METHODS: This study examined the immunological binding and neutralization capacity of PCAV against the two cobra venoms using WHO-recommended protocols.
RESULTS: In mice, both venoms were highly neurotoxic and lethal with a median lethal dose of 0.18 and 0.20 µg/g, respectively. PCAV exhibited strong and comparable immunoreactivity toward the venoms, indicating conserved venom antigenicity between the two allopatric species. In in vivo assay, PCAV was only moderately effective in neutralizing the toxicity of both venoms. Its potency was even lower against the hetero-specific N. samarensis venom by approximately two-fold compared with its potency against N. philippinensis venom.
CONCLUSION: The results indicated that PCAV could be used to treat N. samarensis envenomation but at a higher dose, which might increase the risk of hypersensitivity and worsen the shortage of antivenom supply in the field. Antivenom manufacturing should be improved by developing a low-dose, high-efficacy product against cobra envenomation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=6 rats per group) as Control, KA, Propolis and KA+Propolis. The control group and KA group have received vehicle and saline. Propolis group and propolis + KA group were orally administered with propolis (150 mg/kg body weight), five times every 12 hours. KA group and propolis +KA group were injected subcutaneously with kainic acid (15 mg/kg body weight) and were sacrificed after 2 hrs. CC, CB and BS were separated, homogenized and used for estimation of NOS, caspase-3, NO and TNF-α by commercial kits. Results were analyzed by one way ANOVA, reported as mean + SD (n=6 rats), and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: The concentration of NO, TNF-α, NOS and caspase-3 activity were increased significantly (p<0.001) in all the three brain regions tested in KA group compared to the control. Propolis supplementation significantly (p<0.001) prevented the increase in NOS, NO, TNF-α and caspase-3 due to KA.
CONCLUSION: Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the propolis supplementation attenuated the NOS, caspase-3 activities, NO, and TNF-α concentration and in KA mediated excitotoxicity. Hence propolis can be a possible potential protective agent against excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.
PROCEDURE: Survivors of childhood ALL aged 4-18 years who had completed chemotherapy for 2 years or more were evaluated for VIPN using both the clinical Total Neuropathy Score (cTNS) and nerve conduction studies. Motor function and quality of life of the survivors were assessed via the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency Brief Form, Second Edition (BOT-2 Brief Form) and the Paediatric Quality of Life version 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL4.0) questionnaire, respectively.
RESULTS: One hundred and one survivors with a duration of follow-up ranging from 2.0 to 10.3 years were recruited. Twenty-seven (26.7%) had abnormal cTNS scores and 69 (68.3%) had electrophysiological evidence of neuropathy. Of these, 16 (15.8%) had combined clinical and electrophysiological neuropathy (VIPN). Those previously treated on the intermediate- or high-risk treatment stratification arms had a higher risk of developing VIPN (67.3 vs. 32.7%; odds ratio [OR]: 9.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-71.86; P = 0.014). Survivors with VIPN had significantly lower quality of life scores in the physical (P = 0.024) and social domains (P = 0.039) compared with peers without VIPN, but no association with poorer motor function was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen percent of ALL survivors had VIPN. VIPN should be increasingly recognised as a late effect of chemotherapy, as it significantly affects physical and social function quality of life.