The life history characteristics of the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes Curtis were studied under laboratory conditions using three field strains from Malaysia: Desa Wawasan (DW), Sri Pinang (SP), and Ampang Jajar (AJ). The total development time of immature stages differed significantly among the three strains, especially between DW (17.43 +/- 0.16 d), SP (18.60 +/- 0.19 d), and AJ (18.68 +/- 0.22 d). Adult females and males from DW also exhibited a shorter life span, although the difference among strains was not significant. In terms of fecundity, the numbers of eggs laid per female for DW, SP, and AJ were 121.28 +/- 15.98, 127.30 +/- 18.01, and 147.45 +/- 17.12, respectively. Additionally, because of the shorter life span in DW strain, two apparent peaks in age-stage specific fecundity were detected. The beetles compensated for their shorter life span by increasing their reproductive activity to sustain the progeny in the population. The intrinsic rates of increase (r) of P. fuscipes from DW, SP, and AJ were 0.0773 +/- 0.0046 d(-1), 0.0788 +/- 0.0051 d(-1), and 0.0873 +/- 0.0054 d(-1), respectively; and the net reproduction rates (R0) were 40.09 +/- 7.39 offspring, 45.29 +/- 8.74 offspring, and 42.34 +/- 8.25 offspring, respectively. The mean generation time of P. fuscipes from AJ was 43.08 +/- 1.07 d, which was significantly higher than that from DW (47.95 +/- 1.36 d) and SP (48.57 +/- 1.43 d). The total immature development time of P. fuscipes in this study was shorter than values reported in previous studies.
Many researchers have developed various economic ordering quantity models by assuming an infinite time horizon and constant demand rate. However due to rapid technological advancement, shorter product life cycle and severe competition, those assumptions are no longer realistic. In this paper, we complement that shortcoming by considering an inventory model that satisfies a continuous time-varying demand rate for a finite time horizon when trade credit period and unit cash discount are allowed. The time horizon consists of n different cycles with equal or different cycles length. The trade credit period was assumed to be proportional to the cycle length. We developed mathematical models and presented a numerical example to support the effectiveness of these models.
Recurrent outbreaks of muscular sarcocystosis among tourists visiting islands in Malaysia have focused international attention on sarcocystosis, a disease once considered rare in humans. Sarcocystis species require two hosts, definitive and intermediate, to complete their life cycle. Humans can serve as definitive hosts, with intestinal sarcocystosis for two species acquired from eating undercooked meat: Sarcocystis hominis, from beef, and Sarcocystis suihominis, from pork. Symptoms such as nausea, stomachache, and diarrhea vary widely depending on the number of cysts ingested but appear more severe with pork than with beef. Humans serve as intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis nesbitti, a species with a reptilian definitive host, and possibly other unidentified species, acquired by ingesting sporocysts from feces-contaminated food or water and the environment; infections have an early phase of development in vascular endothelium, with illness that is difficult to diagnose; clinical signs include fever, headache, and myalgia. Subsequent development of intramuscular cysts is characterized by myositis. Presumptive diagnosis based on travel history to tropical regions, elevated serum enzyme levels, and eosinophilia is confirmed by finding sarcocysts in muscle biopsy specimens. There is no vaccine or confirmed effective antiparasitic drug for muscular sarcocystosis, but anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce symptoms. Prevention strategies are also discussed.
The life-cycle of Malaysian Spirometra spp. was studied under experimental conditions in the laboratory. The Cyclops were reared as the first intermediate host, the hamster as the experimental second intermediate host and cat as the definitive host. Maturation and hatching of eggs took 6 to 12 days by incubation at temperature 30 ºC. The hatched coracidium measured 46 x 34 μm. The Cyclops used were susceptible to the coracidial infection. The procercoid older than 5 days in the Cyclop body cavity had minute spines at the anterior end, calcium corpuscles in the body parenchyma and the cercomer at the posterior end. Procercoids 10 to 14 days old were infective to hamster. The plerocercoids from the hamster after 30 days were long and slender and were infective to cats. The plerocercoids experimentally inoculated to cats developed to adult worms and began to produce eggs between 10 to 60 days. Based on the results that have been obtained, a complete life-cycle was successfully elucidated in the laboratory and hamster was identified to be a good laboratory model for a second intermediate host of Spirometra sp.
Larvae of the Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) were collected from a decomposed human corpse at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Penang Hospital. A colony of this species was established and the eggs were collected for rearing. The developmental times, rearing temperatures, and relative humidity were recorded twice daily from the time the eggs collected until adult emergence. An average of 5 larvae were randomly collected from the rearings twice daily, warm-water killed and preserved in Kahle's solution. The larval instar stages were determined by observing the number of posterior spiracular slits and the length of the preserved larvae were measured. When the larval life cycle was completed, the accumulated developmental times were calculated. A total of 8 replicates were carried out. The temperature of the rearing room was 28.5+/-1.5 degrees Celcius while the relative humidity was within 67-85%. The total developmental time for S. nudiseta was 322+/-19 hours (13.4+/-0.8 days).
The ultrastructure of the odontoblast reflects the certain phases that the cell undergoes in their lifecycle. Ultrastructure studies of the odontoblasts have often been carried out using young teeth. In this study, teeth from an older individual have been used to study the odontoblasts from the crown and root area. The odontoblasts from the crown area retain their columnar shape while odontoblasts from the root area appeared to be flattened. The organelles present in the odontoblasts either from the crown or root area was observed to be reduced.
Archerfishes Toxotes chatareus (Hamilton 1822) and Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas 1767) inhabits mangrove estuaries, which are a critically important habitat as a spawning and nursery ground as well as the full life cycle of many fish species. In order to manage and conserve resilience fish species like the archerfish, we need to know some basic parameters about their biology and life history. Our research has focused on understanding the annual condition factors of these two species of archerfishes, as a complimentary to other several biological aspects of this two species that have been published. Our results indicated that, both species are in good conditions as the mean values of condition factors (Fulton condition factor K and Relative condition factor Kn) are greater than values of unity (K, Kn >1). The average K and Kn values of T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were lowest in November and highest in September, indicates the spawning and recovery condition of the fishes. Condition factors measure overall fish population health that can be used by fisheries biologists and resource managers in proper management of fish resources in Malaysia waters.
Different clades belonging to the cosmopolitan marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens appear to be present in different oceanic environments, however, a 'hybrid zone', where populations of different clades interbreed, has also been reported. Many studies have investigated the sexual reproduction of P. pungens, focused on morphology and life cycle, rather than the role of sexual reproduction in mixing the genomes of their parents. We carried out crossing experiments to determine the sexual compatibility/incompatibility between different clades of P. pungens, and examined the genetic polymorphism in the ITS2 region. Sexual reproduction did not occur only between clades II and III under any of experimental temperature conditions. Four offspring strains were established between clade I and III successfully. Strains established from offspring were found interbreed with other offspring strains as well as viable with their parental strains. We confirmed the hybrid sequence patterns between clades I and III and found novel sequence types including polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the offspring strains. Our results implicate that gene exchange and mixing between different clades are still possible, and that sexual reproduction is a significant ecological strategy to maintain the genetic diversity within this diatom species.
Two new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) tekamense and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) jerantutense, are described based on adult females emerged from pupae in Peninsular Malaysia, and assigned to the binuanense subgroup of the batoense species-group in the subgenus Gomphostilbia. Simulium (G.) tekamense sp. nov. is characterized in the female by the subcosta with 0-2 hairs, and presence of a deep notch on the apex of the mediolongitudinal ridge of the cibarium, and in the pupa by one of two paired gill filaments of the middle triplet much thicker than the counter filament. Simulium (G.) jerantutense sp. nov. is characterized in the female by the short claw tooth 0.46 times the length of the claw, and in the pupa by the gill filaments arranged as [2+1+(1+2)]+2 filaments from dorsal to ventral. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish these new species from related species.
The life history and the influence of environmental parameters on Thalerosphyrus were investigated in two first-order rivers-the Batu Hampar River and the Teroi River of Gunung Jerai, Kedah-in northern peninsular Malaysia. Based on nymphal body length, Thalerosphyrus was found to be trivoltine in both rivers, regardless of the altitudinal difference, but its population abundance was four times higher in the Teroi River, presumably related to its better survival in the lower water temperature. At least nine instars of Thalerosphyrus were detected in the field-collected nymphs. Its life cycle was completed within 2.5-3.0 months, with overlapping cohorts and continual emergence of up to 3 months. The main driving factors of the high abundance of Thalerosphyrus were the water temperature and habitat quality.
Ficus plants are commonly planted as ornamentals along roadsides in Malaysia. In 2010, Ficus plants in Kuala Terengganu were found to be attacked by a moth, identified as Trilocha varians. The larvae of this moth fed on Ficus leaves causing up to 100% defoliation. This study was conducted to determine the life cycle of T. varians under two different environmental temperatures and to control this pest using two different insecticides. Our findings showed that there were significant differences in the time taken for eggs to hatch and larval and pupation period between low and high environmental temperatures. Results also showed that fipronil had lower LT50 and LT95 than malathion. This study provides new information on the life history of T. varians under two different conditions and the efficiency in controlling T. varians larvae using insecticides. The results of this study are important for future management in controlling T. varians population especially in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.
Magnetic actuator driven switchgear is a new medium voltage switchgear technology. In this switchgear, the conventional spring mechanism which is used to operate the circuit breaker is replaced with a magnetic actuator mechanism. The suitability of this technology in the Malaysian utility network specifically in highly loaded areas with frequent switching was assessed via a field evaluation. Preliminary results indicated that magnetic actuator driven switchgear perform commendably on the safety aspect, on-site performance monitoring and online diagnostic test results. However, there are several concerns that need to be addressed such as the ease of installation, substation system requirements, high life cycle cost and reliability of components, before this technology can be used widely.
State of charge (SOC) is a crucial index used in the assessment of electric vehicle (EV) battery storage systems. Thus, SOC estimation of lithium-ion batteries has been widely investigated because of their fast charging, long-life cycle, and high energy density characteristics. However, precise SOC assessment of lithium-ion batteries remains challenging because of their varying characteristics under different working environments. Machine learning techniques have been widely used to design an advanced SOC estimation method without the information of battery chemical reactions, battery models, internal properties, and additional filters. Here, the capacity of optimized machine learning techniques are presented toward enhanced SOC estimation in terms of learning capability, accuracy, generalization performance, and convergence speed. We validate the proposed method through lithium-ion battery experiments, EV drive cycles, temperature, noise, and aging effects. We show that the proposed method outperforms several state-of-the-art approaches in terms of accuracy, adaptability, and robustness under diverse operating conditions.
Malaysia is considered a hyperendemic area for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) due to its favorable climate for the completion of the parasite life cycle. This study provides an updated prevalence data on D. immitis in owned dogs from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and compares the trends of D. immitis in Malaysia. In the period between December 2017 and June 2018, 3.85% (5/130) dog blood samples tested positive for the presence of D. immitis antigen. A majority of the tested dogs (122/130) were not on rigorous heartworm prevention. After collating and analyzing information from 10 historical studies (1970-2017), we identified a significant decline in prevalence of D. immitis antigen in Malaysia, after the year 2000. Historically, the prevalence of D. immits antigen in owned dogs was significantly lower than the prevalence seen in stray dogs in Malaysia. This study demonstrates that D. immitis remains active in Kuala Lumpur, implying that accurate compliance of heartworm prevention is essential in Malaysia.
The complete life cycle of a pennellid copepod Peniculus minuticaudae Shiino, 1956 is proposed based on the discovery of all post-embryonic stages together with the post-metamorphic adult females infecting the fins of threadsail filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Monacanthidae) cultured in a fish farm at Ehime Prefecture, Japan. The hatching stage was the infective copepodid. The life cycle of P. minuticaudae consists of six stages separated by moults: the copepodid, four chalimi and adult. In this study, the adult males were observed frequently in precopulatory amplexus with various stages of females however, copulation occurs only between adults. Fertilized pre-metamorphic adult females carrying spermatophores may detach from the host and settle again before undergoing massive differential growth into the post-metamorphic adult female. Comparison of the life cycle of P. minuticaudae has been made with three known pennellids: Lernaeocera branchialis (Linnaeus, 1767), Cardiodectes medusaeus (Wilson, 1908) and Lernaeenicus sprattae (Sowerby, 1806). Among the compared species, P. minuticaudae is the first ectoparasitic pennellid to be discovered to complete its life cycle on a single host without any change in infection site preferences between infective copepodid and fertilized pre-metamorphic female.
Malaria remains a global problem in the light of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. New compounds are needed for the development of novel antimalarial drugs. Seed, leaf, and fruit skin extracts of Lansium domesticum, a common fruit tree in South-East Asia, are used by indigenous tribes in Sabah, Malaysia for treating malaria. The skin and aqueous leaf extracts of the tree were found to reduce parasite populations of the drug sensitive strain (3D7) and the chloroquine-resistant strain (T9) of P. falciparum equally well. The skin extracts were also found to interrupt the lifecycle of the parasite. The data reported here indicate that extracts of L. domesticum are a potential source for compounds with activity towards chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum.
Matched MeSH terms: Life Cycle Stages/drug effects
This study examined the effects of different life stages (first, second, third, fourth, and five instars; adult females and adult males) and feeding regimes (starved and blood fed) on the active movement activity of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.), under mixed-stage conditions. We used an extended arena made from Tygon tube coils and observed the movement frequency and movement distance at selected time intervals up to 120 h. The fifth instars and adult males and females showed significantly (P < 0.01) greater movement frequency compared with the other stages. The first and second instars showed limited movement (< 8 m) over the experimental period. Starved bed bugs showed greater movement frequency compared with blood-fed bed bugs, with the exception of adult females. Blood-fed adult females exhibited significantly (P < 0.01) greater movement frequency and distance compared with starved females. Blood-fed females moved up to 42.3 m over 120 h. Regression analysis between movement distance of the fifth instars and adults and the time intervals revealed a positive relationship (r2 = 0.6583; P < 0.01), suggesting that delays in bed bug control efforts will increase the risk of the greater infestation. During bed bug inspection, the presence of only late instars and adults in premises would indicate a new infestation, whereas an established infestation likely would consist of mixed stages.
The author describes changes in the size and characteristics of multiple-household compounds in Kelantan, Malaysia, during the period 1971-1991. It is found that "in Malay villages, multihouseholdcompounds were in earlier times...based on a bilateral residence rule in which one or more children, either male or female, would stay in the compound of their parents....A recent trend has been for more females to remain in the parental compound than males, reflecting the orientation toward independence among the males." (SUMMARY IN ENG)