Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 229 in total

  1. Das S, Haji Suhaimi F, Abd Latiff A, Pa Pa Hlaing K, Abd Ghafar N, Othman F
    Rom J Morphol Embryol, 2009;50(3):509-11.
    PMID: 19690784
    Peroneus tertius (PT) is a muscle of the anterior compartment of the leg. The PT muscle originates from the anterior surface of the fibula and the interosseous membrane and inserts into the medial side of the dorsal region of the fifth metatarsal bone. During routine dissection, we observed the absence of PT on the left lower limb of a cadaver. Usually, the PT is involved in dorsiflexion and eversion of the foot. In many cases, the absence of PT maybe asymptomatic and it may be incidentally detected during cadaveric dissections or autopsies. The existence of PT may help in the swing phase of bipedal walking. The PT may be used for tendon graft surgeries. The pull of the PT may be responsible for causing stress on the fifth metacarpal and account for all stress fractures in any individual. The absence of the PT may puzzle any transplant and foot surgeons performing graft operations. We as anatomists discuss the clinical implications of the absence of PT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/abnormalities*
  2. Rao KG, Bhat MS
    Clin Anat, 2006 Nov;19(8):724-5.
    PMID: 16944500
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/abnormalities*
  3. Zailani MH, Azmi MN, Deen KI
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Mar;65(1):66-7.
    PMID: 21265253 MyJurnal
    Faecal incontinence is a debilitating chronic clinical condition which may affect the patient and care givers. Modality of treatment is based on severity of the symptoms as well as the anatomical defect itself, availability of resources and expertise. We describe a modified technique of dynamic graciloplasty as neoanal sphincter for the treatment severe faecal incontinence who has failed previous over lapping sphincteroplasty. In our modified version, instead of using implanted intramuscular electrodes and subcutaneous neurostimulator to provide continuous stimulation, the patient will undergo an external stimulation on the nerve of transplanted gracilis periodically and concurrent biofeedback therapy. We believe the technique is relatively easy to learn and very cost effective without any electrodes or neurostimulator related complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/innervation; Muscle, Skeletal/transplantation*
  4. Wong KT, Yusoff M
    Parasitol Res, 1995;81(4):359-60.
    PMID: 7624297
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/parasitology*; Muscle, Skeletal/ultrastructure
  5. Zubaidah NH, Liew NC
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Feb;69(1):44-5.
    PMID: 24814632 MyJurnal
    Spontaneous calf haematoma is a rare condition and few case reports have been published in the English literature. Common conditions like deep vein thrombosis and traumatic gastrocnemius muscle tear need to be considered when a patient presents with unilateral calf swelling and tenderness. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are essential for confirmation of diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to report on a rare case of spontaneous calf hematoma and its diagnosis and management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal
  6. Ariff HH, Verghese A, Brian CMK
    Tetanus is an acute, potentially fatal disease caused by Clostridium tetani. It is characterized by generalized, painful spasms and rigidity of skeletal muscles. We present two fatal cases and discuss the potential causes that lead to mortality in cases of tetanus infection
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal
  7. Hussain J, Sundaraj K, Subramaniam ID, Lam CK
    Front Physiol, 2020;11:112.
    PMID: 32153422 DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2020.00112
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changes in exercise intensity and speed on the three heads of the triceps brachii (TB) during triceps push-down exercise until task failure. Twenty-five subjects performed triceps push-down exercise at three different intensities (30, 45, and 60% 1RM) and speeds (slow, medium, and fast) until failure, and surface electromyography (sEMG) signals were recorded from the lateral, long and medial heads of the TB. The endurance time (ET), number of repetitions (NR) and rate of fatigue (ROF) were analyzed. Subsequently, the root-mean-square (RMS), mean power frequency (MPF) and median frequency (MDF) under no-fatigue (NF) and fatigue (Fa) conditions were statistically compared. The findings reveal that ROF increases with increase in the intensity and speed, and the opposite were obtained for the ET. The ROF in the three heads were comparable for all intensities and speeds. The ROF showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) among the three intensities and speeds for all heads. The three heads showed significantly different (P < 0.05) MPF and MDF values for all the performed exercises under both conditions, whereas the RMS values were significantly different only under Fa conditions. The current observations suggest that exercise intensity and speed affect the ROF while changes in intensity do not affect the MPF and MDF under Fa conditions. The behavior of the spectral parameters indicate that the three heads do not work in unison under any of the conditions. Changes in the speed of triceps push-down exercise affects the lateral and long heads, but changes in the exercise intensity affected the attributes of all heads to a greater extent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal
  8. Ahmad Ruzain, S., Zar Chi, T., Syed Baharom, S.A.F.
    Medicine & Health, 2018;13(2):164-169.
    Presented herein is a case of one different morphological anomaly of pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle. Here, the shape of PQ was not similar to the normal morphology of the muscle. The PQ muscle appeared to be in distinct triangular-shaped instead of quadrangular-shaped. In addition, this triangular-shaped was found in two sites i.e. proximal and distal. Significantly, the PQ muscle consisted of two fleshy red fibres and white aponeurosis. Proximally placed portion had a wide base and a narrower apex. The larger base was attached to the ulna and formed of fleshy red fibres which converged laterally to be continuous with aponeurosis ending on the radius. In contrast, the distal triangular portion had the fleshy fibres attached to the radius and converged medially to be continuous with aponeurotic portions on the ulna. Each portion were referred as pronator triangularis proximalis and pronator triangularis distalis. These variations might affect atypically in cases of forearm pronation. Information of these variations is important in hand surgeries and provide an additional knowledge on the relationship between morphology of PQ muscle and the limitation or the strength in the action of it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal
  9. Khan AA, Asari MA, Pasha MA
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2015 12 29;75(3):306-310.
    PMID: 26711654 DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2015.0130
    Variations of the sciatic nerve have been extensively studied in the past including its relationship with the piriformis muscle and associated clinical conditions like piriformis syndrome and sciatica. In the present study we noticed some interesting variations of the sciatic nerve, which were slightly different from the cases described earlier. In the previous studies most of the authors described the higher division of sciatic nerve and none of them discussed its formation. In this study we tried to look its formation from the sacral plexus and its divisions in the thigh. We noticed that in one cadaver the two components of the sciatic nerve originated directly from the sacral plexus and coursed down without merging in the thigh. Should this be called a higher division or non formation of the sciatic nerve? On the other hand in two other cadavers, the two divisions after emerging separately from the sacral plexus, united in the gluteal region and in the thigh respectively. Should we call this as higher division or low formation of the sciatic nerve? In two other cadavers the sciatic nerve emerged from the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis and divided in the gluteal region itself. Ideally this should be called as higher division of sciatic nerve.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal
  10. Ahmad HF, Schreiber L, Marshall IPG, Andersen PJ, Castro-Mejía JL, Nielsen DS
    Microbiol Resour Announc, 2019 Jun 13;8(24).
    PMID: 31196919 DOI: 10.1128/MRA.00379-19
    Here, we present a 1.89-Mbp draft genome sequence of Streptococcus anginosus strain CALM001, a Gram-positive bacterium that was isolated from a fecal sample donated by a 70-year-old Dane enrolled in the Counteracting Age-Related Loss of Skeletal Muscle Mass (CALM) intervention study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal
  11. Kamal SM, Dawi NBM, Sim S, Tee R, Nathan V, Aghasian E, et al.
    Technol Health Care, 2020;28(6):675-684.
    PMID: 32200366 DOI: 10.3233/THC-192034
    BACKGROUND: Walking is one of the important actions of the human body. For this purpose, the human brain communicates with leg muscles through the nervous system. Based on the walking path, leg muscles act differently. Therefore, there should be a relation between the activity of leg muscles and the path of movement.

    OBJECTIVE: In order to address this issue, we analyzed how leg muscle activity is related to the variations of the path of movement.

    METHOD: Since the electromyography (EMG) signal is a feature of muscle activity and the movement path has complex structures, we used entropy analysis in order to link their structures. The Shannon entropy of EMG signal and walking path are computed to relate their information content.

    RESULTS: Based on the obtained results, walking on a path with greater information content causes greater information content in the EMG signal which is supported by statistical analysis results. This allowed us to analyze the relation between muscle activity and walking path.

    CONCLUSION: The method of analysis employed in this research can be applied to investigate the relation between brain or heart reactions and walking path.

    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal
  12. Ahamed NU, Sundaraj K, Ahmad B, Rahman M, Ali MA, Islam MA
    Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, 2014 Mar;37(1):83-95.
    PMID: 24477560 DOI: 10.1007/s13246-014-0245-1
    Cricket bowling generates forces with torques on the upper limb muscles and makes the biceps brachii (BB) muscle vulnerable to overuse injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in the amplitude of the EMG signal of the BB muscle during fast and spin delivery, during the seven phases of both types of bowling and the kinesiological interpretation of the bowling arm for muscle contraction mechanisms during bowling. A group of 16 male amateur bowlers participated in this study, among them 8 fast bowlers (FB) and 8 spin bowlers (SB). The root mean square (EMGRMS), the average sEMG (EMGAVG), the maximum peak amplitude (EMGpeak), and the variability of the signal were calculated using the coefficient of variance (EMGCV) from the BB muscle of each bowler (FB and SB) during each bowling phase. The results demonstrate that, (i) the BB muscle is more active during FB than during SB, (ii) the point of ball release and follow-through generated higher signals than the other five movements during both bowling categories, (iii) the BB muscle variability is higher during SB compared with FB, (iv) four statistically significant differences (p<0.05) found between the bowling phases in fast bowling and three in spin bowling, and (v) several arm mechanics occurred for muscle contraction. There are possible clinical significances from the outcomes; like, recurring dynamic contractions on BB muscle can facilitate to clarify the maximum occurrence of shoulder pain as well as biceps tendonitis those are medically observed in professional cricket bowlers, and treatment methods with specific injury prevention programmes should focus on the different bowling phases with the maximum muscle effect. Finally, these considerations will be of particular importance in assessing different physical therapy on bowler's muscle which can improve the ball delivery performance and stability of cricket bowlers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/physiology*
  13. Islam MA, Sundaraj K, Ahmad RB, Ahamed NU
    PLoS One, 2013;8(3):e58902.
    PMID: 23536834 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058902
    BACKGROUND: Mechanomyography (MMG) has been extensively applied in clinical and experimental practice to examine muscle characteristics including muscle function (MF), prosthesis and/or switch control, signal processing, physiological exercise, and medical rehabilitation. Despite several existing MMG studies of MF, there has not yet been a review of these. This study aimed to determine the current status on the use of MMG in measuring the conditions of MFs.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five electronic databases were extensively searched for potentially eligible studies published between 2003 and 2012. Two authors independently assessed selected articles using an MS-Word based form created for this review. Several domains (name of muscle, study type, sensor type, subject's types, muscle contraction, measured parameters, frequency range, hardware and software, signal processing and statistical analysis, results, applications, authors' conclusions and recommendations for future work) were extracted for further analysis. From a total of 2184 citations 119 were selected for full-text evaluation and 36 studies of MFs were identified. The systematic results find sufficient evidence that MMG may be used for assessing muscle fatigue, strength, and balance. This review also provides reason to believe that MMG may be used to examine muscle actions during movements and for monitoring muscle activities under various types of exercise paradigms.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall judging from the increasing number of articles in recent years, this review reports sufficient evidence that MMG is increasingly being used in different aspects of MF. Thus, MMG may be applied as a useful tool to examine diverse conditions of muscle activity. However, the existing studies which examined MMG for MFs were confined to a small sample size of healthy population. Therefore, future work is needed to investigate MMG, in examining MFs between a sufficient number of healthy subjects and neuromuscular patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/physiology*
  14. Htwe O, Swarhib M, Pei TS, Naicker AS, Das S
    Rom J Morphol Embryol, 2012;53(3):657-9.
    PMID: 22990563
    Congenital bilateral agenesis of the tibialis anterior muscles is a rare condition. We present a case of congenital absence of bilateral tibialis anterior muscles in a 6-year-old boy who presented with an abnormal gait. He was previously diagnosed to have bilateral congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) deformity for which he underwent corrective surgery two times. However, he still had a residual foot problem and claimed to have difficulty in walking. On examination, he walked with a high stepping gait and muscle power of both lower limbs was 5/5 on the medical research council scale (MRCS) except for both ankle dorsiflexors and long toe extensors. The sensation was intact. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) study of both legs revealed that tibialis anterior muscles were not visualized on both sides suggestive of agenesis of the tibialis anterior muscles. The rest of the muscles appeared mildly atrophied. The electrophysiological study showed normal motor and sensory conduction in both upper and lower limbs. Electromyographic (EMG) study of the vastus medialis was within normal limit and no response could be elicited for EMG of tibialis anterior muscles suggesting possible absence of tibialis anterior muscles, bilaterally. The patient underwent split tibialis posterior tendon transfer to achieve a balanced and functional foot and was well on discharge. The present case describes the normal anatomy and embryology of tibialis anterior muscles as well as possible causes of its agenesis along with its clinical implications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/abnormalities*
  15. Yeap EJ, Shamsul SA, Chong KW, Sands AK
    Foot Ankle Int, 2011 Aug;32(8):830-3.
    PMID: 22049872
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/surgery*
  16. B SN, Rodenbaugh DW
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2008 Jun;32(2):169-70.
    PMID: 18539862 DOI: 10.1152/advan.00106.2007
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology
  17. Naik VR, Jaafar H, Mutum SS
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Dec;27(2):119-21.
    PMID: 17191396
    Colonic adenocarcinoma metastasising to the skeletal muscle is rare. A-56-yr-old Malay man was diagnosed to have adenocarcinoma of the right colon [Dukes B] for which a right hemicolectomy was performed, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Five years later the patient presented with a mass in the rectus abdominis muscle. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen was 71 ng/Ml. The mass was resected. Gross and microscopical examination showed multiple deposits of mucin-secreting adenocarcinoma with prominent heterotopic ossification in the stroma. The exact pathogenesis and significance of heterotopic ossification is not clear, but bone morphogenetic proteins may play an important role.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/pathology*
  18. Yap CM
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Aug;60(3):364-6.
    PMID: 16379194
    Restoring the intestinal continuity of an acquired massive cervico-thoracic oesophagus defect is a reconstructive challenge. A case requiring such defect restoration following a failed pedicled colonic interposition bypass graft between the cervical oesophagus and stomach for an intra-thoracic oesophageal perforation is presented. The defect between the oesophagostome at the lower left neck and the stoma of the colonic stump at the lower left chest measured about 20 cm. An ante-thoracic skin-tube neo-esophagus was constructed in two stages using a pedicled contralateral right deltopectoral skin flap and a pedicled ipsilateral island left latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap (LD MC flap). A normal swallowing mechanism was re-established.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/surgery*
  19. Ibitoye MO, Hamzaid NA, Hasnan N, Abdul Wahab AK, Davis GM
    PLoS One, 2016;11(2):e0149024.
    PMID: 26859296 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149024
    BACKGROUND: Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance.

    METHODS: Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review.

    RESULTS: Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise training, and (iv) biofeedback-assisted FES-exercise to promote selective recruitment of fatigue-resistant motor units.

    CONCLUSION: Although the need for further in-depth clinical trials (especially RCTs) was clearly warranted to establish external validity of outcomes, current evidence was sufficient to support the validity of certain techniques for rapid fatigue-reduction in order to promote FES therapy as an integral part of SCI rehabilitation. It is anticipated that this information will be valuable to clinicians and other allied health professionals administering FES as a treatment option in rehabilitation and aid the development of effective rehabilitation interventions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology
  20. Singh R, Singh HJ, Sirisinghe RG
    Br J Sports Med, 1995 Mar;29(1):13-5.
    PMID: 7788209
    Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and maximal workload attained (WLmax) were determined in 28 Malaysian dragon boat rowers who were exercised to exhaustion on an arm ergometer. Mean VO2max was 2.75 l min-1 at a mean WLmax of 195.5 W. Anaerobic endurance power of the arms, determined by cranking at 100 RPM at a workload of 400 W and the time taken to maintain the cadence until it fell to 75 RPM, was 34.9(+/- 2.3) s. Leg performance, as determined by standing long jump and vertical jump, was 140.0(+/- 4.5) kg m and 100.3(+/- 3.1) kg m s-1 respectively. Right hand grip strength was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the left hand. Percentage body fat of the rowers was 11.8(+/- 0.6)%. These values represent the first measurements of their kind performed on dragon boat rowers in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle, Skeletal/physiology
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