Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 37 in total

  1. Hartog J
    Am J Psychiatry, 1980 Jul;137(7):869.
    PMID: 7386683
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups*
  2. Ooi E, Nash K, Rengarajan L, Melson E, Thomas L, Johnson A, et al.
    PMID: 34879999 DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002451
    INTRODUCTION: We explored the clinical and biochemical differences in demographics, presentation and management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This observational study included all episodes of DKA from April 2014 to September 2020 in a UK tertiary care hospital. Data were collected on diabetes type, demographics, biochemical and clinical features at presentation, and DKA management.

    RESULTS: From 786 consecutive DKA, 583 (75.9%) type 1 diabetes and 185 (24.1%) type 2 diabetes episodes were included in the final analysis. Those with type 2 diabetes were older and had more ethnic minority representation than those with type 1 diabetes. Intercurrent illness (39.8%) and suboptimal compliance (26.8%) were the two most common precipitating causes of DKA in both cohorts. Severity of DKA as assessed by pH, glucose and lactate at presentation was similar in both groups. Total insulin requirements and total DKA duration were the same (type 1 diabetes 13.9 units (9.1-21.9); type 2 diabetes 13.9 units (7.7-21.1); p=0.4638). However, people with type 2 diabetes had significantly longer hospital stay (type 1 diabetes: 3.0 days (1.7-6.1); type 2 diabetes: 11.0 days (5.0-23.1); p<0.0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: In this population, a quarter of DKA episodes occurred in people with type 2 diabetes. DKA in type 2 diabetes presents at an older age and with greater representation from ethnic minorities. However, severity of presentation and DKA duration are similar in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that the same clinical management protocol is equally effective. People with type 2 diabetes have longer hospital admission.

    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups
  3. Sheffield J, Hussain A, Coleshill P
    J Manag Med, 1999;13(4-5):263-4.
    PMID: 10787497
    The NHS faces a crisis in terms of staffing and recruitment. Many of the ethnic minority GPs in inner city areas throughout the UK are coming up to retirement age, and there is an insufficient supply of trainees to fill estimated vacancies. Over 2,000 nursing vacancies exist across the UK, and recruitment to the profession and retention within the profession are poor. Nurses have been recruited from overseas for the past 40 years, and are currently being recruited from Finland, Malaysia, and the West Indies, whilst doctors are being sought in India, Pakistan and Africa. Overseas recruitment is not a new phenomenon, and numerous studies have been carried out to examine equal opportunities and racial discrimination within the NHS. The aim of this paper was to examine ethnicity and equal opportunities within the Scottish NHS and record the levels of organisational awareness of ethnicity and equal opportunities' issues. The paper also examines the link between health service delivery to ethnic minorities and internal cultural attitudes to staff.
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups*
  4. Husin M, Ab Rahman N, Wong XC, Mohamad Noh K, Tong SF, Schäfer W, et al.
    Prim Health Care Res Dev, 2020 11 20;21:e51.
    PMID: 33213564 DOI: 10.1017/S1463423620000511
    AIM: The purpose of this paper is to describe the recruitment strategies, the response rates and the reasons for non-response of Malaysian public and private primary care doctors in an international survey on the quality, cost and equity in primary care.

    BACKGROUND: Low research participation by primary care doctors, especially those working in the private sector, is a challenge to quality benchmarking.

    METHODS: Primary care doctors were sampled through multi-stage sampling. The first stage-sampling unit was the primary care clinics, which were randomly sampled from five states in Malaysia to reflect their proportions in two strata - sector (public/private) and location (urban/rural). Strategies through endorsement, personalised invitation, face-to-face interview and non-monetary incentives were used to recruit public and private doctors. Data collection was carried out by fieldworkers through structured questionnaires.

    FINDINGS: A total of 221 public and 239 private doctors participated in the study. Among the public doctors, 99.5% response rates were obtained. Among the private doctors, a 32.8% response rate was obtained. Totally, 30% of private clinics were uncontactable by telephone, and when these were excluded, the overall response rate is 46.8%. The response rate of the private clinics across the states ranges from 31.5% to 34.0%. A total of 167 answered the non-respondent questionnaire. Among the non-respondents, 77.4 % were male and 22.6% female (P = 0.011). There were 33.6% of doctors older than 65 years (P = 0.003) and 15.9% were from the state of Sarawak (P = 0.016) when compared to non-respondents. Reason for non-participation included being too busy (51.8%), not interested (32.9%), not having enough patients (9.1%) and did not find it beneficial (7.9%). Our study demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining favourable response rate in a survey involving doctors from public and private primary care settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups*
  5. Tuan Abdul Aziz TA, Teh LK, Md Idris MH, Bannur Z, Ashari LS, Ismail AI, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2016;16(1):284.
    PMID: 27009064 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-2848-9
    Despite the strategic development plan by the authorities for the Orang Asli, there are six subtribes of which their population numbers are small (less than 700). These minorities were not included in most of the health related studies published thus far. A comprehensive physiological and biomedical updates on these small subtribes in comparison to the larger subtribes and the urban Malay population is timely and important to help provide appropriate measures to prevent further reduction in the numbers of the Orang Asli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups
  6. Chan LF, Chin SJ, Loo TH, Panirselvam RR, Chang SS, Chang HY, et al.
    BMC Psychiatry, 2023 Jun 28;23(1):472.
    PMID: 37380953 DOI: 10.1186/s12888-023-04974-8
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that pesticide bans were associated with reduced fatal pesticide self-poisoning cases in high, and low-and-middle-income countries. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of pesticide poisoning patients admitted to two Malaysian hospitals and the early impact of the national paraquat ban implemented on 1st January 2020 in a culturally heterogenous South-East-Asian upper-middle-income setting.

    METHODS: Data were collected from an East (Bintulu) and a West (Ipoh) Malaysian hospital medical records in 2015-2021 and 2018-2021, respectively. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association of aspects such as socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, paraquat ban with the types of pesticides involved (paraquat versus non-paraquat versus unknown) ,and the outcomes (fatal versus non-fatal).

    RESULTS: From the study sample of 212 pesticide poisoning patients aged 15 years or above, the majority were self-poisoning cases (75.5%) with a disproportionate over-representation of Indian ethnic minority (44.8%). Most pesticide poisoning cases had socio-environmental stressors (62.30%). The commonest stressors were domestic interpersonal conflicts (61.36%). 42.15% of pesticide poisoning survivors had a psychiatric diagnosis. Paraquat poisoning accounted for 31.6% of all patients and 66.7% of fatalities. Case fatality was positively associated with male gender, current suicidal intent, and paraquat poisoning. After the paraquat ban, the proportion of pesticide poisoning cases using paraquat decreased from 35.8 to 24.0%, and the overall case-fatality dropped slightly from 21.2 to 17.3%.

    CONCLUSIONS: Socio-environmental stressors in specific domestic interpersonal conflicts, seemed more prominent in pesticide poisoning compared to psychiatric diagnosis. Paraquat accounted for the majority of pesticide-associated deaths occurring in hospitals in the study areas. There was preliminary evidence that the 2020 paraquat ban led to a fall in case fatality from pesticide poisoning.

    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups
  7. Chan J, Craddock N, Swami V
    Body Image, 2023 Sep;46:1-8.
    PMID: 37149923 DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2023.04.010
    Research on body image and racism has largely focused on how individual experiences of racism are associated with detrimental body image outcomes. However, research has not yet examined how resistance and empowerment against racism (REAR) - a repertoire of proactive strategies aimed at preventing or challenging racism both at the individual and collective levels - shape positive body image outcomes. Here, 236 women and 233 men who identified as belonging to racialised minority groups in the United Kingdom completed the REAR Scale - which measures REAR along four dimensions - as well as measures of body appreciation and body acceptance by others. Correlational analyses indicated significant inter-correlations between nearly all REAR domains and body image-related variables in men, whereas relationships in women were largely non-significant. Linear model analyses indicated that greater leadership for resistance against racism was significantly associated with higher body appreciation in women and men. Greater interpersonal confrontation of racism was significantly associated with both body appreciation and body acceptance by others in men, but not in women. These results suggest that REAR may play a role in shaping body image-related outcomes in people of colour, but that these effects are also be shaped by the intersection of gender and race.
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups
  8. Hanafi S, Hassan R, Bahar R, Abdullah WZ, Johan MF, Rashid ND, et al.
    Am J Blood Res, 2014;4(1):33-40.
    PMID: 25232503
    The aim of this study was to adapt MARMS with some modifications to detect beta mutation in our cohort of thalassemia patients. We focused only on transfusion-dependent thalassemia Malay patients, the predominant ethnic group (95%) in the Kelantanese population. Eight mutations were identified in 46 out of 48 (95.83%) beta thalassemia alleles. Most of the patients (54.2%) were compound heterozygous with co-inheritance Cd 26 (G>A). The frequencies of spectrum beta chain mutation among these patients are presented in Table 2. Among the transfusion dependent beta thalassemia Malay patients studied, 26 patients were found to be compound heterozygous and the main alleles were Cd 26 (G>A). Compound heterozygous mutation of Cd 26 (G>A) and IVS 1-5 (G>C) were 12 (46.2%), Cd 26 (G>A) and Cd 41/42 (TTCT) were 9 (34.6%), Cd 26 (G>A) and IVS 1-1 (G>C) were 2 (7.7%) respectively. Meanwhile the minority were made of a single compound heterozygous of Cd 26 (G>A) and Cd 71/72, Cd 26 (>A) and Cd 17 (A>T), Cd 26 (G>A) and -28 (G>A) respectively. Twenty out of forty six patients were shown to have homozygous of IVS 1-5 (G>C) were 2 (10.0%), Cd 26 (G>A) were 15 (75.0%), Cd 19 (A>G) were 1 (5.0%), and IVS 1-1 (G>T) were 2 (10.0%). The beta chain mutations among the Kelantanese Malays followed closely the distribution of beta chain mutations among the Thais and the Malays of the Southern Thailand. The G-C transition at position 5 of the IVS 1-5 mutation was predominant among the Malay patients. In conclusion, this method has successfully identified the mutation spectrum in our cohort of transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia patients, and this method is equally effective in screening for mutation among thalassemia patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups
  9. Mohtar, A., Neefa Bibi, B., Badri, Y.
    Introduction : Mersing, a district in north-east Johore was also affected by the recent worst flood in 100 years that striked Johore. Orang Asli settlements were among the worst affected by the flood in Mersing due to their location along the river. For Kg. Peta, not only flooded, the communications as well as the access roads were also tarnished. This settlement situated very deep interior about 100 km from Mersing town and next to Endau- Rompin National Park. Besides the distance, the geography and the communication issues make the flood operation even more difficult. Even then, the welfare of this minority group was never been neglected. Our Medical and Health Teams made a move in but unfortunately were also been trapped in between the flood waves.
    Methodology : It was a qualitative finding. The data for this report were collected from various means. Some data were collected through informal interview among the staffs that being trapped, head villager and the dwellers, local head departments of government and non-government organizations. Others were from the relevant photographs, formal flood returns as well as through the observation.
    Finding : The existence of very good involvement, cooperation and coordination from various agencies was the main factor that ensures all the villagers of Kg. Peta received our services despite of many difficulties or challenges. During this disaster, no outbreak of infectious disease or death from the settlement was reported. The welfare and the needs of all who affected and those involved in the flood operation were taken care off. Therefore, we believed that without good support and cooperation from others, we will not be able to deliver our services and their welfare especially when health was concerned will be deprived. The objectives of this write up were to share our experience in managing flood in very remote area and to show the importance of good integration between agencies in disaster management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups
  10. Huh, B.P., Zafarina, Z., Zilfalil, B.A.
    The multi-racial, multi-lingual, multi-religious, and multi-cultural Malaysia is situated at the crossroads of Southeast Asia. It has a total population of about 23 million, comprising of more than fifty ethnic groups: Malays, Chinese, Indian, and the minorities of Orang Asli in Peninsular; Iban, Bidayuh, Melanau, Kenyah Kayan, Ukit, Penan, Sekapan, Lahanan, Lun Bawang, Kelabit, Berawan, Punan Bah etc. in Sarawak; and Kadazan, Bajau, Murut, Paitan, Suluk Bonggi, Illanun, Bengkahak Tidung etc. in Sabah. The origin of the multi-ethnic character of this country traces back to decades of human migration from various regions of Southeast Asia. With her rich human biodiversity, a study of the human population genetics is imperative, either for forensic database purposes, or as the stepping stone for medical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups
  11. Selvanathan HP, Lickel B, Jetten J
    Br J Soc Psychol, 2021 Apr;60(2):587-609.
    PMID: 32949026 DOI: 10.1111/bjso.12418
    Social movements pushing for social change are often met with reactionary counter-movements that defend the status quo. The present research examined this interplay by focusing on the role of racial majority group members claiming collective psychological ownership. We examined collective ownership that stems from being native to the land and from being founders of the nation. Study 1 found that in Malaysia, the Malay majority group endorsed more native ownership than Chinese and Indian minorities, which in turn predicted greater threat in response to protests demanding electoral reforms and subsequently greater support for a reactionary pro-government movement. Situated in the United States, Study 2 found that the more that White Americans endorsed founder ownership beliefs, the more they reported negative attitudes towards the Black Lives Matter protests, which in turn predicted more support for White nationalistic counter-protests. This effect was stronger among White people compared to people of colour. Study 3 examined both founder and native ownership in Australia. Founder (but not native) ownership beliefs predicted more negative attitudes towards Invasion Day protests, which subsequently predicted more support for counter-protests defending Australia Day celebrations. Implications of culture-specific beliefs about collective ownership for social movement research are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups
  12. Cheah YK, Kee CC, Lim KH, Omar MA
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2021 11;62(6):628-637.
    PMID: 34353744 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2021.05.025
    BACKGROUND: Mental health disorders are highly correlated with risk behaviors. The objective of the present study is to examine the relationship between risk behaviors and mental health among school-going students with a focus on ethnic minorities.

    METHODS: The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2017 (n = 8230) was used for analyses. It was a nationwide survey conducted in Malaysia. The dependent variables were measured by three risk behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and use of illicit drugs). Probit regressions were utilized to examine the effect of mental health on the probability of smoking, drinking and using illicit drugs. Demographic and lifestyle factors were used as the control variables. Truancy was identified as a mediating variable.

    RESULTS: Anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation affected cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and use of illicit drugs through mediation of truancy. After controlling for demographic and lifestyle factors, students with anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation were more likely to smoke, drink and use illicit drugs compared with their peers without any mental health disorders. Furthermore, the likelihood of consuming cigarettes, alcohol and illicit drugs was found to be higher among students who played truant than those who did not.

    CONCLUSION: Mental health plays an important role in determining participation in risk behaviors among ethnic minority students in Malaysia. Public health administrators and schools have to be aware that students who suffer from mental health disorders are likely to indulge in risk behaviors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups
  13. Vo T, Canty L
    J Adv Nurs, 2023 Jan;79(1):68-82.
    PMID: 36226874 DOI: 10.1111/jan.15461
    AIM: The aim of this research is to synthesize findings from primary studies (quantitative and qualitative) that investigated the global mental health experiences of single mothers to provide a deeper understanding to better care and respond to the support needs of single mothers.

    DESIGN: Hayvaert et al.'s mixed methods research synthesis approach.

    DATA SOURCES: The search process in the following databases, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus resulted in eight high-quality studies (5 qualitative and 3 quantitative) published between June 2016 and July 2021.

    REVIEW METHODS: Descriptive statistics and instrument scores were provided in summary form. Themes were analysed using Krippendorff's content analysis. A joint display was provided to reveal a complementary relationship between two different data sets.

    RESULTS: A total of 348 single mothers participated. Amongst the pooled sample, women identified as: Japanese (n = 174), Israeli (n = 147), Black African (n = 18), African American (n = 9), Native American (n = 5), Burundian-Australian (n = 8), UK British (n = 12), Asian (n = 3), South Korean (n = 7), Indian (n = 2), Malaysian (n = 44), Hispanic/Latina (n = 1) and Eastern European (n = 3). Four themes were identified: (1) Learning to let go of the past, (2) It takes a whole village: Importance of social support, (3) Seeking a self-reliant life: Challenges with balancing career & childcare and (4) Finding strength within: Personal growth. Only one intervention utilizing creative group counselling was found to significantly decrease depression (p = .008), anxiety (p = .005), and stress (p = .012) whilst increasing self-compassion (p = .013).

    CONCLUSION: It is important for clinicians who care for single mothers, particularly if they recently immigrated, are multiparous, and an ethnic minority to encourage engagement in peer-initiated counselling and obtain mental health care as necessary.

    IMPACT: This study identified and addressed the mental health issues that single mothers face worldwide. This is also the first mixed methods research synthesis to report single mothers' ethnicity in nursing and midwifery literature. Thus, findings from this mixed methods research synthesis can help nurses worldwide build culturally-concordant programs in their respective community organizations and partners (e.g. community health centres, mother-child enrichment clubs), inform health policies, and promote safer spaces for many single mothers, particularly for those who will immigrate to the Global North (i.e. UK, US, Canada) and become an ethnic minority.

    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups
  14. Phang IY
    Nature, 2005 Sep 15;437(7057):318.
    PMID: 16163325
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups*
  15. Wu C, Jia S
    Chin J Popul Sci, 1992;4(2):95-103.
    PMID: 12317926
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups*
  16. Barbie J
    Chin J Popul Sci, 1992;4(2):139-48.
    PMID: 12317919
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups*
  17. Choudhry FR, Park MS, Golden K, Bokharey IZ
    Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being, 2017 Dec;12(1):1267344.
    PMID: 28452608 DOI: 10.1080/17482631.2016.1267344
    The Kalasha are a marginalized ethnic and religious minority group in northern Pakistan. The Kalasha minority is known for their divergent polytheistic beliefs, and represents the outliers of the collectively monotheistic Muslim population of Pakistan. This study aimed to explore the psychological resilience beliefs and lived experiences of the Kalasha and to identify cultural protective factors and indigenous beliefs that help them maintain psychological wellbeing and resilience. Seven semi-structured interviews and two focus-group discussions were conducted. The total sample consisted of 6 women and 8 men, aged 20-58 years (Mage = 36.29, SD = 12.58). The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis qualitative method was chosen. Study findings identified that factors contributing to the wellbeing, happiness and resilience enhancement beliefs of Kalasha included five main themes, all influenced by their unique spirituality: contentment, pride in social identity, tolerance, gender collaboration and gratitude. The study also revealed the Kalasha's perception of their marginalization related to challenges and threats. The Kalasha emphasized bringing these resilience enhancement beliefs into practice, as a mean to buffer against challenges. In conclusion, this study revealed Kalasha's wellbeing and resilience enhancement factors, which they believed in and practiced as an element of their indigenous culture and religion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups*
  18. Makmor T., Khaled, T., Ahmad Farid O., Nurul Huda M.S.
    JUMMEC, 2018;21(1):28-33.
    Introduction: Providing adequate and equal access to healthcare is a key goal towards achieving universal health coverage. However, social and demographic inequalities in accessing health care services exist in both developed and developing countries. This study examined the demographic and socio-economic factors associated with the lack of access to public clinics in the Greater Kuala Lumpur area.
    Materials and Methods: The study employed a survey involving 1032 participants. Data were collected using self- administered questionnaires distributed between October and December 2015 in the Greater Kuala Lumpur area.
    Results: Of the 1032 participants, 535 were public clinic users. A quarter (25.8%) of the users stated that they did not have access to public clinics in their residential area. A multiple logistic analysis showed that the elderly, the women, those from ethnic minority groups, those of lower family income, and the private sector workers were more likely not to have access to public clinics than their counterparts.
    Conclusions: The existing level of accessibility to public clinics could be improved by increasing the number of clinics. Clinics should be established to focus more on reaching the elderly, the women, the ethnic minority groups, the poorer families, and the private sector employees.
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups
  19. Nor Firdous Mohamed, Nor Azwany Yaacob, Aizai Azan Abdul Rahim, Oteh Maskon, Mohamed Hatta Shaharom, Othman Lebar
    Introduction: Heart failure (HF) prevalence is increasing in Malaysia and brings about significant poor outcomes especially on the patients’ wellbeing. Despite the devastating physical symptoms of HF experienced by patients, other social consequences on patients are often not discussed by their health care professionals. Hence, this qual- itative study aims to explore and understand the quality of life (QOL) for patients in Malaysia of various ethnicity who have been diagnosed with heart failure. Methods: Nineteen (n = 19) patients with recurrent HF were recruited via purposive sampling. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted after patients’ informed consent was obtained. The aforementioned sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Finally, the transcribed data was analysed through Braun and Clarke’s framework for thematic analysis. Results: The findings revealed that Malaysians with HF reported either positive or negative experiences related with QOL which had an effect on their well-being. Four main themes emerged included physical, psychological, social, and spirituality. Interestingly, cul- tural and beliefs consideration were important to understand these QOL themes of HF patients as a whole, especially in Malaysia’s multi-ethnic communities. Conclusion: Informants were able to give vivid descriptions of living with HF experiences and the way it affected their QOL due to the disruptive and uncertain nature of HF in four major themes. However, the individual themes of QOL in HF patients need to be comprehended in detail including the local cultural perspectives, particularly by health professionals who deal with HF patients of minority ethnicities, in order to improve treatment and health outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Minority Groups
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