Surface functionalization and shape modifications are the key strategies being utilized to overcome the limitations of semiconductors in advanced oxidation processes (AOP). Herein, the uniform α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals (α-Fe2O3-NCs) were effectively synthesized via a simple solvothermal route. Meanwhile, the sulfonic acid functionalization (SAF) and the impregnation of α-Fe2O3-NCs on g-C3N4 (α-Fe2O3-NCs@CN-SAF) were achieved through complete solvent evaporation technique. The surface functionalization of the sulfonic acid group on g-C3N4 accelerates the faster migration of electrons to the surface owing to robust electronegativity. The incorporation of α-Fe2O3-NCs with CN-SAF significantly enhances the optoelectronic properties, ultrafast spatial charge separation, and rapid charge transportation. The α-Fe2O3-HPs@CN-SAF and α-Fe2O3-NPs@CN-SAF nanocomposites attained 97.41% and 93.64% of Cr (VI) photoreduction in 10 min, respectively. The photocatalytic efficiency of α-Fe2O3-NCs@CN-SAF nanocomposite is 2.4 and 2.1 times higher than that of pure g-C3N4 and α-Fe2O3, respectively. Besides, the XPS, PEC and recycling experiments confirm the excellent photo-induced charge separation via Z-scheme heterostructure and cyclic stability of α-Fe2O3-NCs@CN-SAF nanocomposites.
New food packaging materials provide an attractive option for the advancement of nanomaterials. The poor thermal, mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of biopolymers and their inherent permeability to gases and vapor have increased this interest. Polymeric materials (matrix) in modern technologies require a filler, which can react/interact with the available matrix to provide a new formulation with improved packaging properties including oxygen permeability, moisture permeability, crystalline structure, barrier properties, morphology, thermal stability, optical properties, anti-microbial characteristics, and mechanical properties. The performance of nanocomposite films and packaging is dependent on the size of the nanofillers used and the uniformity of the nanoparticles (NPs) distribution and dispersion in the matrix. Advancement in nanocomposite technologies is expected to grow with the advent of sustainable, low price, environmentally friendly materials with an enhanced performance. The current review addresses advances in the biopolymeric nanocomposites as alternatives to petroleum plastics in the food packaging industry. It also provides a brief description of biopolymer nanocomposite films and gives general information about different metal NPs with an emphasis on their influence on the emerging characteristics of biodegradable films. The results of recent reports provide a better understanding of the influence of metal NPs in food packaging.
Herein this research, a visible light active tungsten oxide/copper manganate (WO3/CuMnO2) p-n heterojunction nanocomposite was prepared and has been applied for a signal on photoelectrochemical sensing of antibiotic nitrofurazone (NFZ). Firstly, the n-WO3 nanotiles were synthesized from the cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) assisted hydrothermal method and the p-CuMnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by using the ultrasound-assisted hydrothermal method. The photoelectrochemical NFZ sensing performance of WO3/CuMnO2 nanocomposite was 1.9 times higher than that of as-synthesized pure WO3 nanotiles. The resulting higher photoelectrochemical performance of the nanocomposite is due to more visible light absorption ability and synergy from p-n heterojunction formation. The designed WO3/CuMnO2 nanocomposite sensor gives satisfactory photocurrent signals for the detection of NFZ in the range of 0.015-32 μM with the detection limit (LOD) of 1.19 nM. The practical applicability of the nanocomposite sensor was monitored in pork liver and tap water samples.
In the present study, electrochemical sensing for urea was proposed utilizing graphene-based quaternary nanocomposites YInWO4-G-SiO2 (YIWGS). These YIWGS nanocomposites were utilized due to their exceptionally delicate determination of urea with the lowest detection limit (0.01 mM). These YIWGS composites were developed through a simple self-assembly method. From physical characterization, we found that the YIWGS composites are crystalline in nature (powdered X-ray diffraction), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis provided the surface functionality and bonding. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies indicated the morphology characteristics of the as-synthesized composites and the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image supported the formation of cubic or hexagonal morphology of the YIW nanocomposites. The YIWGS sensor showed a great electroanalytical sensing performance of 0.07 mM urea with a sensitivity of 0.06 mA cm-2, an expansive linear range of 0.7-1.5 mM with a linear response (R2 1/4 0.99), and an eminent reaction time of around 2 s. It also displayed a good linear response toward urea with negligible interferences from normal coinciding species in urine samples.
Over the last few decades, various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely used in the processing of building materials and this practice adversely affected the environment i.e. both indoor and outdoor air quality. A cost-effective solution for detecting a wide range of VOCs by sensing approaches includes chemiresistive, optical and electrochemical techniques. Room temperature (RT) chemiresistive gas sensors are next-generation technologies desirable for self-powered or battery-powered instruments utilized in monitoring emissions that are associated with indoor/outdoor air pollution and industrial processes. In this review, a state-of-the-art overview of chemiresistive gas sensors is provided based on their attractive analytical characteristics such as high sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility, rapid assay time and low fabrication cost. The review mainly discusses the recent advancement and advantages of graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites-based chemiresistive gas sensors and various factors affecting their sensing performance at RT. Besides, the sensing mechanisms of GO nanocomposites-based chemiresistive gas sensors derived using metals, transition metal oxides (TMOs) and polymers were discussed. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives of GO nanocomposites-based RT chemiresistive gas sensors are addressed.
Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration (NF) has great attention to provide an imperative solution for water issues. The membrane is considered to be the heart in the separation plant. Understanding the membrane characteristics could allow predicting and optimizing the membrane performance namely flux, rejection and reduced fouling. The membrane development using biomaterials and nanomaterials provides a remarkable opportunity in the water application. This review focuses on the membrane characteristics of biomaterials and nanomaterials based nanofiltration. In this review, recent researches based on biomaterials and nanomaterials loaded membrane for salt rejection have been analyzed. Membrane fouling depends on the membrane characteristics and this review defined fouling as a ubiquitous bottleneck challenge that hampers the NF blooming applications. Fouling mitigation strategies via membrane modification using biomaterial (chitosan, curcumin and vanillin) and various other nanomaterials are critically reviewed. This review also highlights the membrane cleaning and focuses on concentrates disposal methods with zero liquid discharge system for resource recovery. Finally, the conclusion and future prospects of membrane technology are discussed. From this current review, it is apparent that the biomaterial and various other nanomaterials acquire exclusive properties that facilitate membrane advancement with improved capability for water treatment. Regardless of membrane material developments, still exist considerable difficulties in membrane commercialization. Thus, additional studies related to this field are needed to produce membranes with better performance for large‒scale applications.
Oil spills are a major contributor to water contamination, which sets off a significant impact on the environment, biodiversity, and economy. Efficient removal of oil spills is needed for the protection of marine species as well as the environment. Conventional approaches are not efficient enough for oil-water separation; therefore, effective strategies and efficient removal techniques (and materials) must be developed to restore the contaminated marine to its normal ecology. Several research studies have shown that nanotechnology provides efficient features to clean up these oil spills from the water using magnetic nanomaterials, particularly carbon/polymer-based magnetic nanocomposites. Surface modification of these nanomaterials via different techniques render them with salient innovative features. The present review discusses the advantages and limitations of conventional and advanced techniques for the oil spills removal from wastewater. Furthermore, the synthesis of magnetic nanocomposites, their utilization in oil-water separation, and adsorption mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the advancement and future perspectives of magnetic nanocomposites (particularly of carbon and polymer-based magnetic nanocomposites) in environmental remediation are presented.
New packaging materials are an emerging field in the food industry. Poor thermal, mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of biopolymers, and also their inherent permeability to gases and vapor have increased this interest. Biopolymeric materials (matrix) require fillers, which can react/interact with available matrix in order to provide new formulations with improved properties. Many studies have shown the potential use of metal nanoparticles in biopolymeric packaging and edible coatings for improving their properties. The current review summarizes the characterization of bio-nanocomposite films and edible coatings incorporated with metal nanoparticles on the shelf life and quality of tropical fruits, berries, climacteric/non-climacteric fruits and vegetables. It also provides a brief description of some advantages of bio-nanocomposite films and edible coatings applied to fruits and vegetables such as decreasing the color changes, respiration rate, weight loss and extended shelf life, delaying ripening and being environmentally friendly. The results of recent reports provide a better understanding of the impact of metal nanoparticles incorporated in biopolymers on the shelf life and the quality of fruits and vegetables.
In this study, ellagic acid (ELA), a skin anticancer drug, is capped on the surface(s) of functionalised graphene oxide (GO) nano-sheets through electrostatic and π-π staking interactions. The prepared ELA-GO nanocomposite have been thoroughly characterised by using eight techniques: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographic imaging, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and surface morphology via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, ELA drug loading and release behaviours from ELA-GO nanocomposite were studied. The ELA-GO nanocomposite has a uniform size distribution averaging 88 nm and high drug loading capacity of 30 wt.%. The in vitro drug release behaviour of ELA from the nanocomposite was investigated by UV-Vis spectrometry at a wavelength of λmax 257 nm. The data confirmed prolonged ELA release over 5000 min at physiological pH (7.4). Finally, the IC50 of this ELA-GO nanocomposite was found to be 6.16 µg/ml against B16 cell line; ELA and GO did not show any cytotoxic effects up to 50 µg/ml on the same cell lines.
This paper presents the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in aqueous medium. This method was performed by reducing AgNO(3) in different stirring times of reaction at a moderate temperature using green agents, chitosan (Cts) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). In this work, silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) was used as the silver precursor while Cts and PEG were used as the solid support and polymeric stabilizer. The properties of Ag/Cts/PEG nanocomposites (NCs) were studied under different stirring times of reaction. The developed Ag/Cts/PEG NCs were then characterized by the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
This study focuses on the fabrication and electrical characterization of a polymer composite based on nano-sized varistor powder. The polymer composite was fabricated by the melt-blending method. The developed nano-composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FeSEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The XRD pattern revealed the crystallinity of the composite. The XRD study also showed the presence of secondary phases due to the substitution of zinc by other cations, such as bismuth and manganese. The TEM picture of the sample revealed the distribution of the spherical, nano-sized, filler particles throughout the matrix, which were in the 10-50 nm range with an average of approximately 11 nm. The presence of a bismuth-rich phase and a ZnO matrix phase in the ZnO-based varistor powder was confirmed by FeSEM images and EDX spectra. From the current-voltage curves, the non-linear coefficient of the varistor polymer composite with 70 wt% of nano filler was 3.57, and its electrical resistivity after the onset point was 861 KΩ. The non-linear coefficient was 1.11 in the sample with 100 wt% polymer content. Thus, it was concluded that the composites established a better electrical non-linearity at higher filler amounts due to the nano-metric structure and closer particle linkages.
Graphene-based adsorbents have attracted wide interests as effective adsorbents for heavy metals removal from the environment. Due to their excellent electrical, mechanical, optical and transport properties, graphene and its derivatives such as graphene oxide (GO) have found various applications. However, in many applications, surface modification is necessary as pristine graphene/GO may be ineffective in some specific applications such as adsorption of heavy metal ions. Consequently, the modification of graphene/GO using various metals and non-metals is an ongoing research effort in the carbon-material realm. The use of organic materials represents an economical and environmentally friendly approach in modifying GO for environmental applications such as heavy metal adsorption. This review discusses the applications of organo-functionalized GO composites for the adsorption of heavy metals. The aspects reviewed include the commonly used organic materials for modifying GO, the performance of the modified composites in heavy metals adsorption, effects of operational parameters, adsorption mechanisms and kinetic, as well as the stability of the adsorbents. Despite the significant research efforts on GO modification, many aspects such as the interaction between the functional groups and the heavy metal ions, and the quantitative effect of the functional groups are yet to be fully understood. The review, therefore, offers some perspectives on the future research needs.
Numerous contaminants in huge amounts are discharged to the environment from various anthropogenic activities. Waterbodies are one of the major receivers of these contaminants. The contaminated water can pose serious threats to humans and animals, by distrubing the ecosystem. In treating the contaminated water, adsorption processes have attained significant maturity due to lower cost, easy operation and environmental friendliness. The adsorption process uses various adsorbent materials and some of emerging adsorbent materials include carbon- and polymer-based magnetic nanocomposites. These hybrid magnetic nanocomposites have attained extensive applications in water treatment technologies due to their magnetic properties as well as combination of unique characteristics of organic and inorganic elements. Carbon- and polymer-related magnetic nanocomposites are more adapted materials for the removal of various kinds of contaminants from waterbodies. These nanocomposites can be produced via different approaches such as filling, pulse-laser irradiation, ball milling, and electro-spinning. This comprehensive review is compiled by reviewing published work of last the latest recent 3 years. The review article extensively focuses on different approaches for producing various carbon- and polymer-based magnetic nanocomposites, their merits and demerits and applications for sustainable water purification. More specifically, use of carbon- and polymer-based magnetic nanocomposites for removal of heavy metal ions and dyes is discussed in detail, critically analyzed and compared with other technologies. In addition, commercial viability in terms of regeneration of adsorbents is also reviewed. Furthermore, the future challenges and prospects in employing magnetic nanocomposites for contaminant removal from various water sources are presented.
Graphene and its derivative materials present high potential towards medical and biological applications, including drug delivery and bioimaging, due to their exceptional properties such as thermal conductivity and high specific surface area. The main focus of this work is to review the current development of graphene materials and the derivatives for biocompatible, bioimaging and drug delivery applications. Also, the synthesis methods with variation of graphene nanocomposites and the functionalisation will be further explained. For the graphene approaches, chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is the best-known technique to make high-quality graphene sheet by growth route with mass production. By considering the organic graphene nanocomposites, the biocompatibility and cytotoxic effects against graphene nanocomposites were evaluated for biomedical employments such as high quality bioimaging and effective drug delivery for cancer treatments. For example, graphene oxide incorporated with PEG and loaded with SN 38 for camptothecin analolgue as anticancer drug and revealed high cytotoxicity has an effect of 1000 times better effect than CPT in HCT-116 cells. Their drug delivery ability for both in-vivo and in-vitro applications compared to the controlled drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX) will be discussed accordingly. The graphene and its deriavatives possess some intriguing properties, which will lead to drug delivery due to strong biocompatibility and cyctotoxic effect towards biomedicine applications.
The present article evaluates the composition and synthesis of hydrogel beads. Hydrogels, owing to their known biocompatibility, are widely used in drug delivery as a host (or drug carrier). Hydrogels, owing to their physical, chemical and biological properties, are popular in many aspects. Hydrogels are crosslinked-hydrophilic polymers and commercialized/synthesized in both natural and synthetic forms. These polymers are compatible with human tissues, therefore can be potentially used for biomedical treatments. Hydrogels in drug delivery offer several points of interest such as sustainability, and sensitivity without any side-effects as compared to traditional methods in this field. Drugs can encapsulate and release continuously into the targets when hydrogels are activated/modified magnetically or by fluorescent materials. It is crucial to develop new crosslinked polymers in terms of "biocompatibility" and "biodegradability" for novel drug delivery platforms. In the event that the accomplishments of the past can be used into the longer terms, it is exceedingly likely that hydrogels with a wide cluster of alluring properties can be synthesized. The current review, offers an updated summary of latest developments in the nanomedicines field as well as nanobased drug delivery systems over broad study of the discovery/ application of nanomaterials in improving both the efficacy of drugs and targeted delivery of them. The challenges/opportunities of nanomedicine in drug delivery also discussed. SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH: Although several reviews have been published in the field of hydrogels, however many of them have just centralized on the general overviews in terms of "synthesis" and "properties". The utilization of hydrogels and hydrogel-based composites in vital applications have been achieved a great interest. In this review, our aim is to recap of the key points in the field of hydrogels such as; a) hydrogel nanocomposites, b) magnetic beads, c) biomedical applications, and d) drug delivery. In the same vein, these outlines will be expanded with emphasizing on the boon of magnetic beads and recent developments in this area.
Hydroxyapatite is a basic mineral that is very important to the human body framework. Recently, synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) and its nanocomposites (HANs) are the subject of intense research for bone tissue engineering and drug loading system applications, due to their unique, tailor-made characteristics, as well as their similarities with the bone mineral component in the human body. Although hydroxyapatite has good biocompatibility and osteoconductive characteristics, the poor mechanical strength restricts its use in non-load-bearing applications. Consequently, a rapid increase in reinforcing of other nanomaterials into hydroxyapatite for the formation of HANs could improve the mechanical properties. Most of the research reported on the success of other nanomaterials such as metals, ceramics and natural/synthetic polymers as additions into hydroxyapatite is reviewed. In addition, this review also focuses on the addition of various substances into hydroxyapatite for the formation of various HANs and at the same time to try to minimize the limitations so that various bone tissue engineering and drug loading system applications can be exploited.
Polymer nanocomposites have recently been attracting attention among researchers in electrical insulating applications from energy storage to power delivery. However, partial discharge has always been a predecessor to major faults and problems in this field. In addition, there is a lot more to explore, as neither the partial discharge characteristic in nanocomposites nor their electrical properties are clearly understood. By adding a small amount of weight percentage (wt%) of nanofillers, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of polymers can be greatly enhanced. For instance, nanofillers in nanocomposites such as silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) play a big role in providing a good approach to increasing the dielectric breakdown strength and partial discharge resistance of nanocomposites. Such polymer nanocomposites will be reviewed thoroughly in this paper, with the different experimental and analytical techniques used in previous studies. This paper also provides an academic review about partial discharge in polymer nanocomposites used as electrical insulating material from previous research, covering aspects of preparation, characteristics of the nanocomposite based on experimental works, application in power systems, methods and techniques of experiment and analysis, and future trends.
Small sized magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) with were successfully synthesized on the surface of rice straw using the quick precipitation method in the absence of any heat treatment. Ferric chloride (FeCl3·6H2O), ferrous chloride (FeCl2·4H2O), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and urea (CH4N2O) were used as Fe3O4-NPs precursors, reducing agent and stabilizer, respectively. The rice straw fibers were dispersed in deionized water, and then urea was added to the suspension, after that ferric and ferrous chloride were added to this mixture and stirred. After the absorption of iron ions on the surface layer of the fibers, the ions were reduced with NaOH by a quick precipitation method. The reaction was carried out under N2 gas. The mean diameter and standard deviation of metal oxide NPs synthesized in rice straw/Fe3O4 nanocomposites (NCs) were 9.93 ± 2.42 nm. The prepared rice straw/Fe3O4-NCS were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXF) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT‒IR). The rice straw/Fe3O4-NCs prepared by this method have magnetic properties.
In this study, hybrid montmorillonite/cellulose nanowhiskers (MMT/CNW) reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites were produced through solution casting. The CNW filler was first isolated from microcrystalline cellulose by chemical swelling technique. The partial replacement of MMT with CNW in order to produce PLA/MMT/CNW hybrid nanocomposites was performed at 5 parts per hundred parts of polymer (phr) fillers content, based on highest tensile strength values as reported in our previous study. MMT were partially replaced with various amounts of CNW (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5phr). The tensile, thermal, morphological and biodegradability properties of PLA hybrid nanocomposites were investigated. The highest tensile strength of hybrid nanocomposites was obtained with the combination of 4phr MMT and 1phr CNW. Interestingly, the ductility of hybrid nanocomposites increased significantly by 79% at this formulation. The Young's modulus increased linearly with increasing CNW content. Thermogravimetric analysis illustrated that the partial replacement of MMT with CNW filler enhanced the thermal stability of the PLA. This is due to the relatively good dispersion of fillers in the hybrid nanocomposites samples as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, partial replacements of MMT with CNW improved the biodegradability of hybrid nanocomposites compared to PLA/MMT and neat PLA.
A novel tweakable nanocomposite was prepared by spark plasma sintering followed by systematic oxidation of carbon nanotube (CNT) molecules to produce alumina/carbon nanotube nanocomposites with surface porosities. The mechanical properties (flexural strength and fracture toughness), surface area, and electrical conductivities were characterized and compared. The nanocomposites were extensively analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) for 2D qualitative surface morphological analysis. Adding CNTs in ceramic matrices and then systematically oxidizing them, without substantial reduction in densification, induces significant capability to achieve desirable/application oriented balance between mechanical, electrical, and catalytic properties of these ceramic nanocomposites. This novel strategy, upon further development, opens new level of opportunities for real-world/industrial applications of these relatively novel engineering materials.