MATERIALS AND METHODS: The addressed focused question was "Is SLT effective in the management of OPL?" Databases (MEDLINE via PubMed; EMBASE; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases) were searched from 1970 up to and including February 2017.
RESULTS: Ten studies were included. The reported number of OPL ranged between 8 and 140. Oral pigmented sites included, gingiva, buccal and labial mucosa, alveolar mucosa and lips. Lasers used in the studies included Q-switched alexandrite, Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet, diode, Erbium: yttrium aluminium garnet and carbon dioxide laser. Laser wavelength, power output and number of irradiations were 635-10,600nm, 1-10W and 1 to 9 times, respectively. The follow up period ranged from 6 to 24months. All studies reported SLT to be effective in the treatment of OPL. In five studies, recurrence of OPL occurred which ranged from 21.4% to 45%.
CONCLUSIONS: Lasers are effective in the management of OPL including physiologic gingival pigmentation, smokers' melanosis and pigmentation in Laugier-Hunziker syndrome. Different laser types (CO2, Er:YAG and Diode) showed comparable outcomes in the treatment of OPL.
OBJECTIVES: To screen hypermethylated genes with a microarray approach and to validate selected hypermethylated genes with the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSPCR).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genome-wide analysis of normal oral mucosa and OSCC tissues was conducted using the Illumina methylation microarray. The specified differential genes were selected and hypermethylation status was further verified with an independent cohort sample of OSCC samples. Candidate genes were screened using microarray assay and run by MSPCR analysis.
RESULTS: TP73, PIK3R5, and CELSR3 demonstrated high percentages of differential hypermethylation status.
CONCLUSIONS: Our microarray screening and MSPCR approaches revealed that the signature candidates of differentially hypermethylated genes may possibly become potential biomarkers which would be useful for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets of OSCC in the near future.
AIMS: To determine the usefulness of immunohistochemical techniques and FISH of the tumour suppressor TP 53 gene to identify microinvasion in marginal tissue sections and to relate the possible correlation between protein expression and genetic aberrations in OSCC cases in Malaysia.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and FISH of TP 53 genes were applied on 26 OSCC formalin fixed paraffin embed (FFEP) blocks selected from two oral cancer referral centers in Malaysia.
RESULTS: For p53 protein immunohistochemistry, 96% of the 26 OSCC studied showed positive immunostaining at the excision margins. In FISH assay, 48.9±9.7% of the cancerous cells were monoploid for p53 probe signals, 41.0±9.5 % were diploid, and 10.2±7.8 % were polyploid. A correlation between p53 immunostaining and TP53 gene aberrations was noted (p< 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein expression and FISH of TP53 gene could be applied as screening tool for microinvasion of OSCC.
Aim: This study was carried out in order to propose a model to predict regional lymph node metastasis of OSCC using histological parameters such as tumour stage, tumour size, pattern of invasion (POI), differentiation of tumour, and host immune response, together with the expression levels of six biomarkers (periostin, HIF-1α, MMP-9, β-catenin, VEGF-C, and EGFR), and, furthermore, to compare the impact of all these parameters on recurrence and 3 yr and 5 yr survival rates. Materials and Method. Histological materials collected from the archives were used to evaluate histological parameters and immunohistochemical profiles. Standard methods were used for immunohistochemistry and for evaluation of results. Data related to recurrence and survival (3 and 5 years) was also recorded. Clinical data was collected from patients' records.
Results: Male to female ratio was 3 : 1. The commonest site of OSCC was the buccal mucosa, and majority of them were T3 or T4 tumours presented at stage 4. 62.5% of the tumours were well differentiated. Three-year and 5-year survival rates were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and recurrence. POI was significantly correlated with tumour size, stage, 3-year survival, EGFR, HIF-1α, periostin, and MMP-9 (p < 0.05). Expression of EGFR showed a direct association with metastasis (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: POI, level of differentiation, and expression of EGFR are independent prognostic markers for lymph node metastasis. Therefore, these parameters may help in treatment planning of a clinically negative neck.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ASD-like phenomenon occurs in oral epithelial precursor lesions, and to speculate on its relevance.
METHODS: Twenty cases each of mild, moderate and severe oral dysplasia (inclusive of carcinoma-in-situ), and 10 normal oral mucosa (normal controls) were serial sectioned for H and E staining, and for microvessel density (MVD) scoring with CD31, CD34 and CD105. Microcapillary pattern images were digitally captured for 3-D reconstruction.
RESULTS: Oral ASD foci consisting of CD31- and CD34-positive capillary loops abutting onto the overlying dysplastic oral epithelium (and causing it to assume an irregular or papillary surface configuration) were identified in moderate (3/20; 15%) and severe dysplasia (13/20; 65%), but not in normal oral mucosa and mild dysplasia. MVD score demonstrated increasing vascularity as epithelium progressed from normal to severe dysplasia (p<0.05). CD105 demonstrated increase neovascularization in all dysplasia grades (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings taken together suggest that: 1. ASD-like phenomenon may be an important intermediary biomarker in oral precursor lesions; and 2. architectural alterations of the entire disturbed mucosa may be a more useful pre-malignancy index.