Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Ansari AW, Schmidt RE, Shankar EM, Kamarulzaman A
    J Transl Med, 2014;12:341.
    PMID: 25528160 DOI: 10.1186/s12967-014-0341-8
    Even in the era of successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), co-infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains one of the leading causes of non-AIDS-related mortality and morbidity among HIV-positive individuals as a consequence of accelerated liver fibrosis and end-stage liver disease (ESLD). The perturbed liver microenvironment and induction of host pro-inflammatory mediators in response to HIV and HCV infections, play a pivotal role in orchestrating the disease pathogenesis and clinical outcomes. How these viruses communicate each other via chemokine CCL2 and exploit the liver specific cellular environment to exacerbate liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infection setting is a topic of intense discussion. Herein, we provide recent views and insights on potential mechanisms of CCL2 mediated immuno-pathogenesis, and HIV-HCV cross-talk in driving liver inflammation. We believe CCL2 may potentially serve an attractive target of anti-fibrotic intervention against HIV/HCV co-infection associated co-morbidities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
  2. Mun KS, Cheah PL, Baharudin NB, Looi LM
    Malays J Pathol, 2006 Dec;28(2):73-7.
    PMID: 18376794 MyJurnal
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the ten most common cancers in Malaysian males. As cellular proliferation is an important feature of malignant transformation, we studied the proliferation pattern of normal and benign perineoplastic liver versus hepatocellular carcinoma in an attempt to further understand the tumour transformation process. 39 HCC (21 with accompanying and 18 without cirrhosis) histologically diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre between January 1992 and December 2003 were immunohistochemically studied using a monoclonal antibody to PCNA (Clone PC10: Dako). 20 livers from cases who had succumbed to traumatic injuries served as normal liver controls (NL). PCNA labeling index (PCNA-LI) was determined by counting the number of immunopositive cells in 1000 contiguous HCC, benign cirrhotic perineoplastic liver (BLC), benign perineoplastic non-cirrhotic (BLNC) and NL cells and conversion to a percentage. The PCNA-LI was also expressed as Ojanguren et al's grades. PCNA was expressed in 10% NL, 38.9% BLNC, 76.2% BLC and 71.8% HCC with BLNC, BLC and HCC showing significantly increased (p < 0.05) number of cases which expressed PCNA compared with NL. The number of BLC which expressed PCNA was also significantly increased compared with BLNC. PCNA-LI ranged from 0-2.0% (mean = 0.2%) in NL, 0-2.0% (mean = 0.3%) in BLNC, 0-3.6% (mean = 0.7%) in BLC and 0-53.8% (mean = 7.6%) in HCC with PCNA-LI significantly increased (p < 0.05) only in HCC compared with BLC, BLNC and NL. Accordingly, all NL, BLC and BLNC showed minimal (<5% cells being immunopositive) immunoreactivity on Ojanguren et al's grading system and only HCC demonstrated immunoreactivity which ranged up to grade 3 (75% of cells). From this study, there appears to be a generally increasing trend of proliferative activity from NL to BLNC to BLC and HCC. Nonetheless, BLNC and BLC, like NL, retained low PCNA-LI and only HCC had a significantly increased PCNA-LI compared with the benign categories. This is probably related to the malignant nature of HCC and may reflect the uncontrolled proliferation of the neoplastic hepatocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
  3. Sumithran E, Looi LM
    Cancer, 1985 Sep 1;56(5):1124-7.
    PMID: 2990666
    In West Malaysia, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common in the Chinese and in the members of the Senoi aboriginal tribe, two racial groups with diametrically opposite life-styles. Certain fundamental differences exist between the liver tumors in the two races. In the Senoi, the tumor occurs in a younger age group and there is a greater male preponderance than in the Chinese. There is also a very close relationship between hepatitis B virus infection, chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cell dysplasia, and HCC in the Senoi and the tumors generally present as multiple nodules studding both lobes of the liver. In the Chinese, although a relationship between hepatitis B virus infection, HCC, and cirrhosis exists, this association is not as strong as in the Senoi and the tumors are generally large and solitary. The data suggest that, although the hepatitis B virus is probably an important oncogenic agent in both racial groups, there may be a difference in the pathogenesis of HCC in the two races.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
  4. Mahadeva S, Mahfudz AS, Vijayanathan A, Goh KL, Kulenthran A, Cheah PL
    J Dig Dis, 2013 Nov;14(11):604-10.
    PMID: 23859493 DOI: 10.1111/1751-2980.12088
    To determine the accuracy of transient elastography (TE) and factors associated with discordance between TE and liver histology in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
  5. Rengasamy M, Singh G, Fakharuzi NA, Siddikuzzaman, Balasubramanian S, Swamynathan P, et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther, 2017 06 13;8(1):143.
    PMID: 28610623 DOI: 10.1186/s13287-017-0595-1
    BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from various tissues have shown moderate therapeutic efficacy in reversing liver fibrosis in preclinical models. Here, we compared the relative therapeutic potential of pooled, adult human bone marrow (BM)- and neonatal Wharton's jelly (WJ)-derived MSCs to treat CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with CCl4 for 8 weeks to induce irreversible liver fibrosis. Ex-vivo expanded, pooled human MSCs obtained from BM and WJ were intravenously administered into rats with liver fibrosis at a dose of 10 × 106 cells/animal. Sham control and vehicle-treated animals served as negative and disease controls, respectively. The animals were sacrificed at 30 and 70 days after cell transplantation and hepatic-hydroxyproline content, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: BM-MSCs treatment showed a marked reduction in liver fibrosis as determined by Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining as compared to those treated with the vehicle. Furthermore, hepatic-hydroxyproline content and percentage collagen proportionate area were found to be significantly lower in the BM-MSCs-treated group. In contrast, WJ-MSCs treatment showed less reduction of fibrosis at both time points. Immunohistochemical analysis of BM-MSCs-treated liver samples showed a reduction in α-SMA+ myofibroblasts and increased number of EpCAM+ hepatic progenitor cells, along with Ki-67+ and human matrix metalloprotease-1+ (MMP-1+) cells as compared to WJ-MSCs-treated rat livers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that BM-MSCs are more effective than WJ-MSCs in treating liver fibrosis in a CCl4-induced model in rats. The superior therapeutic activity of BM-MSCs may be attributed to their expression of certain MMPs and angiogenic factors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
  6. Kamarajah SK, Chan WK, Nik Mustapha NR, Mahadeva S
    Hepatol Int, 2018 Jan;12(1):44-55.
    PMID: 29372507 DOI: 10.1007/s12072-018-9843-4
    INTRODUCTION: The value of repeated liver stiffness measurement (LSM) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been shown before.

    METHODS: A longitudinal study of biopsy-proven NAFLD patients was conducted at the Asian tertiary hospital from November 2012 to January 2017. Patients with paired liver biopsies and LSM were followed prospectively for liver-related and non-liver related complications, and survival.

    RESULTS: The data for 113 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients (mean age 51.3 ± 10.6 years, male 50%) were analyzed. At baseline, advanced fibrosis based on histology and LSM was observed in 22 and 46%, respectively. Paired liver biopsy and LSM at 1-year interval was available in 71 and 80% of patients, respectively. High-risk cases (defined as patients with advanced fibrosis at baseline who had no fibrosis improvement, and patients who developed advanced fibrosis on repeat assessment) were seen in 23 and 53% of patients, based on paired liver biopsy and LSM, respectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was independently associated with high-risk cases. The median follow-up was 37 months with a total follow-up of 328 person-years. High-risk cases based on paired liver biopsy had significantly higher rates of liver-related complications (p = 0.002) but no difference in other outcomes. High-risk patients based on paired LSM had a significantly higher rate of liver-related complications (p = 0.046), cardiovascular events (p = 0.025) and composite outcomes (p = 0.006).

    CONCLUSION: Repeat LSM can predict liver-related complications, similar to paired liver biopsy, and may be useful in identifying patients who may be at an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Further studies in a larger cohort and with a longer follow-up should be carried out to confirm these observations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
  7. Lai LL, Chan WK, Sthaneshwar P, Nik Mustapha NR, Goh KL, Mahadeva S
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(4):e0174982.
    PMID: 28369100 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174982
    Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein (WFA+-M2BP) has been suggested to be useful for the assessment of disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Consecutive adult NAFLD patients who had a liver biopsy were included. Serum WFA+-M2BP level was measured using a lectin-antibody sandwich immunoassay using a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay machine (HISCL-5000, Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). The measured levels were indexed using the following equation: Cut-off index (COI) = ([WFA+-M2BP]sample-[WFA+-M2BP]NC) / ([WFA+-M2BP]PC-[WFA+-M2BP]NC), where PC = positive control and NC = negative control. Histopathological examination of liver biopsy specimen was reported according to Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Clinical Research Network Scoring System. Data for 220 cases were analyzed. The AUROC of the COI for the diagnosis of NASH was 0.65. The AUROC of the COI for the diagnosis of steatosis grade ≥2 and 3 was 0.64 and 0.53, respectively. The AUROC of the COI for the diagnosis of lobular inflammation grade ≥1, ≥2 and 3 was 0.57, 0.68 and 0.59, respectively. The AUROC of the COI for the diagnosis of hepatocyte ballooning grade ≥1 and 2 was 0.64 and 0.65, respectively. The AUROC of the COI for the diagnosis of fibrosis stage ≥1, ≥2, ≥3 and 4 was 0.61, 0.71, 0.74 and 0.84, respectively. Out of the 220 cases, 152 cases were the same 76 patients who had a repeat liver biopsy after 48 weeks of intervention. The AUROC of the change in the COI to detect improvement in steatosis, lobular inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning and fibrosis was 0.57, 0.54, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively. In conclusion, serum WFA+-M2BP was most useful for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in NAFLD patients. However, it was less useful for differentiating NASH from non-NASH, and for diagnosis and follow-up of the individual histopathological components of NASH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Cirrhosis/pathology*
  8. Lim SG, Phyo WW, Shah SR, Win KM, Hamid S, Piratvisuth T, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2018 12;25(12):1533-1542.
    PMID: 30141214 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12989
    There is a paucity of information on chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients treated with direct antiviral agents (DAAs) in Asia. We invited Asia-Pacific physicians to collate databases of patients enrolled for CHC treatment, recording baseline clinical, virologic and biochemical characteristics, sustained virologic response at week 12 (SVR12) and virologic failure. SVR12 outcome was based on intention to treat (ITT). Multivariate analysis was used to assess independent risk factors for SVR12 using SPSS version 20. A total of 2171 patients from India (n = 977), Myanmar (n = 552), Pakistan (n = 406), Thailand (n = 139), Singapore (n = 72) and Malaysia (n = 25) were collected. At baseline, mean age was 49 years, 50.2% were males, and 41.8% had cirrhosis. Overall, SVR12 was 89.5% and by genotype (GT) based on ITT and treatment completion, respectively, was 91% and 92% for GT1, 100% and 100% for GT2, 91% and 97% for GT3, 64% and 95% for GT4, 87% and 87% for GT6 and 79% and 91% for GT untested. Patients with cirrhosis had SVR12 of 85% vs 93% for noncirrhosis (P < 0.001) (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.1, P = 0.0002). Patients with GT1 and GT3 treated with sofosbuvir/ribavirin (SR) had 88% and 89% SVR12, respectively, but those GT6 treated with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SL) had only 77.6% SVR12. Multivariate analysis showed absence of cirrhosis was associated with higher SVR12 (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1, P = 0.002). In conclusion, patients with GT1 and GT3 with/without cirrhosis had surprisingly high efficacy using SR, suggesting that Asians may respond better to some DAAs. However, poor GT6 response to SL suggests this regimen is suboptimal for this genotype.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
  9. Abdulaziz Bardi D, Halabi MF, Hassandarvish P, Rouhollahi E, Paydar M, Moghadamtousi SZ, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(10):e109424.
    PMID: 25280007 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109424
    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP) on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control) or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis) three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg) or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg). Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson's Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed to result from the reduction of thioacetamide-induced toxicity, normalizing reactive oxygen species levels, inhibiting cellular proliferation, and inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
  10. Durier N, Yunihastuti E, Ruxrungtham K, Kinh NV, Kamarulzaman A, Boettiger D, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2017 03;24(3):187-196.
    PMID: 27917597 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12630
    Data on markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients in resource-limited settings are scarce. We assessed HCV RNA, HCV genotype (GT), IL28B GT and liver fibrosis (FibroScan® ) in 480 HIV-infected patients with positive HCV antibody in four HIV treatment centres in South-East Asia. We enrolled 165 (34.4%) patients in Jakarta, 158 (32.9%) in Bangkok, 110 (22.9%) in Hanoi and 47 (9.8%) in Kuala Lumpur. Overall, 426 (88.8%) were male, the median (IQR) age was 38.1 (34.7-42.5) years, 365 (76.0%) reported HCV exposure through injecting drug use, and 453 (94.4%) were on combination antiretroviral therapy. The median (IQR) CD4 count was 446 (325-614) cells/mm3 and 208 (94.1%) of 221 patients tested had HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL. A total of 412 (85.8%) had detectable HCV RNA, at a median (IQR) of 6.2 (5.4-6.6) log10 IU/mL. Among 380 patients with HCV GT, 223 (58.7%) had GT1, 97 (25.5%) had GT3, 43 (11.3%) had GT6, eight (2.1%) had GT4, two (0.5%) had GT2, and seven (1.8%) had indeterminate GT. Of 222 patients with IL28B testing, 189 (85.1%) had rs12979860 CC genotype, and 199 (89.6%) had rs8099917 TT genotype. Of 380 patients with FibroScan® , 143 (37.6%) had no/mild liver fibrosis (F0-F1), 83 (21.8%) had moderate fibrosis (F2), 74 (19.5%) had severe fibrosis (F3), and 79 (20.8%) had cirrhosis (F4). One patient (0.3%) had FibroScan® failure. In conclusion, a high proportion of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients had chronic HCV infection. HCV GT1 was predominant, and 62% of patients had liver disease warranting prompt treatment (≥F2).
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Cirrhosis/pathology*
  11. Seto WK, Lo YR, Pawlotsky JM, Yuen MF
    Lancet, 2018 11 24;392(10161):2313-2324.
    PMID: 30496122 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31865-8
    Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a global public health threat that causes considerable liver-related morbidity and mortality. It is acquired at birth or later via person-to-person transmission. Vaccination effectively prevents infection and chronic hepatitis B virus carriage. In chronically infected patients, an elevated serum hepatitis B virus DNA concentration is the main risk factor for disease progression, although there are other clinical and viral parameters that influence disease outcomes. In addition to liver biochemistry, virological markers, and abdominal ultrasonography, non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis is emerging as an important assessment modality. Long-term nucleos(t)ide-analogue therapy is safe and well tolerated, achieves potent viral suppression, and reduces the incidence of liver-related complications. However, a need to optimise management remains. Promising novel therapies are at the developmental stage. With current vaccines, therapies, and an emphasis on improving linkage to care, WHO's goal of eliminating hepatitis B virus as a global health threat by 2030 is achievable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
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