The bacterium strain SE31, a member of the genus Sciscionella, was isolated from intertidal sediments collected from Cape Rachado, Malaysia. The high quality draft genome sequence of Sciscionella strain SE31 with a genome size of approximately 7.4 Mbp is reported. Preliminary analysis revealed 46 putative gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and 113 putative genes that are associated with bacterial virulence, disease and defense. Availability of the genome sequence of Sciscionella SE31 will contribute to a better understanding of the genus Sciscionella.
The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) is one of the three subspecies of gaurs that can be found in Malaysia. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of this subspecies with other species of the genus Bos (B. javanicus, B. indicus, B. taurus, and B. grunniens). The sequence of a key gene, cytochrome b, was compared among 20 Bos species and the bongo antelope, used as an outgroup. Phylogenetic reconstruction was employed using neighbor joining and maximum parsimony in PAUP and Bayesian inference in MrBayes 3.1. All tree topologies indicated that the Malayan gaur is in its own monophyletic clade, distinct from other species of the genus Bos. We also found significant branching differences in the tree topologies between wild and domestic cattle.
Anew hydrophilid genus Chimaerocyon gen. nov. containing two species, C. shimadai sp. nov. (Malaysia: Pahang) and C. sumatranus sp. nov. (Indonesia: Sumatra), is described. Specimens of C. shimadai were collected from brood cells in anest of Pheidole singaporensis Özdikmen, 2010. The biology of C. sumatranus remains unknown. A molecular phylogeny based on four genes (cox1, cox2, 18S and 28S) supports the placement of the genus as deeply nested within the Cercyon-group of the tribe Megasternini. This position is supported by the subdistal position of the median spur in the hind wing (unique to Megasternini) and the presence of sucking disc on male maxilla (unique for Megastemini+Sphaeridiini). The remaining external morphology differs substantially from other representatives of Megasternini. The hypothesis that the aberrant morphology of Chimaerocyon gen. nov. is a consequence of myrmecophily is discussed.
Since the inception of deep sequencing, isomiRs are consistently observed to be produced by most miRNA genes in a variety of cell types. IsomiRs appear as a variation in length from the canonical sequence annotated in miRBase, due to an addition or deletion of one or more nucleotides at the 5(') or 3(') ends or both. As the seed sequence is located at the 5(') end of the microRNA, the target mRNA will be theoretically different. Therefore, 5(')isomiRs might potentially target a new set mRNA compared to their canonical counterpart. This article gives an overview of investigations that explored the functional potential of isomiRs such as their ability to incorporate into Argonaute protein, the differential expression of isomiRs in various tissue types and cell lines, and the differences of mRNA targets between isomiR and its canonical microRNA. In addition, this article provides a brief introduction of RNA sponges as a potential way to inhibit isomiRs.
A study of about 500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), derived from a merozoite cDNA library, was initiated as an approach to generate a larger pool of gene information on Eimeria tenella. Of the ESTs, 47.7% had matches with entries in the databases, including ribosomal proteins, metabolic enzymes and proteins with other functions, of which 14.3% represented previously known E. tenella genes. Thus over 50% of the ESTs had no significant database matches. The E. tenella EST dataset contained a range of highly abundant genes comparable with that found in the EST dataset of T. gondii and may thus reflect the importance of such molecules in the biology of the apicomplexan organisms. However, comparison of the two datasets revealed very few homologies between sequences of apical organelle molecules, and provides evidence for sequence divergence between these closely-related parasites. The data presented underpin the potential value of the EST strategy for the discovery of novel genes and may allow for a more rapid increase in the knowledge and understanding of gene expression in the merozoite life cycle stage of Eimeria spp.
Cupriavidus sp. strain BIS7 is a Malaysian tropical soil bacterium that exhibits broad heavy-metal resistance [Co(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Se(IV), Cu(II), chromate, Co(III), Fe(II), and Fe(III)]. It is particularly resistant to Fe(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II). Here we present the assembly and annotation of its genome.
Burkholderia sp. strain GG4, isolated from the ginger rhizosphere, possesses a unique N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-modifying activity that reduces 3-oxo-AHLs to 3-hydroxy-AHLs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first sequenced genome from a bacterium of the genus Burkholderia that shows both quorum-sensing and signaling confusion activities.
As a health-beneficial fruit, litchi is widely accepted by people in subtropical and tropical regions. However, the critical chemicals responsible for the health benefits are not clear yet. As a large amount of polysaccharides are present in litchi, they might play an important role in the health benefits. In this work, the main water-soluble polysaccharide (LPPBa) was purified from litchi pulp. The chemical structure was characterized as arabinogalactan by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). NMR data revealed the glycosidic linkages and their locations in backbone and branches. The precise structure was putatively identified as below, and it was different to those commonly occurred arabinogalactans. The molecular weight was determined to be 2.4 × 10(6)Da by gel permeation chromatography.
The complete mitogenome of the ray Pastinachus atrus was recovered from a partial genome scan using the HiSeq sequencing system. The P. atrus mitogenome has 18,162 base pairs (61% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 2516 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This mitogenome sequence is the first for a ray from Australian waters, the first for the Genus Pastinachus, and the 6th for the family Dasyatidae.
The complete mitochondrial genome of the moon crab Ashtoret lunaris was obtained from a partial genome scan using the MiSeq sequencing system. The Ashtoret lunaris mitogenome is 15,807 base pairs in length (70% A + T content) and made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a putative 956 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This A. lunaris mitogenome sequence is the first for the genus, as well as the family Matutidae and superfamily Calappoidea.
Kraits (Bungarus spp.) are highly venomous elapids that are only found in Asia. In the current study, 103 and 86 different proteins were identified from Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus venoms, respectively. These proteins were classified into 18 different venom protein families. Both venoms were found to contain a high percentage of three finger toxins, phospholipase A2 enzymes and Kunitz-type inhibitors. Smaller number of high molecular weight enzymes such as L-amino acid oxidase, hyaluronidases, and acetylcholinesterase were also detected in the venoms. We also detected some unique proteins that were not known to be present in these venoms. The presence of a natriuretic peptide, vespryn, and serine protease families was detected in B. candidus venom. We also detected the presence of subunit A and B of β-bungarotoxin and α-bungarotoxin which had not been previously found in B. fasciatus venom. Understanding the proteome composition of Malaysian krait species will provide useful information on unique toxins and proteins which are present in the venoms. This knowledge will assist in the management of krait envenoming. In addition, these proteins may have potential use as research tools or as drug-design templates.
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins are key signalling molecules in metazoans, implicated in various cellular processes. Increased research in the field has resulted in the accumulation of STAT sequence and structure data, which are scattered across various public databases, missing extensive functional annotations, and prone to effort redundancy because of the dearth of community sharing. Therefore, there is a need to integrate the existing sequence, structure and functional data into a central repository, one that is enriched with annotations and provides a platform for community contributions. Herein, we present STATdb (publicly available at http://statdb.bic.nus.edu.sg/), the first integrated resource for STAT sequences comprising 1540 records representing the known STATome, enriched with existing structural and functional information from various databases and literature and including manual annotations. STATdb provides advanced features for data visualization, analysis and prediction, and community contributions. A key feature is a meta-predictor to characterise STAT sequences based on a novel classification that integrates STAT domain architecture, lineage and function. A curation policy workflow has been devised for regulated and structured community contributions, with an update policy for the seamless integration of new data and annotations.
A newly discovered, diminutive, cave-dwelling, lowland species of the colubrid snake genus Lycodon Boie is described from a limestone cave along the Thai-Malaysian border in the state of Perlis, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. Lycodon cavernicolus sp. nov. is most closely related to L. butleri Boulenger, an endemic, upland, forest-dwelling species from Peninsular Malaysia of the fasciatus group but is separated from L. butleri and all other species of the L. fasciatus group and the closely related L. ruhstrati group by having the combination of 245 (male) and 232 (female) ventral scales; 113 (male) and 92 (female) paired, subcaudal scales; a single precloacal plate; nine or 10 supralabials; 10 or 11 infralabials; a maximum total length of 508 mm (female); a relative tail length of 0.25-0.27; an immaculate venter in juveniles and dark-brown, posterior, ventral scale margins in adults; and dorsal and caudal bands in juveniles white. The discovery of L. cavernicolus sp. nov. adds to a rapidly growing list of newly discovered reptiles from karst regions and limestone forests of Peninsular Malaysia, underscoring the fact that these areas should be studied before they are quarried as they harbor a significant portion of the Peninsular Malaysia's herpetological diversity.
A new species of Ansonia is described based on genetic and morphological differentiation. Ansonia lumut sp. nov. is most closely related to three other Peninsular Malaysian species, A. penangensis, A. malayana, and A. jeetsukumarani but differs from these and other congeners by at least 6.9% sequence divergence at the 12S, 16S rRNA and t-RNA-val genes and the following combination of morphological characters: (1) SVL 21.0-23.6 mm in males, 27.7-31.6 mm in females; (2) first finger shorter than second; (3) interorbital and tarsal ridges absent; (4) light interscapular spot absent; (5) presence of large, yellow rictal tubercle; (6) dorsum black with greenish-yellow reticulations; (7) flanks with small yellow spots; (8) fore and hind limbs with yellow cross-bars; and (9) venter light gray with fine, white spotting.
Rigidoporus microporus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) syn. Rigidoporus lignosus is the most destructive root pathogen of rubber plantations distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Our primary objective was to characterize Nigerian isolates from rubber tree and compare them with other West African, Southeast Asian and American isolates. To characterize the 20 isolates from Nigeria, we used sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and LSU, β-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) gene sequences. Altogether, 40 isolates of R. microporus were included in the analyses. Isolates from Africa, Asia and South/Central America formed three distinctive clades corresponding to at least three species. No phylogeographic pattern was detected among R. microporus collected from West and Central African rubber plantations suggesting continuous gene flow among these populations. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of two distinctive species associated with the white rot disease. Phylogenetic analyses placed R. microporus in the Hymenochaetales in the vicinity of Oxyporus. This is the first study to characterize R. microporus isolates from Nigeria through molecular phylogenetic techniques, and also the first to compare isolates from rubber plantations in Africa and Asia.
Vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases belong to a class of vanadium enzymes that may have potential industrial and pharmaceutical applications due to their high stability. In this study, the 5'-flanking genomic sequence and complete reading frame encoding vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase (GcVBPO1) was cloned from the red seaweed, Fracilaria changii, and the recombinant protein was biochemically characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of GcVBPO1 is 1818 nucleotides in length, sharing 49% identity with the vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases from Corralina officinalis and Cor. pilulifera, respectively. The amino acid residues associated with the binding site of vanadate cofactor were found to be conserved. The Km value of recombinant GcVBPO1 for Br(-) was 4.69 mM, while its Vmax was 10.61 μkat mg(-1) at pH 7. Substitution of Arg(379) with His(379) in the recombinant protein caused a lower affinity for Br(-), while substitution of Arg(379) with Phe(379) not only increased its affinity for Br(-) but also enabled the mutant enzyme to oxidize Cl(-). The mutant Arg(379)Phe was also found to have a lower affinity for I(-), as compared to the wild-type GcVBPO1 and mutant Arg(379)His. In addition, the Arg(379)Phe mutant has a slightly higher affinity for H2O2 compared to the wild-type GcVBPO1. Multiple cis-acting regulatory elements associated with light response, hormone signaling, and meristem expression were detected at the 5'-flanking genomic sequence of GcVBPO1. The transcript abundance of GcVBPO1 was relatively higher in seaweed samples treated with 50 parts per thousand (ppt) artificial seawater (ASW) compared to those treated in 10 and 30 ppt ASW, in support of its role in the abiotic stress response of seaweed.
A draft genome sequence of Pichia kudriavzevii M12 is presented here. The genome reveals the presence of genes encoding enzymes involved in xylose utilization and the pentose phosphate pathway for bioethanol production. Strain M12 is also a potential producer of phytases, enzymes useful in food processing and agriculture.
Malaysian arowana (dragonfish; Scleropages formosus) is an ancient osteoglossid fish from southeast Asia. Due to the high demand of the ornamental fish trade and because of habitat loss, the species is close to extinction. We isolated and characterized 10 polymorphic microsatellites of this species, using 5'-anchored PCR. The number of alleles at the 10 microsatellite loci ranged from 2 to 28, with a mean of 7.8/locus. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.03 to 0.93 (mean: 0.39), whereas the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.03 to 0.94 (mean: 0.46). Seven microsatellites deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and three conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were in linkage equilibrium. These 10 novel microsatellites should facilitate studies of genetic diversity and population structure of arowana to help plan actions for the conservation of the indigenous Malaysian arowana.