Protein biologics are prone to conformational changes during formulation development. Limited methods are available for conformational analysis of proteins in solid state and in the presences of formulation excipients. The aim of this study was to investigate the secondary structures of proteins encased in solid lipid matrices as a novel indicator of their stability upon in vitro release. Model proteins namely catalase and lysozyme were incorporated into lipid namely Precirol® AT05 (glycerol palmitostearate, melting point 58°C) at 30% w/w loading using melting and mixing and wet granulation methods. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and biological activity analyses were performed. The information about secondary structure was acquired using second derivative analysis of amide-I band (1600-1700 cm-1). ATR analysis demonstrated interference of lipid spectrum with protein amide-I band which was subsequently subtracted to allow the analysis of the secondary structure. ATR spectra amide-I bands showed shifts peak band positions compared to native protein for matrices prepared using wet granulation. SEC analysis gave evidence of protein aggregation for catalase which was increased using wet granulation. The biological activity of catalase was statistically different from that of control and was affected by the incorporation method and was found to be in alignment with ATR spectral changes and extent of aggregation. In conclusion, ATR spectroscopy could analyze protein secondary structure in lipid matrices provided lipid interference was minimized. The ATR spectral changes and formation of aggregates can indicate the loss in biological activity of protein released from solid lipid matrices.
Lysozyme from crude chicken egg white (CEW) feedstock was successfully purified using a stirred fluidized bed adsorption system ion exchange chromatography where STREAMLINE SP and SP-XL high density adsorbents were selected as the adsorption carrier. The thermodynamic and kinetic studies were carried out to understand the characteristics of lysozyme adsorption by adsorbents under various conditions, including adsorption pH, temperature, lysozyme concentration and salt concentrations. Results showed that SP and SP-XL adsorbents achieved optimum lysozyme adsorption at pH 9 with capacity of ~139.77 and ~251.26 mg/mL, respectively. The optimal conditions obtained from batch studies were directly employed to operate in SFBA process. For SP-XL adsorbent, the recovery yield and purification factor of lysozyme were 93.78% and ~40 folds, respectively. For SP adsorbent, lysozyme can be eluted ~100% with purification factor of ~26 folds. These two adsorbents are highly suitable for use in direct recovery of lysozyme from crude CEW.
Using 100-fold molar excess of succinic anhydride, about 99% of lysine residues of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) were modified. Succinylated (S(99)) HEWL showed both charge and size homogeneity as judged by PAGE and gel filtration, respectively. Hydrodynamic parameters such as Stokes radius and frictional ratio (f/f(o)) showed more expanded conformation of S(99) HEWL compared to native HEWL as evident from the increase in Stokes radius (from 1.36 to 1.86 nm) and f/f(o) (from 0.86 to 1.15) values. Guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) denaturation studies using fluorescence spectroscopy connoted a marked decrease in conformational stability of HEWL upon succinylation. Complete denaturation of S(99) HEWL was achieved at lower GdnHCl concentration ( approximately 3.8 M) compared to native HEWL ( approximately 5 M). Furthermore, free energy of stabilization (DeltaG(D)(H(2)O)) value also showed a notable decrease from 8,559 and 7,956 cal/mol (for native HEWL) to 4,404 and 4,669 cal/mol (for succinylated HEWL) using excitation at 280 and 295 nm, respectively. Both expanded conformation and decreased DeltaG(D)(H(2)O) can be attributed to the increase in the net negative charge on the protein upon succinylation. All these results manifested the importance of positively charged lysine residues in maintaining the conformational stability of HEWL through electrostatic interactions.
Polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membrane functionalized with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (P-Tris) was used in affinity membrane chromatography for lysozyme adsorption. The effects of pH and protein concentration on lysozyme adsorption were investigated. Based on Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity of P-Tris nanofiber membrane was estimated to be 345.83 mg/g. For the operation of dynamic membrane chromatography with three-layer P-Tris nanofiber membranes, the optimal operating conditions were at pH 9, 1.0 mL/min of feed flow rate, and 2 mg/mL of feed concentration. Chicken egg white (CEW) was applied as the crude feedstock of lysozyme in the optimized dynamic membrane chromatography. The percent recovery and purification factor of lysozyme obtained from the chromatography were 93.28% and 103.98 folds, respectively. Our findings demonstrated the effectiveness of P-Tris affinity nanofiber membrane for the recovery of lysozyme from complex CEW solution.
A weak ion-exchange membrane (P-COOH) was synthesized by alkaline hydrolysis of a polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membrane prepared by electrospinning process. The P-COOH membrane was characterized for its physical properties and its application for purification of lysozyme from chicken egg white was investigated. The lysozyme adsorption efficiency of the P-COOH membrane operating in a stirred cell contactor (Millipore, Model 8010) was evaluated. The effects of key parameters such as the feed concentration, the rotating speed, the flow rate of feed and the operating pressure were studied. The results showed successful purification of lysozyme with a high recovery yield of 98% and a purification factor of 63 in a single step. The purification strategy was scaled-up to the higher feedstock loading volume of 32.7 and 70 mL using stirred cell contactors of Model 8050 and 8200, respectively. The scale-up processes achieved similar purification results, proving linear scalability of the purification technique adopted.
This study was aimed at gaining a quantitative understanding of the effect of protein quantity and membrane pore structure on protein immobilization. The concentration of immobilized protein was measured by staining with Ponceau S and measuring its color intensity. In this study, both membrane morphology and the quantity of deposited protein significantly influenced the quantity of protein immobilization on the membrane surface. The sharpness and intensity of the red protein spots varied depending on the membrane pore structure, indicating a dependence of protein immobilization on this factor. Membranes with smaller pores resulted in a higher color density, corresponding to enhanced protein immobilization and an increased assay sensitivity level. An increased of immobilized volume has a significant jagged outline on the protein spot but, conversely, no difference in binding capacity.
An injectable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) system comprising both porous and protein-loaded microspheres capable of forming porous scaffolds at body temperature was developed for tissue regeneration purposes. Porous and non-porous (lysozyme loaded) PLGA microspheres were formulated to represent 'low molecular weight' 22-34 kDa, 'intermediate molecular weight' (IMW) 53 kDa and 'high molecular weight' 84-109 kDa PLGA microspheres. The respective average size of the microspheres was directly related to the polymer molecular weight. An initial burst release of lysozyme was observed from both microspheres and scaffolds on day 1. In the case of the lysozyme-loaded microspheres, this burst release was inversely related to the polymer molecular weight. Similarly, scaffolds loaded with 1 mg lysozyme/g of scaffold exhibited an inverse release relationship with polymer molecular weight. The burst release was highest amongst IMW scaffolds loaded with 2 and 3 mg/g. Sustained lysozyme release was observed after day 1 over 50 days (microspheres) and 30 days (scaffolds). The compressive strengths of the scaffolds were found to be inversely proportional to PLGA molecular weight at each lysozyme loading. Surface analysis indicated that some of the loaded lysozyme was distributed on the surfaces of the microspheres and thus responsible for the burst release observed. Overall the data demonstrates the potential of the scaffolds for use in tissue regeneration.
Interaction of an anticancer drug, vandetanib (VDB) with a ligand transporter, lysozyme (LYZ) was explored using multispectroscopic techniques, such as fluorescence, absorption and circular dichroism along with computational analysis. Fluorescence data and absorption results confirmed VDB-LYZ complexation. VDB-induced quenching was characterized as static quenching based on inverse correlation of KSV with temperature as well as kq values. The complex was characterized by the weak binding constant (Ka=4.96-3.14×103M-1). Thermodynamic data (ΔS=+12.82Jmol-1K-1; ΔH=-16.73kJmol-1) of VDB-LYZ interaction revealed participation of hydrophobic and van der Waals forces along with hydrogen bonds in VDB-LYZ complexation. Microenvironmental perturbations around tryptophan and tyrosine residues as well as secondary and tertiary structural alterations in LYZ upon addition of VDB were evident from the 3-D fluorescence, far- and near-UV CD spectral analyses, respectively. Interestingly, addition of VDB to LYZ significantly increased protein's thermostability. Molecular docking results suggested the location of VDB binding site near the LYZ active site while molecular dynamics simulation results suggested stability of VDB-LYZ complex. Presence of Mg2+, Ba2+ and Zn2+ was found to interfere with VDB-LYZ interaction.
Nanofiber membrane chromatography integrates liquid membrane chromatography and nanofiber filtration into a single-step purification process. Nanofiber membrane can be functionalised with affinity ligands for promoting binding specificity of membrane. Dye molecules are a good affinity ligand for nanofiber membrane due to their low cost and high binding affinity. In this study, a dye-affinity nanofiber membrane (P-Chitosan-Dye membrane) was prepared by using polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membrane modified with chitosan molecules and immobilized with dye molecules. Reactive Orange 4, commercially known as Procion Orange MX2R, was found to be the best dye ligand for membrane chromatography. The binding capacity of P-Chitosan-Dye membrane for lysozyme was investigated under different operating conditions in batch mode. Furthermore, desorption of lysozyme using the P-Chitosan-Dye membrane was evaluated systematically. The recovery percentage of lysozyme was found to be ~100%. The optimal conditions obtained from batch-mode study were adopted to develop a purification process to separate lysozyme from chicken egg white. The process was operated continuously using the membrane chromatography and the characteristic of the breakthrough curve was evaluated. At a lower flow rate (i.e., 0.1 mL/min), the total recovery of lysozyme and purification factor of lysozyme were 98.59% and 56.89 folds, respectively.
The success of wound healing depends upon the proper growth of vascular system in time in the damaged tissues. Poor blood supply to wounded tissues or tissue engineered grafts leads to the failure of wound healing or rejection of grafts. In present paper, we report the synthesis of novel organosoluble and pro-angiogenic chitosan derivative (CSD) by the reaction of chitosan with 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid and triethylorthoformate (TEOF). The synthesized material was characterized by FTIR and 13C-NMR to confirm the incorporated functional groups and new covalent connectivities. Biodegradability of the synthesized chitosan derivative was tested in the presence of lysozyme and was found to be comparable with CS. The cytotoxicity and apoptosis effect of new derivative was determined against gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells and was found to be non-toxic. The CSD was found to be soluble in majority of organic solvents. It was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to form composite scaffolds. From an ex ovo CAM assay, it was noted that CSD stimulated the angiogenesis.