Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Chen J, Ahmad R, Li W, Swain M, Li Q
    J R Soc Interface, 2015 Aug 06;12(109):20150325.
    PMID: 26224566 DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2015.0325
    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure-pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mouth Mucosa/metabolism*
  2. Abduljabbar T, Vohra F, Akram Z, Ghani SMA, Al-Hamoudi N, Javed F
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2017 Aug;173:353-359.
    PMID: 28641206 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2017.06.016
    BACKGROUND: Oral pigmentation, especially in the gingiva poses esthetic problems. Laser therapy has been widely used for cosmetic therapy in dentistry. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the efficacy of surgical laser therapy (SLT) in the management of oral pigmented lesions (OPL).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The addressed focused question was "Is SLT effective in the management of OPL?" Databases (MEDLINE via PubMed; EMBASE; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases) were searched from 1970 up to and including February 2017.

    RESULTS: Ten studies were included. The reported number of OPL ranged between 8 and 140. Oral pigmented sites included, gingiva, buccal and labial mucosa, alveolar mucosa and lips. Lasers used in the studies included Q-switched alexandrite, Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet, diode, Erbium: yttrium aluminium garnet and carbon dioxide laser. Laser wavelength, power output and number of irradiations were 635-10,600nm, 1-10W and 1 to 9 times, respectively. The follow up period ranged from 6 to 24months. All studies reported SLT to be effective in the treatment of OPL. In five studies, recurrence of OPL occurred which ranged from 21.4% to 45%.

    CONCLUSIONS: Lasers are effective in the management of OPL including physiologic gingival pigmentation, smokers' melanosis and pigmentation in Laugier-Hunziker syndrome. Different laser types (CO2, Er:YAG and Diode) showed comparable outcomes in the treatment of OPL.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mouth Mucosa/metabolism
  3. Chandirasekar R, Kumar BL, Sasikala K, Jayakumar R, Suresh K, Venkatesan R, et al.
    PMID: 24769293 DOI: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2014.04.007
    Inexpensive forms of tobacco are widely used in developing countries such as India. We have evaluated genotoxicity endpoints (chromosome aberrations, micronucleus frequency, comet assay) and polymorphisms of the XRCC1 and p53 genes among smokers and smokeless tobacco (SLT) users in rural Tamilnadu, South India. Cytogenetic, DNA damage and SNP analyses were performed on peripheral blood samples; micronucleus frequency was measured in peripheral blood and buccal mucosa exfoliated cells. Both categories of tobacco users had elevated levels of genotoxic damage. SNP analysis of tobacco users revealed that 17% carry the XRCC1 gln399gln genotype and 19% carry the p53 pro72pro genotype. Both genotypes are associated with increased risk of cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mouth Mucosa/metabolism
  4. Khor GH, Froemming GR, Zain RB, Abraham MT, Thong KL
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(20):8957-61.
    PMID: 25374236
    BACKGROUND: Promoter hypermethylation leads to altered gene functions and may result in malignant cellular transformation. Thus, identification of biomarkers for hypermethylated genes could be useful for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

    OBJECTIVES: To screen hypermethylated genes with a microarray approach and to validate selected hypermethylated genes with the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSPCR).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genome-wide analysis of normal oral mucosa and OSCC tissues was conducted using the Illumina methylation microarray. The specified differential genes were selected and hypermethylation status was further verified with an independent cohort sample of OSCC samples. Candidate genes were screened using microarray assay and run by MSPCR analysis.

    RESULTS: TP73, PIK3R5, and CELSR3 demonstrated high percentages of differential hypermethylation status.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our microarray screening and MSPCR approaches revealed that the signature candidates of differentially hypermethylated genes may possibly become potential biomarkers which would be useful for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets of OSCC in the near future.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mouth Mucosa/metabolism
  5. Barakat SM, Siar CH
    J Appl Oral Sci, 2015 Jan-Feb;23(1):79-86.
    PMID: 25760270 DOI: 10.1590/1678-775720140245
    The identification of stem cells (SC) remains challenging. In the human oral mucosal epithelium, these cells are believed to be in the basal layer (stem cell niche), but their exact location is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the dysplastic oral epithelium for these SC-like proteins in order to assess their diagnostic value as biomarkers complementing the histological grading of dysplasia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mouth Mucosa/metabolism
  6. Heah KG, Hassan MI, Huat SC
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(4):1017-22.
    PMID: 21790244
    INTRODUCTION: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has high local recurrence, partly caused by the lack of clear margin identification on surgical removal of cancerous tissues. Direct visualization by immunostaining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in tissue sections gives more definite information about genetic damage at margins with appropriately selected biomarkers.

    AIMS: To determine the usefulness of immunohistochemical techniques and FISH of the tumour suppressor TP 53 gene to identify microinvasion in marginal tissue sections and to relate the possible correlation between protein expression and genetic aberrations in OSCC cases in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and FISH of TP 53 genes were applied on 26 OSCC formalin fixed paraffin embed (FFEP) blocks selected from two oral cancer referral centers in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: For p53 protein immunohistochemistry, 96% of the 26 OSCC studied showed positive immunostaining at the excision margins. In FISH assay, 48.9±9.7% of the cancerous cells were monoploid for p53 probe signals, 41.0±9.5 % were diploid, and 10.2±7.8 % were polyploid. A correlation between p53 immunostaining and TP53 gene aberrations was noted (p< 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein expression and FISH of TP53 gene could be applied as screening tool for microinvasion of OSCC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mouth Mucosa/metabolism
  7. Siriwardena BSMS, Karunathilaka HDNU, Kumarasiri PVR, Tilakaratne WM
    Biomed Res Int, 2020;2020:2059240.
    PMID: 33123565 DOI: 10.1155/2020/2059240
    Background: Nodal metastasis is a critical factor in predicting the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). When patients present with a clinically positive neck, the treatment of choice is radical neck dissection. However, management of a clinically negative neck is still a subject of significant controversy.

    Aim: This study was carried out in order to propose a model to predict regional lymph node metastasis of OSCC using histological parameters such as tumour stage, tumour size, pattern of invasion (POI), differentiation of tumour, and host immune response, together with the expression levels of six biomarkers (periostin, HIF-1α, MMP-9, β-catenin, VEGF-C, and EGFR), and, furthermore, to compare the impact of all these parameters on recurrence and 3 yr and 5 yr survival rates. Materials and Method. Histological materials collected from the archives were used to evaluate histological parameters and immunohistochemical profiles. Standard methods were used for immunohistochemistry and for evaluation of results. Data related to recurrence and survival (3 and 5 years) was also recorded. Clinical data was collected from patients' records.

    Results: Male to female ratio was 3 : 1. The commonest site of OSCC was the buccal mucosa, and majority of them were T3 or T4 tumours presented at stage 4. 62.5% of the tumours were well differentiated. Three-year and 5-year survival rates were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and recurrence. POI was significantly correlated with tumour size, stage, 3-year survival, EGFR, HIF-1α, periostin, and MMP-9 (p < 0.05). Expression of EGFR showed a direct association with metastasis (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion: POI, level of differentiation, and expression of EGFR are independent prognostic markers for lymph node metastasis. Therefore, these parameters may help in treatment planning of a clinically negative neck.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mouth Mucosa/metabolism
  8. Wong CF, Yuen KH, Peh KK
    Int J Pharm, 1999 Feb 01;178(1):11-22.
    PMID: 10205621
    Controlled release buccal patches were fabricated using Eudragit NE40D and studied. Various bioadhesive polymers, namely hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and Carbopol of different grades, were incorporated into the patches, to modify their bioadhesive properties as well as the rate of drug release, using metoprolol tartrate as the model drug. The in-vitro drug release was determined using the USP 23 dissolution test apparatus 5 with slight modification, while the bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer equipment with chicken pouch as the model tissue. The incorporation of hydrophilic polymers was found to affect the drug release as well as enhance the bioadhesiveness. Although high viscosity polymers can enhance the bioadhesiveness of the patches, they also tend to cause non-homogeneous distribution of the polymers and drug, resulting in non-predictable drug-release rates. Of the various bioadhesive polymers studied, Cekol 700 appeared to be most satisfactory in terms of modifying the drug release and enhancement of the bioadhesive properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mouth Mucosa/metabolism*
  9. Ernst B, Setayesh T, Nersesyan A, Kundi M, Fenech M, Bolognesi C, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 11 26;11(1):23014.
    PMID: 34836993 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-01995-9
    Consumption of very hot beverages and foods increases the incidence of oral and esophageal cancer but the mechanisms are not known and the critical temperature is not well defined. We realized a study with exfoliated cells from the oral cavity of individuals (n = 73) that live in an area in Iran which has the highest incidence of EC worldwide. Consumption of beverages at very high temperatures is a characteristic feature of this population. We analyzed biomarkers which are (i) indicative for genetic instability (micronuclei that are formed as a consequence of chromosomal damage, nuclear buds which are a consequence of gene amplifications and binucleated cells which reflect mitotic disturbances), (ii) markers that reflect cytotoxic effects (condensed chromatin, karyorrhectic, karyolitic and pyknotic cells), (iii) furthermore, we determined the number of basal cells which is indicative for the regenerative capacity of the buccal mucosa. The impact of the drinking temperature on the frequencies of these parameters was monitored with thermometers. We found no evidence for induction of genetic damage but an increase of the cytotoxic effects with the temperature was evident. This effect was paralleled by an increase of the cell division rate of the mucosa which was observed when the temperature exceeded 60 °C. Our findings indicate that cancer in the upper digestive tract in drinkers of very hot beverages is not caused by damage of the genetic material but by an increase of the cell division rate as a consequence of cytotoxic effects which take place at temperatures over 60 °C. It is known from earlier experiments with rodents that increased cell divisions lead to tumor promotion in the esophagus. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation and indicate that increased cancer risks can be expected when the drinking temperature of beverages exceeds 60 °C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mouth Mucosa/metabolism
  10. Siar CH, Oo VP, Nagatsuka H, Nakano K, Ng KH, Kawakami T
    Eur J Med Res, 2009 Jul 22;14(7):315-9.
    PMID: 19661015
    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Dysplasia, the morphological yardstick of epithelial precursor lesions, is the collective term for a variety of architectural and cytological changes within the altered oral epithelium. Angiogenic squamous dysplasia (ASD), a distinct morphological characteristic in pre-invasive bronchial lesions, describes the presence of capillary tufts that are closely juxtaposed to and projecting into the dysplastic bronchial epithelium.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ASD-like phenomenon occurs in oral epithelial precursor lesions, and to speculate on its relevance.

    METHODS: Twenty cases each of mild, moderate and severe oral dysplasia (inclusive of carcinoma-in-situ), and 10 normal oral mucosa (normal controls) were serial sectioned for H and E staining, and for microvessel density (MVD) scoring with CD31, CD34 and CD105. Microcapillary pattern images were digitally captured for 3-D reconstruction.

    RESULTS: Oral ASD foci consisting of CD31- and CD34-positive capillary loops abutting onto the overlying dysplastic oral epithelium (and causing it to assume an irregular or papillary surface configuration) were identified in moderate (3/20; 15%) and severe dysplasia (13/20; 65%), but not in normal oral mucosa and mild dysplasia. MVD score demonstrated increasing vascularity as epithelium progressed from normal to severe dysplasia (p<0.05). CD105 demonstrated increase neovascularization in all dysplasia grades (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings taken together suggest that: 1. ASD-like phenomenon may be an important intermediary biomarker in oral precursor lesions; and 2. architectural alterations of the entire disturbed mucosa may be a more useful pre-malignancy index.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mouth Mucosa/metabolism
  11. Sinon SH, Rich AM, Parachuru VP, Firth FA, Milne T, Seymour GJ
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2016 Jan;45(1):28-34.
    PMID: 25865410 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12319
    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and TLR-associated signalling pathway genes in oral lichen planus (OLP).
    Matched MeSH terms: Mouth Mucosa/metabolism
  12. Cirillo N, Hassona Y, Celentano A, Lim KP, Manchella S, Parkinson EK, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2017 01;38(1):76-85.
    PMID: 27803052 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgw113
    The interrelationship between malignant epithelium and the underlying stroma is of fundamental importance in tumour development and progression. In the present study, we used cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) derived from genetically unstable oral squamous cell carcinomas (GU-OSCC), tumours that are characterized by the loss of genes such as TP53 and p16INK4A and with extensive loss of heterozygosity, together with CAFs from their more genetically stable (GS) counterparts that have wild-type TP53 and p16INK4A and minimal loss of heterozygosity (GS-OSCC). Using a systems biology approach to interpret the genome-wide transcriptional profile of the CAFs, we show that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family members not only had biological relevance in silico but also distinguished GU-OSCC-derived CAFs from GS-OSCC CAFs and fibroblasts from normal oral mucosa. In view of the close association between TGF-β family members, we examined the expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in the different fibroblast subtypes and showed increased levels of active TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in CAFs from GU-OSCC. CAFs from GU-OSCC, but not GS-OSCC or normal fibroblasts, induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and down-regulated a broad spectrum of cell adhesion molecules resulting in epithelial dis-cohesion and invasion of target keratinocytes in vitro in a TGF-β-dependent manner. The results demonstrate that the TGF-β family of cytokines secreted by CAFs derived from genotype-specific oral cancer (GU-OSCC) promote, at least in part, the malignant phenotype by weakening intercellular epithelial adhesion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mouth Mucosa/metabolism
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