The aim of the present research was to evaluate the application, stability and suitability of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) incorporated nanoliposomes in food enrichment. Nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs was prepared by Mozafari method, and their application in bread and milk was compared with unencapsulated (fish oil) and microencapsulated ω3 PUFAs. Sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the perceptible sensory difference/similarity between control, unencapsulated, microencapsulated, and nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs enriched foods. Results showed no significant (p=0.11) detectable difference between control and nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs enriched samples while, samples enriched with unencapsulated or microencapsulated ω3 PUFAs showed significant (p=0.02) fishy flavor. Moreover, significantly (p<0.01) higher ω3 PUFAs % recovery and lower peroxide and anisidine values were observed in nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs enriched samples in comparison with other samples. In conclusion, an effective and reproducible method for application of ω3 PUFAs in the food system was developed.
A vesicle is a microscopic particle composed of a lipid bilayer membrane that separates the inner aqueous compartment from the outer aqueous environment. Palmitoleate-palmitoleic acid vesicles were prepared and their physico-chemical properties were investigated. Moreover, mixed vesicles composed of palmitoleic acid and PEGylated lipid and/or a mixture of phospholipids were also prepared. The stabilizing effects of these double-chain lipids on the formation of palmitoleate-palmitoleic acid vesicles were studied. Stability of the vesicle suspension was examined using particle size and zeta potential at 30 °C. The magnitude of the zeta potential was relatively lower in the vesicle suspension with the presence of phospholipid. Although some of the mixed vesicles that were formed were not very stable, they displayed potential for encapsulating the active ingredient calcein and the encapsulation efficiencies of calcein were encouraging. The palmitoleate-palmitoleic acid-DPPE-PEG2000 vesicle showed the most promising stability and encapsulation efficiency.
The relative oxidative stability of freshly prepared and stored liposomal and nanoliposomal systems of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) were investigated. The effects of organic solvents on the oxidative stability of liposomal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) produced by two methods, the Bangham thin-film hydration (conventional rotary evaporation method and using organic solvents) and Mozafari (direct hydration and without using organic solvents) methods, were compared. The highest physicochemical stability was observed in PUFA liposomes prepared by the Mozafari method, followed by conventional liposomes and bulk PUFAs. There was no significant change in physicochemical stability during 10 months of cold storage (4°C) in the dark. Moreover, the comparison between liposomes (>200 nm) and nanoliposomes (50-200 nm) revealed that the surface charge, physical stability and oxidative stability of liposomal PUFAs increased as the size of the liposomes decreased. The differences in the oxidative stability of PUFAs may be due to the protective effects of aqueous systems, which indicate the advantage of using non-organic solvent (water and CO(2)) techniques in liposome manufacturing.
As the packing structure of lipid molecules in the liposomes will vary in the presence of ions, it is expected that the density of lipid and the effective volume of lipid molecules in the dispersions will also vary, albeit minutely. Density measurements of lipid-water dispersions with the addition of Ca(2+) ions were determined accurately. The effect of Ca(2+) ions on the molecular packing structure of the liposomes was elucidated from the results obtained. The results for the density of the lecithin in the dispersions with and without the addition of Ca(2+) ions are, respectively, 1.0782 and 1.0579 g cm(-3) at 25 degrees C; and 1.0048 and 0.9961 g cm(-3) at 50 degrees C. The average values of the effective molecular volume of lecithin in the dispersions with and without the addition of Ca(2+) ions are, respectively, 1.131E-21 and 1.152E-21 cm(3) at 25 degrees C; and 1.213E-21 and 1.224E-21 cm(3) at 50 degrees C.
A new synthesis approach towards biantennary lipids of Guerbet glycoside type was developed based on oleic acid as sustainable resource. Functionalization of the double bond provided access to primary alcohols with α-branched C19-skeleton. Formulation studies with corresponding lactosides indicated formation of vesicles with high assembly stability. A relatively narrow bimodal size distribution of the latter, which turns into a narrow unimodal distribution of small vesicles upon addition of an ionic cosurfactant, suggests potential for a vesicular drug delivery system.
Topical route of administration is the most commonly used method for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. However, presence of several layers of permeation barriers starting from the tear film till the inner layers of cornea make it difficult to achieve the therapeutic concentrations in the target tissue within the eye. In order to circumvent these barriers and to provide sustained and targeted drug delivery, tremendous advances have been made in developing efficient and safe drug delivery systems. Liposomes due to their unique structure prove to be extremely beneficial drug carriers as they can entrap both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. The conventional liposomes had several drawbacks particularly their tendency to aggregate, the instability and leakage of entrapped drug and susceptibility to phagocytosis. Due to this reason, for a long time, liposomes as drug delivery systems did not attract much attention of researchers and clinicians. However, over recent years development of new generation liposomes has opened up new approaches for targeted and sustained drug delivery using liposomes and has rejuvenated the interest of researchers in this field. In this review we present a summary of current literature to understand the anatomical and physiological limitation in achieving adequate ocular bioavailability of topically applied drugs and utility of liposomes in overcoming these limitations. The recent developments related to new generation liposomes are discussed.
In this work, we studied whether chondroitin sulfates and dextran sulfates (DXSs) can influence hypochlorite-induced peroxidation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes. Multilamellar liposomes (2 mg lipid/ml) were prepared in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, with NaCl or not and exposed to reagent HOCl/ClO- (1mM) at 37 degrees C in the presence of different concentrations of chondroitin 6-sulfate (C6S), chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S), DXS 8000, DXS 40,000, and DXS 500,000. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) production. DXSs and C6S enhanced TBARS production in a dose-dependent manner. The decline in TBARS production at the relatively high C6S concentrations may be attributed to C4S present in C6S, since in contrast to C6S, C4S is known to react with hypochlorite. Dextrans, nonsulfated analogues of DXS, failed to modulate TBARS production. This fact indicates the important role of negatively charged sulfate groups for DXS to facilitate hypochlorite-induced peroxidation of PC liposomes. The electrostatic nature of the mechanism providing for the pro-oxidative effect of DXS was also supported by the influence of liposome surface charge and solution ionic strength on the extent of liposome peroxidation. The addition of calcium ions to the incubation mixture did not prevent the pro-oxidative action of DXS. The relevance of the results to atherogenesis is discussed.
Ethosomal systems are novel lipid vesicular carriers containing a relatively high percentage of ethanol. These nanocarriers are especially designed for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. Ethosomes have undergone extensive research since they were invented in 1996; new compounds were added to their initial formula, which led to the production of new types of ethosomal systems. Different preparation techniques are used in the preparation of these novel carriers. For ease of application and stability, ethosomal dispersions are incorporated into gels, patches, and creams. Highly diverse in vivo models are used to evaluate their efficacy in dermal/transdermal delivery, in addition to clinical trials. This article provides a detailed review of the ethosomal systems and categorizes them on the basis of their constituents to classical ethosomes, binary ethosomes, and transethosomes. The differences among these systems are discussed from several perspectives, including the formulation, size, ζ-potential (zeta potential), entrapment efficiency, skin-permeation properties, and stability. This paper gives a detailed review on the effects of ethosomal system constituents, preparation methods, and their significant roles in determining the final properties of these nanocarriers. Furthermore, the novel pharmaceutical dosage forms of ethosomal gels, patches, and creams are highlighted. The article also provides detailed information regarding the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted for the evaluation of these vesicular systems.
Several vesicular systems loaded with curcumin have found their way in the therapeutic applications of several diseases, primarily acting through their immunological pathways. Such systems use particles at a nanoscale range, bringing about their intended use through a range of complex mechanisms. Apart from delivering drug substances into target tissues, these vesicular systems also effectively overcome problems like insolubility and unequal drug distribution. Several mechanisms are explored lately by different workers, and interest over vesicular curcumin has been renewed in the past decade. This commentary discusses several immunological targets in which curcumin is employed in a vesicular form.
Nanoliposome and nanoniosome formulations containing myrtle extract were prepared without using cholesterol and toxic organic solvents for the first time. The formulations had different concentrations of lecithin (5, 7, and 9% w/w) and Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) values (6.76, 8.40, and 9.59). The physicochemical characterization results showed a nearly spherical shape for the prepared nanosamples. The particle sizes, zeta potentials and encapsulation efficiencies for the prepared nanoliposomes and nanoniosomes were at a range of 260-293 nm and 224-520 nm; -33.16 to - 31.16 mV and - 33.3 to - 10.36 mV; and 68-73% and 79-83%, respectively. The formulated nanoniosomes showed better stability during storage time. Besides, the encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release rate of myrtle extract could be controlled by adjusting the lecithin concentration and HLB value. The release of myrtle extract from nanovesicles showed a pH-responsive character. The FTIR analysis confirmed that the myrtle extract was encapsulated in nanovesicles physically.
Cancer is one of the major diseases that cause a high number of deaths globally. Of the major types of cancers, lung cancer is known to be the most chronic form of cancer in the world. The conventional management of lung cancer includes different medical interventions like chemotherapy, surgical removal, and radiation therapy. However, this type of approach lacks specificity and also harms the adjacent normal cells. Lately, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising intervention in the management and treatment of lung cancers. Nanotechnology has revolutionized the existing modalities and focuses primarily on reducing toxicity and improving the bioavailability of anticancer drugs to the target tumor cells. Nanocarrier systems are being currently used extensively to exploit and to overcome the obstructions induced by cancers in the lungs. The nano-carrier-loaded therapeutic drug delivery methods have shown promising potential in treating lung cancer as its target is to control the growth of tumor cells. In this review, various modes of nano drug delivery options like liposomes, dendrimers, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes and metallic nanoparticles have been discussed. Nano-carrier drug delivery systems emerge as a promising approach and thus is expected to provide newer and advanced avenues in cancer therapeutics.
O. stamineus is a medicinal herb with remarkable pharmacological properties. However, poor solubility of the active principles limits its medicinal value. This study sought to prepare nano liposomes of OS ethanolic extract in unpurified soybean phospholipids in order to improve its solubility and permeability. OS liposomes were prepared by the conventional film method, and were characterized for solubility, entrapment efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size and zeta potential, release, absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs, and DPPH scavenging effect.
In order to improve the membrane lipophilicity and the affinity towards the environment of lipid bilayers, squalene (SQ) could be conjugated to phospholipids in the formation of liposomes. The effect of membrane composition and concentrations on the degradation of liposomes prepared via the extrusion method was investigated. Liposomes were prepared using a mixture of SQ, cholesterol (CH) and Tween80 (TW80). Based on the optimal conditions, liposome batches were prepared in the absence and presence of SQ. Their physicochemical and stability behavior were evaluated as a function of liposome constituent. From the optimization study, the liposomal formulation containing 5% (w/w) mixed soy lecithin (ML), 0.5% (w/w) SQ, 0.3% (w/w) CH and 0.75% (w/w) TW80 had optimal physicochemical properties and displayed a unilamellar structure. Liposome prepared using the optimal formulation had a low particle size (158.31 ± 2.96 nm) and acceptable %increase in the particle size (15.09% ± 3.76%) and %trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (%TEAC) loss (35.69% ± 0.72%) against UV light treatment (280-320 nm) for 6 h. The interesting outcome of this research was the association of naturally occurring substance SQ for size reduction without the extra input of energy or mechanical procedures, and improvement of vesicle stability and antioxidant activity of ML-based liposome. This study also demonstrated that the presence of SQ in the membrane might increase the acyl chain dynamics and decrease the viscosity of the dispersion, thereby limiting long-term stability of the liposome.
The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox). The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV) were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453 nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about -31 and -32 mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with Caelyx(R) on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes.
Nano-formulations of medicinal drugs have attracted the interest of many researchers for drug delivery applications. These nano-formulations enhance the properties of conventional drugs and are specific to the targeted delivery site. Dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, nano-emulsions and micelles are some of the nano-formulations that are gaining prominence in pharmaceutical industry for enhanced drug formulation. Wide varieties of synthesis methods are available for the preparation of nano-formulations to deliver drugs in biological system. The choice of synthesis methods depend on the size and shape of particulate formulation, biochemical properties of drug, and the targeted site. This article discusses recent developments in nano-formulation and the progressive impact on pharmaceutical research and industries. Additionally, process challenges relating to consistent generation of nano-formulations for drug delivery are discussed.
Immunosuppressive agents are used for the treatment of immune-mediated myocarditis; however, the need to develop a more effective therapeutic approach remains. Nano-sized liposomes may accumulate in and selectively deliver drugs to an inflammatory lesion with enhanced vascular permeability. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of liposomal FK506, an immunosuppressive drug encapsulated within liposomes, and the drug's effects on cardiac function in a rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model. We prepared polyethylene glycol-modified liposomal FK506 (mean diameter: 109.5 ± 4.4 nm). We induced EAM by immunization with porcine myosin and assessed the tissue distribution of the nano-sized beads and liposomal FK506 in this model. After liposomal or free FK506 was administered on days 14 and 17 after immunization, the cytokine expression in the rat hearts along with the histological findings and hemodynamic parameters were determined on day 21. Ex vivo fluorescent imaging revealed that intravenously administered fluorescent-labeled nano-sized beads had accumulated in myocarditic but not normal hearts on day 14 after immunization and thereafter. Compared to the administration of free FK506, FK506 levels were increased in both the plasma and hearts of EAM rats when liposomal FK506 was administered. The administration of liposomal FK506 markedly suppressed the expression of cytokines, such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, and reduced inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium on day 21 compared to free FK506. The administration of liposomal FK506 also markedly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction on day 21 compared to free FK506. Nano-sized liposomes may be a promising drug delivery system for targeting myocarditic hearts with cardioprotective agents.
Der p 2 is a major dust mite allergen and >80% of mite allergic individuals have specific IgE to this allergen. Although it is well characterized in terms of allergenicity, there is still some ambiguity in terms of its biological function. Three-dimensional structural analysis of Der p 2 and its close homologues indicate the presence of a hydrophobic cavity which can potentially bind to lipid molecules. In this study, we aimed to identify the potential ligand of Der p 2. Using a liposome pulldown assay, we show that recombinant Der p 2 binds to liposomes prepared with exogenous cholesterol in a dose dependent fashion. Next, an ELISA based assay using immobilized lipids was used to study binding specificities of other lipid molecules. Cholesterol was the preferred ligand of Der p 2 among 11 different lipids tested. Two homologues of Der p 2, Der f 2 and Der f 22 also bound to cholesterol. Further, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we confirmed that cholesterol is the natural ligand of Der p 2. Three amino acid residues of Der p 2, V104, V106 and V110 are possible cholesterol binding sites, as alanine mutations of these residues showed a significant decrease in binding (p
Oligonucleotide-based therapies are advanced novel interventions used in the management of various respiratory diseases such as asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). These agents primarily act by gene silencing or RNA interference. Better methodologies and techniques are the need of the hour that can deliver these agents to tissues and cells in a target specific manner by which their maximum potential can be reached in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. Nanoparticles play an important role in the target-specific delivery of drugs. In addition, oligonucleotides also are extensively used for gene transfer in the form of polymeric, liposomal and inorganic carrier materials. Therefore, the current review focuses on various novel dosage forms like nanoparticles, liposomes that can be used efficiently for the delivery of various oligonucleotides such as siRNA and miRNA. We also discuss the future perspectives and targets for oligonucleotides in the management of respiratory diseases.
Oxidative stress is intensely involved in enhancing the severity of various chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), infections and lung cancer. Even though there are various existing anti-inflammatory therapies, which are not enough to control the inflammation caused due to various contributing factors such as anti-inflammatory genes and antioxidant enzymes. This leads to an urgent need of novel drug delivery systems to combat the oxidative stress. This review gives a brief insight into the biological factors involved in causing oxidative stress, one of the emerging hallmark feature in CRDs and particularly, highlighting recent trends in various novel drug delivery carriers including microparticles, microemulsions, microspheres, nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, solid lipid nanocarriers etc which can help in combating the oxidative stress in CRDs and ultimately reducing the disease burden and improving the quality of life with CRDs patients. These carriers improve the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability to the target site. However, there is an urgent need for translational studies to validate the drug delivery carriers for clinical administration in the pulmonary clinic.