Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

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  1. Govindasamy V, Rajendran A, Lee ZX, Ooi GC, Then KY, Then KL, et al.
    Cell Biol Int, 2021 Oct;45(10):1999-2016.
    PMID: 34245637 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.11652
    Ageing and age-related diseases share some basic origin that largely converges on inflammation. Precisely, it boils down to a common pathway characterised by the appearance of a fair amount of proinflammatory cytokines known as inflammageing. Among the proposed treatment for antiageing, MSCs gained attention in recent years. Since mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate itself into a myriad of terminal cells, previously it was believed that these cells migrate to the site of injury and perform their therapeutic effect. However, with the more recent discovery of huge amounts of paracrine factors secreted by MSCs, it is now widely accepted that these cells do not engraft upon transplantation but rather unveil their benefits through excretion of bioactive molecules namely those involved in inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Conversely, the true function of these paracrine changes has not been thoroughly investigated all these years. Hence, this review will describe in detail on ways MSCs may capitalize its paracrine properties in modulating antiageing process. Through a comprehensive literature search various elements in the antiageing process, we aim to provide a novel treatment perspective of MSCs in antiageing related clinical conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  2. Teh SW, Mok PL, Abd Rashid M, Bastion MC, Ibrahim N, Higuchi A, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Feb 13;19(2).
    PMID: 29438279 DOI: 10.3390/ijms19020558
    Ocular microbial infection has emerged as a major public health crisis during the past two decades. A variety of causative agents can cause ocular microbial infections; which are characterized by persistent and destructive inflammation of the ocular tissue; progressive visual disturbance; and may result in loss of visual function in patients if early and effective treatments are not received. The conventional therapeutic approaches to treat vision impairment and blindness resulting from microbial infections involve antimicrobial therapy to eliminate the offending pathogens or in severe cases; by surgical methods and retinal prosthesis replacing of the infected area. In cases where there is concurrent inflammation, once infection is controlled, anti-inflammatory agents are indicated to reduce ocular damage from inflammation which ensues. Despite advances in medical research; progress in the control of ocular microbial infections remains slow. The varying level of ocular tissue recovery in individuals and the incomplete visual functional restoration indicate the chief limitations of current strategies. The development of a more extensive therapy is needed to help in healing to regain vision in patients. Stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can give rise to a vast variety of cell types following proper differentiation protocol. Stem cell therapy shows promise in reducing inflammation and repairing tissue damage on the eye caused by microbial infections by its ability to modulate immune response and promote tissue regeneration. This article reviews a selected list of common infectious agents affecting the eye; which include fungi; viruses; parasites and bacteria with the aim of discussing the current antimicrobial treatments and the associated therapeutic challenges. We also provide recent updates of the advances in stem cells studies on sepsis therapy as a suggestion of optimum treatment regime for ocular microbial infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  3. Hassan NH, Sulong AF, Ng MH, Htwe O, Idrus RB, Roohi S, et al.
    J Orthop Res, 2012 Oct;30(10):1674-81.
    PMID: 22411691 DOI: 10.1002/jor.22102
    Autologous nerve grafts to bridge nerve gaps have donor site morbidity and possible neuroma formation resulting in development of various methods of bridging nerve gaps without using autologous nerve grafts. We have fabricated an acellular muscle stuffed vein seeded with differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a substitute for nerve autografts. Human vein and muscle were both decellularized by liquid nitrogen immersion with subsequent hydrolysis in hydrochloric acid. Human MSCs were subjected to a series of treatments with a reducing agent, retinoic acid, and a combination of trophic factors. The differentiated MSCs were seeded on the surface of acellular muscle tissue and then stuffed into the vein. Our study showed that 35-75% of the cells expressed neural markers such as S100b, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), p75 NGF receptor, and Nestin after differentiation. Histological and ultra structural analyses of muscle stuffed veins showed attachment of cells onto the surface of the acellular muscle and penetration of the cells into the hydrolyzed fraction of muscle fibers. We implanted these muscle stuffed veins into athymic mice and at 8 weeks post-implantation, the acellular muscle tissue had fully degraded and replaced with new matrix produced by the seeded cells. The vein was still intact and no inflammatory reactions were observed proving the biocompatibility and biodegradability of the conduit. In conclusion, we have successfully formed a stable living nerve conduit which may serve as a substitute for autologous nerves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  4. Lye KL, Nordin N, Vidyadaran S, Thilakavathy K
    Cell Biol Int, 2016 Jun;40(6):610-8.
    PMID: 26992453 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10603
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have garnered vast interests in clinical settings, especially in regenerative medicine due to their unique properties-they are reliably isolated and expanded from various tissue sources; they are able to differentiate into mesodermal tissues such as bones, cartilages, adipose tissues, and muscles; and they have unique immunosuppressive properties. However, there are some concerns pertaining to the role of MSCs in the human body. On one hand, they are crucial component in the regeneration and repair of the human body. On the contrary, they are shown to transform into sarcomas. Although the exact mechanisms are still unknown, many new leads have pointed to the belief that MSCs do play a role in sarcomagenesis. This review focuses on the current updates and findings of the role of MSCs in their transformation process into sarcomas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods
  5. Mitra NK, Bindal U, Eng Hwa W, Chua CL, Tan CY
    Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 2015;8(10):12041-52.
    PMID: 26722389
    Out of the minor myelin proteins, most significant one is myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have proven immunoregulatory capacity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of syngeneic MSCs on mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) through observation of locomotion by footprint analysis, histological analysis of spinal cord and estimation IL-17. C57BL/6 mice (10 weeks, n = 16) were immunized with 300 µg of MOG35-55 and 200 µL of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to produce EAE model. Sham-treated control (n = 8) were injected with CFA. Half of immunized mice were given 100 µL of PBS (n = 8) and next half (n = 8) received 1 × 10(5) MSCs on day 11 through the tail veins. Clinical scoring showed development of EAE (loss of tonicity of tail and weakness of hind limb) on day 10. Following MSC treatment, clinical scores and hindlimb stride length showed significant improvement on day 15 onwards, compared to day 10 (P < 0.05). Under LFB staining, while PBS-treated group of EAE mice showed pale and degenerated axons in anterolateral white column of lumbar spinal cord, MSC-treated group showed numerous normal-looking axons. H&E staining showed normal axons in anterolateral white column and reduction of macrophages in MSC-treated EAE mice group. A lower level of IL-17 was observed in MSC treated EAE mice, compared to PBS-treated EAE mice. Our results suggest that Intravenous MSC has the potential to improve the locomotion and regeneration of axons in spinal cord in MOG-induced EAE model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  6. Tay LX, Ahmad RE, Dashtdar H, Tay KW, Masjuddin T, Ab-Rahim S, et al.
    Am J Sports Med, 2012 Jan;40(1):83-90.
    PMID: 21917609 DOI: 10.1177/0363546511420819
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising alternative form of cell-based therapy for cartilage injury. However, the capacity of MSCs for chondrogenesis has not been fully explored. In particular, there is presently a lack of studies comparing the effectiveness of MSCs to conventional autologous chondrocyte (autoC) treatment for regeneration of full-thickness cartilage defects in vivo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  7. Mamidi MK, Pal R, Govindasamy V, Zakaria Z, Bhonde R
    Med Hypotheses, 2011 Apr;76(4):599-601.
    PMID: 21277690 DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2011.01.010
    The staggering number of publications featuring the use of stem cells has revolutionized regenerative medicine research. Preclinical studies indicate that allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be useful for the treatment of several clinical disorders, including sepsis, acute renal failure, acute myocardial infarction, and more recently, acute lung injury (ALI). However, considerable success would not be obtained in clinical trials due to poor survival of transplanted cells under the influence of inflammatory conditions. Despite robust approaches like cellular reprogramming, scaffolds and conditioned media have been tested to overcome this problem; however the success rate of these approaches remain questionable. Recently, pretreatment of bioactive compounds in vitro have been shown to suppress cell apoptosis and promote cell survival. Quite likely a similar phenomenon can take place in vivo. Based on such studies, we hypothesize that MSCs derived from human post-natal tissues could be conditioned and prepared for targeted disease therapy. Depending on the disease condition, the MSCs could be treated prior to delivery with appropriate bioactive compounds to allow them survive longer and perform a better role as biocatalyst. The advantage of this approach could be the tailor made availability of MSCs preconditioned with appropriate bioactive compounds for disease specific therapy. Therefore, the choice of suitable bioactive molecule is likely to enhance the efficacy of targeted stem cell therapy and preconditioning may provide a novel strategy in maximizing biological and functional properties of MSCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  8. Goh JC, Shao XX, Hutmacher D, Lee EH
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:17-8.
    PMID: 15468797
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  9. Pati S, Muthuraju S, Hadi RA, Huat TJ, Singh S, Maletic-Savatic M, et al.
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2016;11(2):149-57.
    PMID: 26763886
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) imposes horrendous neurophysiological alterations leading to most devastating forms of neuro-disability. Which includes impaired cognition, distorted locomotors activity and psychosomatic disability in both youths and adults. Emerging evidence from recent studies has identified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as one of the promising category of stem cells having excellent neuroregenerative capability in TBI victims. Some of the clinical and animal studies reported that MSCs transplantation could cure neuronal damage as well as improve cognitive and locomotors behaviors in TBI. However, mechanism behind their broad spectrum neuroregenerative potential in TBI has not been reviewed yet. Therefore, in the present article, we present a comprehensive data on the important attributes of MSCs, such as neurotransdifferentiation, neuroprotection, axonal repair and plasticity, maintenance of blood-brain integrity, reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and immunomodulation. We have reviewed in detail the crucial neurogenic capabilities of MSCs in vivo and provided consolidated knowledge regarding their cellular remodeling in TBI for future therapeutic implications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  10. Choi JR, Yong KW, Choi JY
    J Cell Physiol, 2018 Mar;233(3):1913-1928.
    PMID: 28542924 DOI: 10.1002/jcp.26018
    Today, articular cartilage damage is a major health problem, affecting people of all ages. The existing conventional articular cartilage repair techniques, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), microfracture, and mosaicplasty, have many shortcomings which negatively affect their clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop an alternative and efficient articular repair technique that can address those shortcomings. Cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to create a tissue-engineered cartilage derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), shows great promise for improving articular cartilage defect therapy. However, the use of tissue-engineered cartilage for the clinical therapy of articular cartilage defect still remains challenging. Despite the importance of mechanical loading to create a functional cartilage has been well demonstrated, the specific type of mechanical loading and its optimal loading regime is still under investigation. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the effects of mechanical loading on human MSCs. First, the existing conventional articular repair techniques and their shortcomings are highlighted. The important parameters for the evaluation of the tissue-engineered cartilage, including chondrogenic and hypertrophic differentiation of human MSCs are briefly discussed. The influence of mechanical loading on human MSCs is subsequently reviewed and the possible mechanotransduction signaling is highlighted. The development of non-hypertrophic chondrogenesis in response to the changing mechanical microenvironment will aid in the establishment of a tissue-engineered cartilage for efficient articular cartilage repair.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  11. Azmi SM, Salih M, Abdelrazeg S, Roslan FF, Mohamed R, Tan JJ, et al.
    Regen Med, 2020 03;15(3):1381-1397.
    PMID: 32253974 DOI: 10.2217/rme-2019-0103
    Aim: As a strategy to improve the outcome of ex vivo cultivated corneal epithelial transplantation, the role of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) is investigated in promoting corneal epithelial growth and functions. Materials & methods: Human telomerase-immortalized corneal epithelial cells were characterized and its functions evaluated by scratch migration assay, cellular senescence, HLA expression and spheres formation with hUC-MSC. Results: Expression of corneal epithelial markers was influenced by the duration and method of co-culture. Indirect co-culture improved cellular migration and delayed senescence when treated after 3 and 5 days. hUC-MSC downregulated expression of HLA Class I and II in IFN-γ-stimulated human telomerase-immortalized corneal epithelial cells. Conclusion: hUC-MSC promote corneal epithelial growth and functions after treatment with hUC-MSC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  12. Dashtdar H, Murali MR, Abbas AA, Suhaeb AM, Selvaratnam L, Tay LX, et al.
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2015 May;23(5):1368-77.
    PMID: 24146054 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-013-2723-5
    PURPOSE: To investigate whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded in novel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-chitosan composite hydrogel can provide comparable or even further improve cartilage repair outcomes as compared to previously established alginate-transplanted models.

    METHODS: Medial femoral condyle defect was created in both knees of twenty-four mature New Zealand white rabbits, and the animals were divided into four groups containing six animals each. After 3 weeks, the right knees were transplanted with PVA-chitosan-MSC, PVA-chitosan scaffold alone, alginate-MSC construct or alginate alone. The left knee was kept as untreated control. Animals were killed at the end of 6 months after transplantation, and the cartilage repair was assessed through Brittberg morphological score, histological grading by O'Driscoll score and quantitative glycosaminoglycan analysis.

    RESULTS: Morphological and histological analyses showed significant (p < 0.05) tissue repair when treated with PVA-chitosan-MSC or alginate MSC as compared to the scaffold only and untreated control. In addition, safranin O staining and the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in MSC treatment groups than in scaffold-only or untreated control group. No significant difference was observed between the PVA-chitosan-MSC- and alginate-MSC-treated groups.

    CONCLUSION: PVA-chitosan hydrogel seeded with mesenchymal stem cells provides comparable treatment outcomes to that of previously established alginate-MSC construct implantation. This study supports the potential use of PVA-chitosan hydrogel seeded with MSCs for clinical use in cartilage repair such as traumatic injuries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  13. Al Faqeh H, Nor Hamdan BM, Chen HC, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Exp Gerontol, 2012 Jun;47(6):458-64.
    PMID: 22759409 DOI: 10.1016/j.exger.2012.03.018
    In recent years, the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) implantation has provided an alternative treatment for osteoarthritis. The objective of this study is to determine whether or not an intra-articular injection of a single dose of autologous chondrogenic induced BMSC could retard the progressive destruction of cartilage in a surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep. Sheep BMSCs were isolated and divided into two groups. One group was cultured in chondrogenic media containing (Ham's F12:DMEM, 1:1) FD+1% FBS+5 ng/ml TGFβ3+50 ng/ml IGF-1 (CM), and the other group was cultured in the basal media, FD+10% FBS (BM). The procedure for surgically induced osteoarthritis was performed on the donor sheep 6 weeks prior to intra-articular injection into the knee joint of a single dose of BMSC from either group, suspended in 5 ml FD at density of 2 million cells/ml. The control groups were injected with basal media, without cells. Six weeks after injection, gross evidence of retardation of cartilage destruction was seen in the osteoarthritic knee joints treated with CM as well as BM. No significant ICRS (International Cartilage Repair Society) scoring was detected between the two groups with cells. However macroscopically, meniscus repair was observed in the knee joint treated with CM. Severe osteoarthritis and meniscal injury was observed in the control group. Interestingly, histologically the CM group demonstrated good cartilage histoarchitecture, thickness and quality, comparable to normal knee joint cartilage. As a conclusion, intra-articular injection of a single dose of BMSC either chondrogenically induced or not, could retard the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) in a sheep model, but the induced cells indicated better results especially in meniscus regeneration.
    Study site: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  14. Suhaeb AM, Naveen S, Mansor A, Kamarul T
    Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2012 Jun;50(6):383-90.
    PMID: 22734248
    Despite being a complex degenerative joint disease, studies on osteoarthritis (OA) suggest that its progression can be reduced by the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The present study thus aims to examine the effects of MSC, HA and the combination of HA-MSC in treating OA in rat model. The histological observations using O'Driscoll score indicate that it is the use of HA and MSC independently and not their combination that delays the progression of OA. In conclusion, the preliminary study suggest that the use of either HA or MSCs effectively reduces OA progression better than their combined use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  15. Lim J, Razi ZR, Law J, Nawi AM, Idrus RB, Ng MH
    Cytotherapy, 2016 12;18(12):1493-1502.
    PMID: 27727016 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2016.08.003
    BACKGROUND AIMS: Human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hWJMSCs) are possibly the most suitable allogeneic cell source for stromal cell therapy and tissue engineering applications because of their hypo-immunogenic and non-tumorigenic properties, easy availability and minimal ethical concerns. Furthermore, hWJMSCs possess unique properties of both adult mesenchymal stromal cells and embryonic stromal cells. The human umbilical cord (UC) is approximately 50-60 cm long and the existing studies in the literature have not provided information on which segment of the UC was studied. In this study, hWJMSCs derived from three anatomical segments of the UC are compared.

    METHODS: Three segments of the whole UC, each 3 cm in length, were identified anatomically as the maternal, middle and fetal segments. The hWJMSCs from the different segments were analyzed via trypan blue exclusion assay to determine the growth kinetics and cell viability, flow cytometry for immunophenotyping and immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for expression of stromal cell transcriptional factors. Furthermore, the trilineage differentiation potential (osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic) of these cells was also assessed.

    RESULTS: hWJMSCs isolated from the maternal and fetal segments displayed greater viability and possessed a significantly higher proliferation rate compared with cells from the middle segment. Immunophenotyping revealed that hWJMSCs derived from all three segments expressed the MSC markers CD105, CD73, CD90, CD44, CD13 and CD29, as well as HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, but were negative for hematopoietic markers CD14, CD34 and CD45. Analysis of the embryonic markers showed that all three segments expressed Nanog and Oct 3/4, but only the maternal and fetal segments expressed SSEA 4 and TRA-160. Cells from all three segments were able to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages with the middle segments showing much lower differentiation potential compared with the other two segments.

    CONCLUSIONS: hWJMSCs derived from the maternal and fetal segments of the UC are a good source of MSCs compared with cells from the middle segment because of their higher proliferation rate and viability. Fetal and maternal segments are the preferred cell source for bone regeneration.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods
  16. Abdul Wahid SF, Ismail NA, Wan Jamaludin WF, Muhamad NA, Abdul Hamid MKA, Harunarashid H, et al.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018 08 29;8:CD010747.
    PMID: 30155883 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010747.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Revascularisation is the gold standard therapy for patients with critical limb ischaemia (CLI). In over 30% of patients who are not suitable for or have failed previous revascularisation therapy (the 'no-option' CLI patients), limb amputation is eventually unavoidable. Preliminary studies have reported encouraging outcomes with autologous cell-based therapy for the treatment of CLI in these 'no-option' patients. However, studies comparing the angiogenic potency and clinical effects of autologous cells derived from different sources have yielded limited data. Data regarding cell doses and routes of administration are also limited.

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of autologous cells derived from different sources, prepared using different protocols, administered at different doses, and delivered via different routes for the treatment of 'no-option' CLI patients.

    SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist (CIS) searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), and trials registries (16 May 2018). Review authors searched PubMed until February 2017.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving 'no-option' CLI patients comparing a particular source or regimen of autologous cell-based therapy against another source or regimen of autologous cell-based therapy.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the trials. We extracted outcome data from each trial and pooled them for meta-analysis. We calculated effect estimates using a risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), or a mean difference (MD) with 95% CI.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included seven RCTs with a total of 359 participants. These studies compared bone marrow-mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) versus mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (mPBSCs), BM-MNCs versus bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), high cell dose versus low cell dose, and intramuscular (IM) versus intra-arterial (IA) routes of cell implantation. We identified no other comparisons in these studies. We considered most studies to be at low risk of bias in random sequence generation, incomplete outcome data, and selective outcome reporting; at high risk of bias in blinding of patients and personnel; and at unclear risk of bias in allocation concealment and blinding of outcome assessors. The quality of evidence was most often low to very low, with risk of bias, imprecision, and indirectness of outcomes the major downgrading factors.Three RCTs (100 participants) reported a total of nine deaths during the study follow-up period. These studies did not report deaths according to treatment group.Results show no clear difference in amputation rates between IM and IA routes (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.18; three RCTs, 95 participants; low-quality evidence). Single-study data show no clear difference in amputation rates between BM-MNC- and mPBSC-treated groups (RR 1.54, 95% CI 0.45 to 5.24; 150 participants; low-quality evidence) and between high and low cell dose (RR 3.21, 95% CI 0.87 to 11.90; 16 participants; very low-quality evidence). The study comparing BM-MNCs versus BM-MSCs reported no amputations.Single-study data with low-quality evidence show similar numbers of participants with healing ulcers between BM-MNCs and mPBSCs (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.83; 49 participants) and between IM and IA routes (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.76; 41 participants). In contrast, more participants appeared to have healing ulcers in the BM-MSC group than in the BM-MNC group (RR 2.00, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.92; one RCT, 22 participants; moderate-quality evidence). Researchers comparing high versus low cell doses did not report ulcer healing.Single-study data show similar numbers of participants with reduction in rest pain between BM-MNCs and mPBSCs (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.06; 104 participants; moderate-quality evidence) and between IM and IA routes (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.64; 32 participants; low-quality evidence). One study reported no clear difference in rest pain scores between BM-MNC and BM-MSC (MD 0.00, 95% CI -0.61 to 0.61; 37 participants; moderate-quality evidence). Trials comparing high versus low cell doses did not report rest pain.Single-study data show no clear difference in the number of participants with increased ankle-brachial index (ABI; increase of > 0.1 from pretreatment), between BM-MNCs and mPBSCs (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.40; 104 participants; moderate-quality evidence), and between IM and IA routes (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.43 to 2.00; 35 participants; very low-quality evidence). In contrast, ABI scores appeared higher in BM-MSC versus BM-MNC groups (MD 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.09; one RCT, 37 participants; low-quality evidence). ABI was not reported in the high versus low cell dose comparison.Similar numbers of participants had improved transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcO₂) with IM versus IA routes (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.72; two RCTs, 62 participants; very low-quality evidence). Single-study data with low-quality evidence show a higher TcO₂ reading in BM-MSC versus BM-MNC groups (MD 8.00, 95% CI 3.46 to 12.54; 37 participants) and in mPBSC- versus BM-MNC-treated groups (MD 1.70, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.99; 150 participants). TcO₂ was not reported in the high versus low cell dose comparison.Study authors reported no significant short-term adverse effects attributed to autologous cell implantation.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Mostly low- and very low-quality evidence suggests no clear differences between different stem cell sources and different treatment regimens of autologous cell implantation for outcomes such as all-cause mortality, amputation rate, ulcer healing, and rest pain for 'no-option' CLI patients. Pooled analyses did not show a clear difference in clinical outcomes whether cells were administered via IM or IA routes. High-quality evidence is lacking; therefore the efficacy and long-term safety of autologous cells derived from different sources, prepared using different protocols, administered at different doses, and delivered via different routes for the treatment of 'no-option' CLI patients, remain to be confirmed.Future RCTs with larger numbers of participants are needed to determine the efficacy of cell-based therapy for CLI patients, along with the optimal cell source, phenotype, dose, and route of implantation. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm the durability of angiogenic potential and the long-term safety of cell-based therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  17. Dashtdar H, Rothan HA, Tay T, Ahmad RE, Ali R, Tay LX, et al.
    J Orthop Res, 2011 Sep;29(9):1336-42.
    PMID: 21445989 DOI: 10.1002/jor.21413
    Chondrogenic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (CMSCs) have been shown to produce superior chondrogenic expression markers in vitro. However, the use of these cells in vivo has not been fully explored. In this study, in vivo assessment of cartilage repair potential between allogenic-derived chondrogenic pre-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and undifferentiated MSCs (MSCs) were compared. Bilateral full thickness cartilage defects were created on the medial femoral condyles of 12 rabbits (n = 12). Rabbits were divided into two groups. In one group, the defects in the right knees were repaired using alginate encapsulated MSCs while in the second group, CMSCs were used. The animals were sacrificed and the repaired and control knees were assessed at 3 and 6 months after implantation. Quantitative analysis was performed by measuring the Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)/total protein content. The mean Brittberg score was higher in the transplanted knees as compared to the untreated knee at 6 months (p  0.05). This study demonstrates that the use of either MSC or CMSC produced superior healing when compared to cartilage defects that were untreated. However, both cells produced comparable treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  18. Das AK, Bin Abdullah BJ, Dhillon SS, Vijanari A, Anoop CH, Gupta PK
    World J Surg, 2013 Apr;37(4):915-22.
    PMID: 23307180 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-012-1892-6
    BACKGROUND: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) caused by peripheral arterial disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This condition is associated with a 30 % amputation rate as well as mortality levels which might be as high as 25 %. There is no pharmacological therapy available, but several reports have suggested that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be a useful therapeutic option.
    METHODS: This study, done at a university hospital, evaluated 13 patients for a phase I trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial MSCs in CLI patients. Eight patients with ten affected limbs were recruited for the study. As two patients (three limbs) died of ischemic cardiac events during the 6-month follow-up period, seven limbs were finally evaluated for the study.
    RESULTS: There was significant pain relief. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores decreased from 2.29 ± 0.29 to 0.5 ± 0.34 (p < 0.05), ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) increased significantly from 0.56 ± 0.02 to 0.67 ± 0.021 (p < 0.01), and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) also increased significantly in the foot from 13.57 ± 3.63 to 38 ± 3.47. Similar improvement was seen in the leg as well as the thigh. There was 86 % limb salvage and six of seven ulcers showed complete or partial healing.
    CONCLUSION: It was concluded that intra-arterial MSCs could be safely administered to patients with CLI and was associated with significant therapeutic benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  19. Venugopal C, K S, Rai KS, Pinnelli VB, Kutty BM, Dhanushkodi A
    Curr Gene Ther, 2018;18(5):307-323.
    PMID: 30209999 DOI: 10.2174/1566523218666180913152615
    INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) therapy in recent years has gained significant attention. Though the functional outcomes following MSC therapy for neurodegenerative diseases are convincing, various mechanisms for the functional recovery are being debated. Nevertheless, recent studies convincingly demonstrated that recovery following MSC therapy could be reiterated with MSC secretome per se thereby shifting the dogma from cell therapy to cell "based" therapy. In addition to various functional proteins, stem cell secretome also includes extracellular membrane vesicles like exosomes. Exosomes which are of "Nano" size have attracted significant interest as they can pass through the bloodbrain barrier far easily than macro size cells or growth factors. Exosomes act as a cargo between cells to bring about significant alterations in target cells. As the importance of exosomes is getting unveil, it is imperial to carry out a comprehensive study to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of exosomes as compared to conventional co-culture or total condition medium treatments.

    OBJECTIVE: Thus, the present study is designed to compare the neuroprotective potential of MSC derived exosomes with MSC-condition medium or neuron-MSC-co-culture system against kainic acid induced excitotoxicity in in vitro condition. The study also aims at comparing the neuroprotective efficacy of exosomes/condition medium/co-culture of two MSC viz., neural crest derived human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSC) and human Bone-Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hBM-MSC) to identify the appropriate MSC source for treating neurodegenerative diseases.

    RESULT: Our results demonstrated that neuroprotective efficacy of MSC-exosomes is as efficient as MSC-condition medium or neuron-MSC co-culture system and treating degenerating hippocampal neurons with all three MSC based approaches could up-regulate host's endogenous growth factor expressions and prevent apoptosis by activating cell survival PI3K-B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) pathway.

    CONCLUSION: Thus, the current study highlights the possibilities of treating neurodegenerative diseases with "Nano" size exosomes as opposed to transplanting billions of stem cells which inherit several disadvantages.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
  20. Deng D, Zhang P, Guo Y, Lim TO
    Ann Rheum Dis, 2017 Aug;76(8):1436-1439.
    PMID: 28478399 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211073
    OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the efficacy of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hUC-MSC) for the treatment of lupus nephritis (LN). Previous reports showed hUC-MSC could have dramatic treatment effect.

    METHODS: Eighteen patients with WHO class III or IV LN were randomly assigned to hUC-MSC (dose 2×108 cells) or placebo. All patients received standard immunosuppressive treatment, which consisted of intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, followed by maintenance oral prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil.

    RESULTS: Remission occurred in 9 of 12 patients (75%) in the hUC-MSC group and 5 of 6 patients (83%) in the placebo group. Remission was defined as stabilisation or improvement in renal function, reduction in urinary red cells and protein. A similar proportion of patients on hUC-MSC and placebo achieved complete remission. Improvements in serum albumin, complement, renal function, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index and British Isles Lupus Assessment Group scores were similar in both groups. One patient on placebo had a stroke and another had ascites. One patient on hUC-MSC had leucopenia, pneumonia and subcutaneous abscess and another died of severe pneumonia. The trial was abandoned after 18 patients were enrolled when it had become obvious it would not demonstrate a positive treatment effect.

    CONCLUSION: hUC-MSC has no apparent additional effect over and above standard immunosuppression.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01539902; Results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods*
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