. This approach shows the commercialization potential of a low-cost portable device that can be used on-site for the monitoring of power transformers.
We demonstrate the generation of multiple Brillouin Stokes lines generation assisted by Rayleigh scattering in Raman fiber laser. The linear cavity is utilized to take advantage of the Rayleigh scattering effect, and it also produces two strong spectral peaks at 1555 and 1565nm. Under a strong pumping condition, the Rayleigh backscatters contribute to the oscillation efficiency, which increases the Brillouin Stokes lines intensity between these two wavelength ranges. The multiple Stokes lines get stronger by suppressing the buildup of free-running longitudinal modes in the laser structure.
The operation of a single-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) system with a Brillouin pump preamplified technique for different output coupling ratios in a ring cavity is experimentally demonstrated. The characteristics of Brillouin Stokes power and tunability were investigated in this research. The efficiency of the BEFL operation was obtained at an optimum output coupling ratio of 95%. By fixing the Brillouin pump wavelength at 1550 nm while its power was set at 1.6 mW and the 1480 pump power was set to its maximum value of 135 mW, the Brillioun Stokes power was found to be 28.7 mW. The Stokes signal can be tuned within a range of 60 nm from 1520 to 1580 nm without appearances of the self-lasing cavity modes in the laser system.
A configuration for linear cavity Brillouin fiber laser (BFL) generation is demonstrated using a standard single-mode fiber, two optical circulators, a 3 dB coupler, and a 95/5 coupler to allow high efficiency. With a Brillouin pump (BP) power of 13 dBm, the laser peak power is 12.3 dB higher than a conventional linear cavity BFL at an upshifted wavelength of 0.086 nm from the BP wavelength. In addition, it is revealed that the BFL peak power can be higher than the transmitted BP peak power when the BP power exceeds the second Brillouin Stokes threshold power.
In this paper, the tuning range characteristics of a multiwavelength L-band Brillouin-erbium fibre laser utilizing a linear cavity is described. The dependency of the Stokes signal tuning range on the laser’s pumping power and single mode fibre length is elaborated. The proposed laser configuration exhibited a wide tuning range of 11 nm from 1599 nm to 1610 nm. The maximum number of 28 output channels with a spacing of 10.5 GHz was achieved by setting the Brillouin pump wavelength and power at 1603.1 nm and 1.1 mW, respectively. The wider tuning range and higher number of Brillouin Stokes contributed to the higher efficiency of doublepass amplification in the erbium gain medium and also to the bidirectional generation of Brillouin Stokes in the single-mode fibre.
We report on some interesting phenomena in the focusing and scattering of femtosecond laser pulses in free space that provide insights on intense laser plasma interactions. The scattered image in the far field is analyzed and the connection with the observed structure of the plasma at the focus is discussed. We explain the physical mechanisms behind the changes in the colorful and intricate image formed by scattering from the plasma for different compressions, as well as orientations of plano-convex lens. The laser power does not show significant effect on the images. The pulse repetition rate above 500 Hz can affect the image through slow dynamics The spectrum of each color in the image shows oscillatory peaks due to interference of delayed pulse that correlate with the plasma length. Spectral lines of atomic species are identified and new peaks are observed through the white light emitted by the plasma spot. We find that an Ar gas jet can brighten the white light of the plasma spot and produce high resolution spectral peaks. The intricate image is found to be extremely sensitive and this is useful for applications in sensing microscale objects.
A distributed feedback fibre laser made of highly Er-Yb co-doped phosphate glass fibre was demonstrated experimentally. The 45 mm long fibre laser device operated at 1540 nm with more than 50 dB side mode suppression ratio. However, the output power was still relatively lower due to un-optimized grating structure and thermal management.
Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LW-VCSELs) have profound advantages compared to traditional edge-emitting lasers offering improved properties with respect to mode selectivity, fibre coupling, threshold currents and integration into 2D arrays or with other electronic devices. Its commercialization is gaining momentum as the local and access network in optical communication system expand. Numerical modeling of LW-VCSEL utilizing wafer-fused InP-based multi-quantum wells (MQW) and GaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) is presented in this paper. Emphasis is on the device and mesa/pillar diameter design parameter comparison and its effect on the device characteristics.
Influence of laser treatment on mechanical properties, wear resistance, and Vickers hardness of aluminum alloy was studied. The specimens were treated by using Nd:YaG laser of energy 780 mj, wavelength 512 nm, and duration time 8 ns. The wear behavior of the specimens was studied for all specimens before and after treatment by Nd:YaG laser and the dry wear experiments were carried out by sing pinon-disc technique. The specimens were machined as a disk with diameter of 25 mm and circular groove in depth of 3 mm. All specimens were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDS), optical microscopy, and Vickers hardness. The results showed that the dry wear rate was decreased after laser hardening and increased Vickers hardness values by ratio of 2.4:1. The results showed that the values of wear rate for samples having circular grooves are less than samples without grooves after laser treatment.
We demonstrate a multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency spacing. The wider channel spacing is realized by circulating the odd-order Stokes signals in the Brillouin gain medium through a four-port circulator. The circulated odd-order Stokes signals are amplified by the Brillouin gain and thus produce even-order Stokes signals at the output. These signals are then amplified by erbium gain block to form a ring-cavity laser. Ten channels with 0.174 nm spacing that are generated at 0.5 mW Brillouin pump power and 150 mW pump power at 1480 nm can be tuned from 1556 nm to 1564 nm. The minimum optical signal-to-noise ratio of the generated output channels is 30 dB with maximum power fluctuations of ±0.5 dB.
We demonstrate an enhanced architecture of Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser utilizing the reverse-S-shaped fiber section as the coupling mechanism. The enhancement is made by locating a common section of Erbium-doped fiber next to the single-mode fiber to amplify the Brillouin pumps and the oscillating Stokes lines. The requirement of having two Erbium gain sections to enhance the multiple Brillouin Stokes lines generation is neglected by the proposed fiber laser structure. The mode competitions arise from the self-lasing cavity modes of the fiber laser are efficiently suppressed by the stronger pre-amplified Brillouin pump power before entering the single mode fiber section. The maximum output power of 20 mW is obtained from the proposed fiber laser with 10 laser lines that equally separated by 0.089 nm spacing.
A wide-band and tunable Q-switched erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser operating at 1560.5 nm with a tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) saturable absorber (SA) is demonstrated. The semi-metallic nature of WTe2 as well as its small band gap and excellent nonlinear optical properties make it an excellent SA material. The laser cavity uses an 89.5 cm long EDF, pumped by a 980 nm laser diode as the linear gain while the WTe2 based SA generates the pulsed output. The WTe2 based SA has a modulation depth, non-saturable loss and saturation intensity of about 21.4%, 78.6%, and 0.35 kW/cm2 respectively. Stable pulses with a maximum repetition rate of 55.56 kHz, narrowest pulse width of 1.77 µs and highest pulse energy of 18.09 nJ are obtained at the maximum pump power of 244.5 mW. A 56 nm tuning range is obtained in the laser cavity, and the output is observed having a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 48.5 dB. The demonstrated laser has potential for use in a large number of photonics applications.
This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS). The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect's depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks.
We propose a class of attacks on quantum key distribution (QKD) systems where an eavesdropper actively engineers new loopholes by using damaging laser illumination to permanently change properties of system components. This can turn a perfect QKD system into a completely insecure system. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on an avalanche photodiode-based detector shows that laser damage can be used to create loopholes. After ∼1 W illumination, the detectors' dark count rate reduces 2-5 times, permanently improving single-photon counting performance. After ∼1.5 W, the detectors switch permanently into the linear photodetection mode and become completely insecure for QKD applications.