MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adipose stromal cells were cultured in three different types of medium: (i) F12/DMEM (FD) supplemented with 10% FBS from passage 0 (P0) to P6; (ii) FD supplemented with 2% FBS at P6; and (iii) FD supplemented with 2% FBS plus 50 ng/ml of VEGF at P6. Morphological changes and growth rate of ASCs were recorded. Changes in stemness, angiogenic and endogenic genes' expressions were analysed using Real-Time PCR.
RESULTS: Adipose stromal cells changed from fibroblast-like shape when cultured in 10% FBS medium to polygonal when cultured in 2% FBS plus VEGF-supplemented medium. Their growth rate was lower in 2% FBS medium, but increased with addition of VEGF. Real-Time PCR showed that ASCs maintained most of their stemness and angiogenic genes' expression in 10% FBS at P1, P5 and P6, but this increased significantly in 2% FBS at P6. Endogenic genes expression such as PECAM-1, VE chaderin and VEGFR-2 decreased after serial passage in 10% FBS, but increased significantly at P6 in 2% FBS. Addition of VEGF did not cause any significant change in gene expression level.
CONCLUSION: Adipose stromal cells had greater angiogenic potential when cultured in reduced serum conditions. VEGF did not enhance their angiogenic potential in 2% FBS-supplemented medium.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the toxicity of acrylate-based restorative composite resins filled with hydroxyapatite and a silica/hydroxyapatite combination.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five different restorative materials based on bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) and tri-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were developed: unfilled (H0), hydroxyapatite-filled (H30, H50), and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled (SH30, SH50) composite resins. These were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity by using human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Surface morphology, elemental composition, and functional groups were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spectra normalization, baseline corrections, and peak integration were carried out by OPUS v4.0 software.
RESULTS: Both in vitro cytotoxicity results and SEM analysis indicated that the composite resins developed were nontoxic and supported cell adherence. Elemental analysis with EDX revealed the presence of carbon, oxygen, calcium, silicon, and gold, while the presence of methacrylate, hydroxyl, and methylene functional groups was confirmed through FTIR analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The characterization and compatibility studies showed that these hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based restorative composite resins are nontoxic to human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and show a favorable biologic response, making them potential biomaterials.