Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 140 in total

  1. Sudha N
    Family Physician, 2000;11:22-22.
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  2. Sebastian S
    Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 2009;olume 23:49-56.
    Kajian kes ini telah dijalankan di New Zealand dan melibatkan seorang murid yang mengidap Sindrom Smith-Magenis. Murid ini berumur enam tahun dan menghadiri Tahun Dua di sekolah rendah. Budak perempuan ini telah dirujuk untuk perkhidmatan pengurusan tingkahlaku kerana pihak sekolah dan ibubapanya gagal menguruskan masalah tingkahlakunya yang ekstrim. Rangkakerja analisis situasi digunakan untuk mengumpul data, membina pelan intervensi secara kolaboratif bagi bekerjasama dengan guru dan pengurusan sekolah untuk melaksanakan program intervensi. Hasil daripada intervensi ini adalah positif kerana banyak daripada masalah tingkahlaku yang ekstrim telah berkurang, dan pihak sekolah serta ibubapa budak ini merasa puashati dengan hasil positif ini. Model rangkakerja analisis situasi ini terbukti cekap dan dinamik.
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  3. Ab Rahman AS, Strother RM, Paddison J
    Asia Pac J Clin Oncol, 2023 Feb;19(1):179-186.
    PMID: 35686690 DOI: 10.1111/ajco.13801
    BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have increased overall survival (OS) in metastatic melanoma in all clinical trials to date. However, pivotal trial populations were not representative of the real-world population in New Zealand. Real-world treatment effectiveness studies help evaluate the value of public pharmaceutical expenditure.

    AIM: To determine the survival outcomes of New Zealand patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma treated with pembrolizumab or nivolumab.

    METHODS: This is a national retrospective cohort study. Patients with advanced unresectable or metastatic melanoma who received publicly funded immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) from 2017 to 2019 were included. Individual patient data were extracted from national administrative databases. The primary endpoint was OS, and secondary endpoints included OS by age, duration of treatment, posttreatment survival, and 30-day mortality from last pharmaceutical claim.

    RESULTS: Five hundred ninety-seven patients were included, with a median follow-up of 25 months. One-year OS was 72%, the 2-year OS estimate was 60%, and median OS not reached. Survival did not differ by dichotomized age (≥70 vs. <70 year old), hazard ratio (HR) .94 (95% confidence interval (CI): .72-1.22; p = .62). Median duration of treatment was 9.0 months (95% CI: 7.9-10.1). Median post-treatment survival for the subgroup who had ceased treatment was 12.0 months (95% CI: 9.0-14.0). For the sample as a whole, the estimated 30-day mortality from last pharmaceutical claim was 15.7%.

    CONCLUSION: OS in our New Zealand real-world population is comparable to pivotal clinical trials and real-world data (RWD) from other countries. These findings support the achievement of health gains from use of ICI in advanced unresectable and metastatic melanoma.

    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand/epidemiology
  4. Martin MB, Bruce NL, Nowak BF
    Zootaxa, 2015;3963(3):251-94.
    PMID: 26249402 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3963.3.1
    The genus Ceratothoa Dana, 1852, is revised for Australian waters. Ceratothoa is represented in Australia by nine species, including two new species: Ceratothoa barracuda sp. nov. described from Cairns and Ceratothoa globulus sp. nov. described from Lord Howe Island. Ceratothoa imbricata Fabricius, 1775 is redescribed, with Ceratothoa trillesi (Avdeev, 1979) and Ceratothoa huttoni Filhol, 1885 placed into junior synonymy; the preferred hosts are species of the genus Trachurus (Carangidae). Ceratothoa banksii (Leach, 1818) is validated and brought out of synonymy with Ceratothoa imbricata; host species are from the families Kyphosidae, Scombridae, Latridae, Carangidae, Mugilidae, Salmonidae, Scatophagidae, Pomatomidae and Hemiramphidae. Species excluded from the Australian fauna are Ceratothoa trigonocephala (Leach, 1818) with an unknown host identity and type locality; and Ceratothoa lineata Miers, 1876a, that here is transferred to the genus Mothocya Costa, 1851, with Mothocya ihi Bruce, 1986 placed into junior synonymy. Ceratothoa contracta (Miers, 1880), the New Zealand Ceratothoa novaezelandiae Filhol, 1885 and the East Pacific Ceratothoa gaudichaudii (Milne Edwards, 1840) are regarded here as species inquirenda. A key to the Australian species of Ceratothoa is presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  5. Rosli N, Leduc D, Rowden AA, Clark MR, Probert PK, Berkenbusch K, et al.
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e2154.
    PMID: 27441114 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2154
    Studies of deep-sea benthic communities have largely focused on particular (macro) habitats in isolation, with few studies considering multiple habitats simultaneously in a comparable manner. Compared to mega-epifauna and macrofauna, much less is known about habitat-related variation in meiofaunal community attributes (abundance, diversity and community structure). Here, we investigated meiofaunal community attributes in slope, canyon, seamount, and seep habitats in two regions on the continental slope of New Zealand (Hikurangi Margin and Bay of Plenty) at four water depths (700, 1,000, 1,200 and 1,500 m). We found that patterns were not the same for each community attribute. Significant differences in abundance were consistent across regions, habitats, water and sediment depths, while diversity and community structure only differed between sediment depths. Abundance was higher in canyon and seep habitats compared with other habitats, while between sediment layer, abundance and diversity were higher at the sediment surface. Our findings suggest that meiofaunal community attributes are affected by environmental factors that operate on micro- (cm) to meso- (0.1-10 km), and regional scales (> 100 km). We also found a weak, but significant, correlation between trawling intensity and surface sediment diversity. Overall, our results indicate that variability in meiofaunal communities was greater at small scale than at habitat or regional scale. These findings provide new insights into the factors controlling meiofauna in these deep-sea habitats and their potential vulnerability to anthropogenic activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  6. Schumacher-Schuh AF, Bieger A, Okunoye O, Mok KY, Lim SY, Bardien S, et al.
    Mov Disord, 2022 Aug;37(8):1593-1604.
    PMID: 35867623 DOI: 10.1002/mds.29126
    BACKGROUND: Human genetics research lacks diversity; over 80% of genome-wide association studies have been conducted on individuals of European ancestry. In addition to limiting insights regarding disease mechanisms, disproportionate representation can create disparities preventing equitable implementation of personalized medicine.

    OBJECTIVE: This systematic review provides an overview of research involving Parkinson's disease (PD) genetics in underrepresented populations (URP) and sets a baseline to measure the future impact of current efforts in those populations.

    METHODS: We searched PubMed and EMBASE until October 2021 using search strings for "PD," "genetics," the main "URP," and and the countries in Latin America, Caribbean, Africa, Asia, and Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand). Inclusion criteria were original studies, written in English, reporting genetic results on PD from non-European populations. Two levels of independent reviewers identified and extracted information.

    RESULTS: We observed imbalances in PD genetic studies among URPs. Asian participants from Greater China were described in the majority of the articles published (57%), but other populations were less well studied; for example, Blacks were represented in just 4.0% of the publications. Also, although idiopathic PD was more studied than monogenic forms of the disease, most studies analyzed a limited number of genetic variants. We identified just nine studies using a genome-wide approach published up to 2021, including URPs.

    CONCLUSION: This review provides insight into the significant lack of population diversity in PD research highlighting the immediate need for better representation. The Global Parkinson's Genetics Program (GP2) and similar initiatives aim to impact research in URPs, and the early metrics presented here can be used to measure progress in the field of PD genetics in the future. © 2022 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  7. Higgins S, Stoner L, Lubransky A, Howe AS, Wong JE, Black K, et al.
    Sleep Med, 2020 11;75:163-170.
    PMID: 32858356 DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2020.07.030
    INTRODUCTION: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a vital sign that can improve risk classification for adverse health outcomes. While lifestyle-related factors are associated with CRF, few have examined the influence of sleep characteristics, especially in youths. Social jetlag, a mismatch between one's biological clock and sleep schedule, is prevalent in adolescents and associated with increased adiposity, though its relationship with CRF is unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relationship between social jetlag and CRF, independent of other sleep characteristics.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional sample includes 276 New Zealand adolescents (14-18 years, 52.5% female). CRF (VO2max) was estimated from a 20-m multi-stage shuttle run. Average sleep duration, sleep disturbances, social jetlag, physical activity, and the number of bedroom screens were estimated from validated self-report surveys. Social jetlag is the difference in hours between the midpoint of sleep during weekdays (school) and weekend days (free). Combined and sex-stratified linear regression assessed the association between sleep outcomes and CRF, controlling for relevant covariates.

    RESULTS: Males slept 17.6 min less, had less sleep disturbances, and a 25.1-min greater social jetlag than their female peers (all p 

    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand/epidemiology
  8. Godinho MA, Jonnagaddala J, Gudi N, Islam R, Narasimhan P, Liaw ST
    Int J Med Inform, 2020 10;142:104259.
    PMID: 32858339 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2020.104259
    OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to examine how mobile health (mHealth) to support integrated people-centred health services has been implemented and evaluated in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR).

    METHODS: Eight scientific databases were searched. Two independent reviewers screened the literature in title and abstract stages, followed by full-text appraisal, data extraction, and synthesis of eligible studies. Studies were extracted to capture details of the mhealth tools used, the service issues addressed, the study design, and the outcomes evaluated. We then mapped the included studies using the 20 sub-strategies of the WHO Framework on Integrated People-Centred Health Services (IPCHS); as well as with the RE-AIM (Reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework, to understand how studies implemented and evaluated interventions.

    RESULTS: We identified 39 studies, predominantly from Australia (n = 16), China (n = 7), Malaysia (n = 4) and New Zealand (n = 4), and little from low income countries. The mHealth modalities included text messaging, voice and video communication, mobile applications and devices (point-of-care, GPS, and Bluetooth). Health issues addressed included: medication adherence, smoking cessation, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, asthma, diabetes, and lifestyle activities respectively. Almost all were community-based and focused on service issues; only half were disease-specific. mHealth facilitated integrated IPCHS by: enabling citizens and communities to bypass gatekeepers and directly access services; increasing affordability and accessibility of services; strengthening governance over the access, use, safety and quality of clinical care; enabling scheduling and navigation of services; transitioning patients and caregivers between care sectors; and enabling the evaluation of safety and quality outcomes for systemic improvement. Evaluations of mHealth interventions did not always report the underlying theories. They predominantly reported cognitive/behavioural changes rather than patient outcomes. The utility of mHealth to support and improve IPCHS was evident. However, IPCHS strategy 2 (participatory governance and accountability) was addressed least frequently. Implementation was evaluated in regard to reach (n = 30), effectiveness (n = 24); adoption (n = 5), implementation (n = 9), and maintenance (n = 1).

    CONCLUSIONS: mHealth can transition disease-centred services towards people-centred services. Critical appraisal of studies highlighted methodological issues, raising doubts about validity. The limited evidence for large-scale implementation and international variation in reporting of mHealth practice, modalities used, and health domains addressed requires capacity building. Information-enhanced implementation and evaluation of IPCHS, particularly for participatory governance and accountability, is also important.

    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  9. Saeedi P, Skeaff SA, Wong JE, Skidmore PM
    Nutrients, 2016;8(5).
    PMID: 27164137 DOI: 10.3390/nu8050271
    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9-10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman's correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9-10 year-old children in New Zealand.
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  10. Radford CA, Ghazali SM, Montgomery JC, Jeffs AG
    PLoS One, 2016;11(2):e0149338.
    PMID: 26890124 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149338
    Fish vocalisation is often a major component of underwater soundscapes. Therefore, interpretation of these soundscapes requires an understanding of the vocalisation characteristics of common soniferous fish species. This study of captive female bluefin gurnard, Chelidonichthys kumu, aims to formally characterise their vocalisation sounds and daily pattern of sound production. Four types of sound were produced and characterised, twice as many as previously reported in this species. These sounds fit two aural categories; grunt and growl, the mean peak frequencies for which ranged between 129 to 215 Hz. This species vocalized throughout the 24 hour period at an average rate of (18.5 ± 2.0 sounds fish-1 h-1) with an increase in vocalization rate at dawn and dusk. Competitive feeding did not elevate vocalisation as has been found in other gurnard species. Bluefin gurnard are common in coastal waters of New Zealand, Australia and Japan and, given their vocalization rate, are likely to be significant contributors to ambient underwater soundscape in these areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  11. Muhammad SA, Frew RD, Hayman AR
    Front Chem, 2015;3:12.
    PMID: 25774366 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2015.00012
    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the δ(13)C and δ(2)H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin, i.e., the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  12. Toh TS, Foo SY, Loh W, Chong KW, En Goh A, Hee HI, et al.
    Anaesth Intensive Care, 2021 Jan;49(1):44-51.
    PMID: 33472385 DOI: 10.1177/0310057X20964470
    Making a diagnosis of perioperative anaphylaxis and identifying culprit drugs are diagnostic challenges. The aim of this study is to describe the perioperative presentation of anaphylaxis and results of patients who underwent allergy evaluation. This is a retrospective review of perioperative anaphylaxis of severity Grade 2 and above based on the Australian and New Zealand Anaesthetic Allergy Group criteria from 2015 to 2019 in a tertiary paediatric hospital. Data collected were demographics, clinical features, investigations and management. Of the 35,361 cases of paediatric anaesthesia, there were 15 cases of perioperative anaphylaxis, giving an incidence of four in 10,000. The median age was seven years (interquartile range four-15 years) with a male predominance of 86.7% (13/15). The severity of anaphylaxis was Grade 2 in 33.3% (5/15) and Grade 3 in 66.7% (10/15). The commonest presenting feature was hypotension (13/15, 86.7%) while the earliest symptom was respiratory change (9/15, 60.0%). Dynamic tryptase was raised in 75% (6/8) of the patients with adequate tryptase samples. Eight patients (53.3%) completed allergy testing, of whom five patients (62.5%) had IgE-mediated anaphylaxis with skin test positive to cefazolin (n = 3), atracurium (n = 1) and rocuronium (n = 1). Three patients (25.0%) had non-IgE-mediated reactions with negative skin tests. Although only half the patients completed allergy evaluation, a culprit drug could be identified in 62.5%, with antibiotics being the commonest. This emphasises the need for appropriate evaluation in cases of suspected perioperative anaphylaxis.
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  13. Zulkhairi, A., Hasnah, B., Zaiton, Z., Jamaludin, M., Zanariyah, A., Khairul, K.A.K., et al.
    Malays J Nutr, 2006;12(2):213-220.
    Atherosclerosis, the cholesterol deposition in and around cells of the intimal layer of the aorta, has been recognized as one of the main causative factors for cardiovascular diseases. Intensive research has been carried out throughout the world but the precise atherogenesis has yet to be fully understood, though hypercholesterolaemia is considered to be the prime risk factor. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of high cholesterol diet consumption on the formation of atherosclerosis in vivo. Three groups of adultWhite New Zealand male rabbits (six animals per group) were used in this study. Except for one group which acted as a control (K), the other two groups were given 1% and 2% high cholesterol diet respectively for 10 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken from the marginal ear vein for plasma cholesterol estimation. The animals were sacrificed and the aorta was excised for histomorphometric analysis. The result shows that despite no significant differences in plasma cholesterol levels being observed between the groups treated with 1% and 2% cholesterol, high cholesterol consumption was able to induce hypercholesterolaemia significantly (p
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  14. Fadzly N, Burns KC, Zuharah WF
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2013 Dec;24(2):31-50.
    PMID: 24575247 MyJurnal
    Fruit phenotypes are often hypothesised to be affected by selection by frugivores. Here, we tested two hypotheses concerning frugivore-fruit interactions from the perspective of fruit colours. We measured the spectral properties of 26 fruits and the associated leaves of plants from 2 islands in New Zealand. Visual observations were also performed to record the birds that fed on the fruits. First, we tested the fruit-foliage hypothesis, where fruit colours are assumed to be evolutionarily constrained by their own leaf colour to maximise colour contrast and fruit conspicuousness. We ran a null model analysis comparing fruit colour contrast using an avian eye model. Second, we tested the frugivore specificity hypothesis, where specific fruit colours are thought to be connected with a specific bird frugivore. We performed a regression on the number of bird visits against the fruit colour in tetrahedral colour space based on an avian eye calculation using Mantel's test. The results show that fruit colours are not constrained by their own leaf colours. There is also no relationship or pattern suggesting a link between a specific fruit colour and specific bird visitors. We suggest that although fruit colour is one of the most highly discussed components, it is not the most important single deciding factor in frugivore fruit selection.
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  15. Sturman D
    Trans Ophthalmol Soc N Z, 1966;18:59-63.
    PMID: 5330768
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  16. Goulding KR, Peyton PJ, Story DA, Parker A, Leslie K
    Anaesth Intensive Care, 2017 03;45(2):196-201.
    PMID: 28267941
    The Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) has more than 200 accredited training sites in Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore, many of which participate in ANZCA Clinical Trials Network (CTN)-endorsed clinical trials. We undertook a survey of accredited sites to determine research capability, activity and potential. With ethics committee approval an electronic survey was distributed to accredited sites in July 2015. Of 207 accredited sites, 167 were sent the questionnaire (after eliminating ineligible sites) and 128 responded. Response rates for Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore were 100%, 100%, 35%, 25% and 75% respectively. Forty-four (34%) of 128 responding sites had a head of research; 101 (80%) of 126 responding sites were active in research; 42 (33%) of 126 responding sites had no publications since January 2011 and 15 (12%) had >50 publications; 95 (76%) of 125 responding sites had at least one specialist anaesthetist engaged in research (median = 4 [range 1-25]); and 45 (36%) of 125 responding sites had at least one research coordinator (median = 2 [range 1-15]). Fifty-eight (28%) of the 207 accredited sites were identified as participating in recent ANZCA CTN-endorsed clinical trials. Research capability and activity were higher in these sites. This survey has identified a strong base upon which to expand clinical trial activity, and regions, sectors, investigators and research coordinators who may benefit from additional support.
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
  17. Ahyong ST, Boyko CB
    Zootaxa, 2019 Apr 26;4590(2):zootaxa.4590.2.5.
    PMID: 31716094 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4590.2.5
    Species of the bopyrid isopod genus Rhopalione Pérez, 1920, are parasites of Indo-West Pacific pinnotherid crabs. Unlike other bopyrid parasites of brachyurans that occupy the branchial chambers, however, species of Rhopalione (subfamily Pseudioninae) infest the abdominal cavity. Prior to the present study, four species of Rhopalione were recognized: R. atrinicolae Page, 1985 (New Zealand), R. incerta (Bonnier, 1900) (Madagascar), R. sinensis Markham, 1990 (East Asia), and R. uromyzon Pérez, 1920 (Persian Gulf). A fifth species of Rhopalione, from Perhentian Besar, Malaysia, is described herein, parasitic on the pinnotherid crab Serenotheres besutensis (Serène, 1967). Keys are provided to females and males of the species in the genus.
    Matched MeSH terms: New Zealand
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