Treated sludge, goat manure, sugarcane bagasse, empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFBP) and dry leaves are agro wastes that have high potential for use as feedstocks for the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). The focus of this study is to investigate the production of 5-HMF from agro wastes via co-hydrothermal (CHT) treatment and extraction. Present study include examine on agro waste's physical and chemical properties and also their thermal degradation behaviour. The analysis of the bio-oil products is conducted by FTIR and GC-MS. Co-hydrothermal experiments were conducted at a temperature of 300°C with an experimental time of 15min, followed by alcohol extraction. Highest carbon and hydrogen content are 45.94% and 6.49% (dry leaves) with maximum high heating value 18.39MJ/kg (dry leaves) and fix carbon value 6.60 (goat manure). Through CHT about 39% 5-HMF, 22.97% carboxylic acids, 0.97% of aromatic and 0.73% aldehyde obtained.
Sulfadimidine (SM2) is commonly used in the swine industry and enters the environment via faeces. In recent years, advances in the ecotoxicology of SM2 have become a popular research interest with two common research methods including swine manure collection from swine fed with a diet containing SM2 and directly adding SM2. The purpose of this experiment was to compare SM2 degradation behaviour in pig manure with two different SM2 addition methods. The results showed that the degradation half-lives of SM2 in manure from SM2-fed swine treatment were 33.2 and 32.0 days at the initial addition level of SM2 at 32.1 and 64.3 mg/kg, respectively. This was significantly longer than that in manure directly adding SM2 treatment with the half-lives of 21.4 and 14.8 days. The metabolite of SM2 N(4)-acetyl-sulfamethazine occurred in manure from SM2-fed swine treatment but was not detected in directly adding SM2 treatment. The pH in manure from SM2-fed swine treatment was significantly lower than that in directly adding SM2 treatment, but the values of organic carbon, total nitrogen, and electrical conductivity in manure from SM2-fed swine treatment were significantly higher than those in manure directly adding SM2 treatment. Meanwhile, although the copy number of bacteria had no significant difference between two treatments, there was a significant difference in bacteria diversity. Results of the present study demonstrated that the presence of the metabolites, chemical property, and microbial diversity might be the reason for different SM2 degradation behaviours on different addition methods. Thus, the method using manure with SM2 collected from swine could obtain more accurate results for the ecotoxicological study of SM2.
Anaerobic digestion for palm oil mill effluent (POME) is widely known for its potential in biogass production. In this study, the potential of using cattle manure for biogas production in complete mix anaerobic bioreactor was investigated using POME at unregulated pH and temperature. Two identical bioreactors were used in this study; namely R1 and R2 fed with cattle manure without and with POME as inoculum, respectively. Both bioreactors were allowed for five days to run in batch mode followed by semi continuous operations at HRT of 20 days. R2 produced 41% methane content compared to 18% produced in R1. A better COD percentage reduction of 45% was found in R2 which was operated with POME as inoculum compared to R1 with 35%. These results indicated that POME as inoculum has an influence on the start-up time and the rate of biogas produced.This findings will help in waste reduction.
The fate of nine veterinary antibiotics and one hormone in broiler manure during 40 days of composting was investigated. Results showed that composting can significantly reduce the concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, making application of the post-compost manure safer for soil application. More than 99% of the nine antibiotics and one hormone involved in this study were removed from the manure during 40 days of composting. The target antibiotics and hormone showed short half-life in broiler manure composting, ranging from 1.3 to 3.8 days. The relationship between the physico-chemical properties of soil, manure and manure compost and its veterinary antibiotic and hormone concentration was statistically evaluated by Pearson correlation matrix. The concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in manure compost was suggested to be affected by physico-chemical properties such as pH, temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and metal contents.
On commercial pig production farms in South East (SE) Asia, the liquid effluent is often discharged into rivers. The discharge is a hazard to the environment and to the health of people using water from the river either for consumption or for irrigation. Therefore, a simple percolation biofilter for treatment of the liquid effluent was developed. Pig slurry was treated in test-biofilters packed with different biomass for the purpose of selecting the most efficient material, thereafter the efficiency of the biofilter was examined at farm scale with demo biofilters using the most efficient material. The effect of using "Effective Microorganisms" (EM) added to slurry that was treated with biofilter material mixed with Glenor KR+ was examined. Slurry treatment in the test-biofilters indicated that rice straw was better than coconut husks, wood shavings, rattan strips and oil palm fronds in reducing BOD. Addition of EM and Glenor KR+ to slurry and biofilter material, respectively, had no effect on the temperature of the biofilter material or on the concentrations of organic and inorganic components of the treated slurry. The BOD of slurry treated in test biofilters is reduced to between 80 and 637 mg O2 I(-1) and in the demo biofilter to between 3094 and 3376 mg O2 l(-1). The concentration of BOD in the effluent is related to the BOD in the slurry being treated and the BOD concentration in slurry treated in test biofilters was lower than BOD of slurry treated in demo biofilters. The demo biofilter can reduce BOD to between 52 an 56% of the original value, and TSS, COD (chemical oxygen demand) and ammonium (NH4+) to 41-55% of the original slurry. The treated effluent could not meet the standards for discharge to rivers. The composted biofilter material has a high content of nitrogen and phosphorus; consequently, the fertilizer value of the compost is high. The investments costs were 123 US dollar per SPP which has to be reduced if this method should be a treatment option in practise.
Fibre-rich manure derived from grass-fed cattle showed significantly higher intrinsic sorption efficiency on Cr(VI) solution as compared to corncob, sawdust and cogon grass. This observation could be attributed to the ligneous nature and rough surface morphology of the cattle manure. Four-factor, three-level, face-centred composite design (FCCD) suggested the process was greatly affected by initial pH of the solution, contact time and sorbent dosage (p50% adsorption efficiency. It is predicted that both physisorption and chemisorption are involved in the sorption process.
Energy is widely used in industry for heating and cooling, with natural gas (NG) being the largest primary energy source in Malaysia, closely followed by coal. Renewable energy, such as biogas upgrading to biomethane, could cut the use of fossil fuels by supplementing NG usage due to their similar physicochemical and thermochemical characteristics. Biogas production plants in Malaysia are more commonly seen in waste-to-energy scenarios, with the technology anaerobic digestion, and their deployment is supported via feed-in tariffs (FiT) for power generation. Other potential applications such as the conversion of biogas into biomethane, injection into the natural gas grid or transportation through a virtual pipeline may still need further technical development. This paper presents spatial techno economic optimisation modelling using BeWhere to determine decentralised biomethane production plants using feedstock from multiple sources of biogas, including palm oil mill effluent (POME), food waste, cattle manure and chicken manure. This model considered potential configurations and sizes of the biomethane plants, the transportation of biomethane using a virtual pipeline (at 250 psig) and demand in one of the states in Malaysia, namely Johor. It was found that two to four biomethane plants with capacities ranging between 125 and 700 m3/h were located in densely populated areas or heavier industrial consumers when the carbon tax was implemented at 167.71 EUR/tCO2 (800 MYR/tCO2). Sensitivity analysis suggested that biomethane production increases with the increasing country renewable energy share target to beyond 2080 MW. It is recommended that specific policy regulations and Feed-in Tariff (FiT) mechanisms are used to expand the biomethane market share in the country.
Lack of sufficient nitrogenous substrate and buffering potential have been acknowledged as impediments to the treatment of palm oil mill effluent through co-digestion processes. In this study, ammonium bicarbonate was used to provide the nitrogenous substrate and buffering potential. To regulate the impact of ammonium bicarbonate toxicity on the anaerobic co-digestion system, dosages from 0 to 40 mg/L were supplemented. The biogas yield was used to indicate the effects of NH4+ toxicity. In a solar-assisted bioreactor, solar radiation was first collected by a solar panel and converted into electricity, which was then used to heat a mixture of palm oil mill effluent and cattle manure to maintain the reactor in the mesophilic temperature range. This co-digestion operation was performed semi-continuously and was analyzed at a 50:50 mixing ratio of palm oil mill effluent and cattle manure. The results indicate that the additional dosing of ammonium bicarbonate can significantly enhance biogas production. Maximum cumulative biogas and methane productions of 2034.00 mL and 1430.51 mL, respectively, were obtained with the optimum addition of 10 mg/L ammonium bicarbonate; these values are 29.80% and 42.30% higher, respectively, than that obtained in the control co-digestion operation without addition of ammonium bicarbonate. Utilization of a mathematical equation (G = Gmk/t) to describe a kinetic analysis of the biogas yield also indicated that the optimum ammonium bicarbonate dose was 10 mg/L. The results of this study suggest that supplementation with ammonium bicarbonate doses of up to 40 mg/L can be used to provide nitrogenous substrates and buffering potential in anaerobic co-digestion processes. The determination of the optimal dose provides an alternative and efficient option for enhanced biogas production, which will have obvious economic advantages for feasible industrial applications.
Biochar has proven to be a feasible additive for mitigating nitrogen loss during the composting process. This study aims to evaluate the influence of biochar addition on bacterial community and physicochemical properties changes, including ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) contents during the composting of poultry manure. The composting was carried out by adding 20% (w/w) of biochar into the mixture of poultry manure and rice straw with a ratio of 2:1, and the same treatment without biochar was prepared as a control. The finished product of control compost recorded the high contents of NO2- and NO3- (366 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg) with reduced the total NH4+ content to 10 mg/kg. Meanwhile, biochar compost recorded a higher amount of total NH4+ content (110 mg/kg) with low NO2- and NO3- (161 mg/kg and 137 mg/kg) content in the final composting material. The principal component analysis showed that the dynamics of dominant genera related to Halomonas, Pusillimonas, and Pseudofulvimonas, all of which were known as nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria, was significantly correlated with the dynamic of NO2- and NO3- content throughout the composting process. The genera related to Pusillimonas, and Pseudofulvimonas appeared as the dominant communities as the NO2- and NO3- increased. In contrast, as the NO2- and NO3- concentration decreased, the Halomonas genus were notably enriched in biochar compost. This study revealed the bacterial community shifts corresponded with the change of physicochemical properties, which provides essential information for a better understanding of monitoring and improving the composting process.
Co-composting of poultry manure and rubber wood sawdust was performed with the ratio of 2:1 (V/V) for a period of 60 days. An investigation was carried out to study the extracellular enzymatic activities and structural degradation utilizing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microbial succession was also determined by using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The compost was able to reach its highest temperature of 71°C at day 3 and stabilized between 30 and 40°C for 8 weeks. CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase acted synergistically in order to degrade the cellulosic substrate. The xylanase activities increased gradually during the composting and reached the peak value of 11.637 U/g on day 35, followed by a sharp decline. Both LiP and MnP activities reached their peak values on day 35 with 0.431 and 0.132 U/g respectively. The FT-IR spectra revealed an increase in aromaticity and a decrease in aliphatic compounds such as carbohydrates as decomposition proceeded. TGA/DTG data exhibited significant changes in weight loss in compost samples, indicating degradation of organic matter. SEM micrographs showed higher amounts of parenchyma exposed on the surface of rubber wood sawdust at day 60, showing significant degradation. DGGE and 16S rDNA analyses showed that Burkholderia sp., Pandoraea sp., and Pseudomonas sp. were present throughout the composting process. Ornithinibacillus sp. and Castellaniella ginsengisoli were only found in the initial stage of the composting, while different strains of Burkholderia sp. also occurred in the later stage of composting.
Using manure collected from swine fed with diet containing antibiotics and antibiotic-free swine manure spiked with antibiotics are the two common methods of studying the degradation behavior of veterinary antibiotic in manure in the environment. However, few studies had been conducted to co-compare these two different antibiotic addition methods. This study used oxytetracycline (OTC) as a model antibiotic to study antibiotic degradation behavior in manure under the above two OTC addition methods. In addition, the role of microorganisms present in the manure on degradation behavior was also examined. The results showed that degradation half-life of OTC in manure from swine fed OTC (9.04 days) was significantly shorter than that of the manure directly treated with OTC (9.65 days). Concentration of 4-epi-OTC in manure from swine fed OTC peaked earlier than that in manure spiked with OTC, and the degradation rates of 4-epi-OTC and α-apo-OTC in the manure from swine fed OTC were faster, but the peak concentrations were lower, than those in manure spiked with OTC. Bacterial diversity and relative abundance of Bacillus cereus data demonstrated that sterilization of the manure before experiment significantly decreased OTC degradation rate in both of the addition methods. Results of the present study demonstrated that the presence of the metabolites (especially 4-epi-OTC) and microorganisms had significant influence on OTC degradation.
Livestock farms are commonly regarded as the main sources of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), emerging pollutants with potential implications for human health, in the environment. This study investigated the occurrence and contamination profiles of nine ARGs of three types from swine manure to receiving environments (soil and water) in Guangdong Province, southern China. All ARGs occurred in 100% of swine manure samples. Moreover, the absolute concentration of total ARGs varied from 3.01 × 108 to 7.18 × 1014 copies/g, which was significantly higher than that in wastewater and manured soil (p 0.05). However, the number of ARGs (ermB, qnrS, acc(6')-Ib, tetM, tetO and tetQ) decreased but were not eliminated by wastewater treatment components (p
Antibiotic residues in swine manure when entered the soil would most likely affect the complex composition and functions of the soil microbiome, which is also responsible for degrading these antibiotics. Three different methods of adding ciprofloxacin (CIP), a common antibiotic used in the swine industry, to the soil were used to investigate the effects of CIP on the soil microbiome and the degradation of CIP. Results of the study showed that the microbiome could promote the degradation of CIP in the soil when CIP was incorporated into the soil together with manure. However, the CIP degradation time was prolonged when adding the manure of swine fed with diet containing CIP in the soil. All treatments did not affect the copy number of the resistance genes, except for aac(6')-Ib-cr, as compared with the initial numbers of each treatment. MiSeq Illumina sequencing and Biolog-ECO microplates results showed that CIP had a significant effect on the abundance, structure, and function of the soil microbiome, but different addition methods resulted in distinct effects. Results of the present study demonstrated that the microbiome and fate of CIP responded differently to the different methods of adding CIP to the soil.
Collar rot of chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is a very destructive disease caused by a soil-borne fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. Generally, chemical fungicides are used to combat the menace but this practice is being discouraged because of health and environmental concerns. In the present study, an alternative environment friendly strategy was used to manage this disease by using farmyard manure (FYM) and two commercial biofertilizers namely Biopower and Feng Shou. S. rolfsii inoculated pot soil was amended with 1% and 2% FYM and the two commercial biofertilizers. Inoculation of soil with S. rolfsii only (positive control) resulted in the highest disease incidence (73%) and plant mortality (60%). Biopower and Feng Shou application reduced disease incidence to 20% and 7%, respectively and plant mortality to 0%. Likewise, 1% and 2% FYM amendment reduced disease incidence to 33% and plant mortality to 26% and 7%, respectively. Under biotic stress of S. rolfsii, FYM and biofertilizers applications, either alone or in combination, significantly enhanced root and shoot growth over positive control. S. rolfsii inoculation significantly increased peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in chili plants which were further increased by application of either of the two biofertilizers. The present study concludes that biofertilizers Biopower and Feng Shou alone or in combination with 2% FYM can be effectively utilized to manage southern blight of chili.
Vermicomposting for 140 days by using Lumbricus rubellus was conducted after 21 days of natural pre-composting. Five treatments in different ratio of goat manure: spent mushroom substrate were prepared as feed materials with four replicates for each treatment namely; 20:80 (TA), 40:60 (TB), 50:50 (TC), 60:40 (TD) and 80:20 (TE). As for control, each treatment without earthworm was prepared. On the basis of nutrient elements, goat manure and spent mushroom substrate can be decomposed through both methods of vermicomposting and natural composting. Findings of this study indicated that the higher usage of goat manure with longer duration resulted in the production of improved organic fertilizer.
Anaerobic composting is a promising method to fully transform food wastes into useful
materials such as biofertilizer and biogas. In this study, the optimum proportions of food
wastes containing vegetable, fruit and meat wastes with dry leaves or cow manure for
composting were determined using the simplex centroid design and response optimizer.
The effectiveness of the pilot-scale composting process was evaluated based on the targeted
compost quality of C/N ratio at 21, pH value at 8 and electrical conductivity of 1 dS/m.
Food wastes composting formulation with dry leaves suggested high percentage of dry
leaves, 86.9% with low food wastes composition of 13.1% constituted by vegetable waste
(1.1%), fruit waste (4.9%) and meat waste (7.1%). With cow manure formulation, only
6% of cow manure was recommended with
another 94.0% of food wastes contributed
by a fair mix of vegetable waste (23.2%),
fruit waste (34.3%) and meat waste (36.5%).
The developed regression models were
experimentally validated with predicted
responses obtained in acceptable ranges for
C/N ratio (21.2 - 21.8), pH (7.92 - 7.99) and
electrical conductivity (0.97 - 1.03 dS/m).
Composting of yard waste is one of the waste management approaches in the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) in Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. The yard waste inventory was developed in the headquarters' area and a pilot-scale study was performed on the potential compost product. The total amount of yard waste generated from June 2017 to December 2017 was 16.75 tonnes with an average generation of 0.60 tonnes per week on the dry weight (d.w.) basis. The collected yard waste consisted of three major characteristics, namely dry leaves, fresh green leaves, and grass cuttings, and a waste estimation technique was applied to determine the composition of these three elements. The acquired information was used to formulate the initial compost mixture. The wastes were then mixed with an appropriate amount of livestock manure and other wastes to obtain the optimum initial C/N ratio, which was then found in the analysis to range between 25:1 and 42:1. Meanwhile, the C/N ratios obtained from the matured compost product were from 10:1 and 15:1. Moreover, most of the compost yield ranged between 50% and 70% (w w-1 d.w. basis), while the percentage of the seed germination in the compost was over 95%. The viability of the project was indicated from the economic analysis, with benefit to cost ratio (BCR) values of more than 1. The results also suggested that the large scale composting of yard waste in MARDI was feasible and its applicability is continuous. This technique also fulfilled the objective of producing quality compost, which was suitable for agricultural use.
Vermicomposting is a process that involves biological, chemical and physical transformations of solid organic materials such as agricultural residues of plant and animal through the use of microorganisms and earthworms. There are three main classes of earthworms, and only those from one class are usually used for vermicomposting. However, mostly foreign earthworms are used in the setup. Foreign earthworms are more expensive and harder to obtain than local earthworms. This makes the local farmers reluctant to try since they are expensive. The difference in vermicompost using two species of epigeic earthworms, a local earthworm and a foreign earthworm (Eisenia fetida), and normal compost without any earthworms was measured in this study. Both species of earthworms were placed in identical vermibeds consisting of partially composted goat manure and partially composted spent coconut flakes (SCF) with the ratio of 5:1 respectively in terms of weight. The vermibed moisture content was maintained at 60 – 70% throughout the whole process. The end products showed a difference from one another. The E. fetida showed a better result compared to the local earthworms in terms of the nutrient content presence and the adaptability of the earthworms during the whole process. However, the end product from the local earthworms was still better compared to the normal compost without any earthworms.