Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 99 in total

  1. Lim CT, Wong KK, Yap YF, Sivanesaratnam V
    Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol, 1992 Mar;18(1):19-22.
    PMID: 1627057
    Large ovarian cysts in the fetus are uncommon. Ultrasonography has helped in the detection of these cysts antenatally and in the newborn female infant. A case of bilateral ovarian cysts in a newborn is presented. The choice of management between conservative measures and surgical approaches remains controversial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ovary/surgery; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/congenital*; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/diagnosis; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/surgery
  2. Corrie L, Gulati M, Singh SK, Kapoor B, Khursheed R, Awasthi A, et al.
    Life Sci, 2021 Sep 01;280:119753.
    PMID: 34171379 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119753
    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the primary cause of female infertility affecting several women worldwide. Changes in hormonal functions such as hyperandrogenism are considered a significant factor in developing PCOS in women. In addition, many molecular pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS in women. To have better insights about PCOS, it is data from clinical studies carried on women suffering from PCOS should be collected. However, this approach has several implications, including ethical considerations, cost involved and availability of subject. Moreover, during the early drug development process, it is always advisable to use non-human models mimicking human physiology as they are less expensive, readily available, have a shorter gestation period and less risk involved. Many animal models have been reported that resemble the PCOS pathways in human subjects. However, the models developed on rats and mice are more preferred over other rodent/non-rodent models due to their closer resemblance with human PCOS development mechanism. The most extensively reported PCOS models for rats and mice include those induced by using testosterone, letrozole and estradiol valerate. As the pathophysiology of PCOS is complex, none of the explored models completely surrogates the PCOS related conditions occurring in women. Hence, there is a need to develop an animal model that can resemble the pathophysiology of PCOS in women. The review focuses on various animal models explored to understand the pathophysiology of PCOS. The article also highlights some environmental and food-related models that have been used to induce PCOS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ovary/metabolism; Ovary/pathology*; Ovary/physiopathology; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/pathology*; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/physiopathology
  3. Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Harun S
    PMID: 19723303 DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-6-18
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex but frequently occurring endocrine abnormality. PCOS has become one of the leading causes of oligo-ovulatory infertility among premenopausal women. The definition of PCOS remains unclear because of the heterogeneity of this abnormality, but it is associated with insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, obesity and dyslipidaemia. The main purpose of this study was to identify possible candidate genes involved in PCOS. Several genomic approaches, including linkage analysis and microarray analysis, have been used to look for candidate PCOS genes. To obtain a clearer view of the mechanism of PCOS, we have compiled data from microarray analyses. An extensive literature search identified seven published microarray analyses that utilized PCOS samples. These were published between the year of 2003 and 2007 and included analyses of ovary tissues as well as whole ovaries and theca cells. Although somewhat different methods were used, all the studies employed cDNA microarrays to compare the gene expression patterns of PCOS patients with those of healthy controls. These analyses identified more than a thousand genes whose expression was altered in PCOS patients. Most of the genes were found to be involved in gene and protein expression, cell signaling and metabolism. We have classified all of the 1081 identified genes as coding for either known or unknown proteins. Cytoscape 2.6.1 was used to build a network of protein and then to analyze it. This protein network consists of 504 protein nodes and 1408 interactions among those proteins. One hypothetical protein in the PCOS network was postulated to be involved in the cell cycle. BiNGO was used to identify the three main ontologies in the protein network: molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components. This gene ontology analysis identified a number of ontologies and genes likely to be involved in the complex mechanism of PCOS. These include the insulin receptor signaling pathway, steroid biosynthesis, and the regulation of gonadotropin secretion among others.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/genetics; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism*
  4. Shafiee MN, Chapman C, Barrett D, Abu J, Atiomo W
    Gynecol Oncol, 2013 Nov;131(2):489-92.
    PMID: 23822891 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2013.06.032
    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in North American and European women. Even though it has been shown that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a three-fold increase in the risk of developing EC compared to women without PCOS, the precise molecular mechanisms which increase EC risk in women with PCOS remain unclear. Clinical strategies to prevent EC in PCOS are therefore not well researched and understood. Although raised estrogen levels, hyperinsulinaemia and, reduced apoptosis have been suggested as potential mechanisms, there is a lack of clarity about how these factors and other factors may interact to increase EC risk in PCOS. This article reviews the literature, on the potential molecular links between PCOS and EC but argues for a paradigm shift, to a systems biology-based approach in future research into the molecular links between PCOS and EC. The potential challenges of a systems biology-based approach are outlined but not considered insurmountable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/genetics*; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism*
  5. Afiqah-Aleng N, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Kanaya S, Mohamed-Hussein ZA
    Reprod Biomed Online, 2020 Feb;40(2):319-330.
    PMID: 32001161 DOI: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2019.11.012
    RESEARCH QUESTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with diverse clinical implications, such as infertility, metabolic disorders, cardiovascular diseases and psychological problems among others. The heterogeneity of conditions found in PCOS contribute to its various phenotypes, leading to difficulties in identifying proteins involved in this abnormality. Several studies, however, have shown the feasibility in identifying molecular evidence underlying other diseases using graph cluster analysis. Therefore, is it possible to identify proteins and pathways related to PCOS using the same approach?

    METHODS: Known PCOS-related proteins (PCOSrp) from PCOSBase and DisGeNET were integrated with protein-protein interactions (PPI) information from Human Integrated Protein-Protein Interaction reference to construct a PCOS PPI network. The network was clustered with DPClusO algorithm to generate clusters, which were evaluated using Fisher's exact test. Pathway enrichment analysis using gProfileR was conducted to identify significant pathways.

    RESULTS: The statistical significance of the identified clusters has successfully predicted 138 novel PCOSrp with 61.5% reliability and, based on Cronbach's alpha, this prediction is acceptable. Androgen signalling pathway and leptin signalling pathway were among the significant PCOS-related pathways corroborating the information obtained from the clinical observation, where androgen signalling pathway is responsible in producing male hormones in women with PCOS, whereas leptin signalling pathway is involved in insulin sensitivity.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results show that graph cluster analysis can provide additional insight into the pathobiology of PCOS, as the pathways identified as statistically significant correspond to earlier biological studies. Therefore, integrative analysis can reveal unknown mechanisms, which may enable the development of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment in PCOS.

    Matched MeSH terms: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/genetics; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism*
  6. Loh HH, Yee A, Loh HS, Kanagasundram S, Francis B, Lim LL
    Hormones (Athens), 2020 Sep;19(3):413-423.
    PMID: 32462512 DOI: 10.1007/s42000-020-00210-0
    PURPOSE: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder characterized by clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism and ovulary dysfunction. Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) adversely affects quality of life and interpersonal relationships. We aimed to compare the prevalence of FSD in women with and without PCOS.

    METHODS: We pooled data from 28 observational studies involving 6256 women. Apart from the total prevalence of FSD, subgroup analyses based on different PCOS diagnostic criteria and obesity status (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2) were performed. The differences in total and subscale scores of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) among women with and without PCOS were also compared.

    RESULTS: Women with PCOS were younger (mean ± SD 28.56 ± 3.0 vs 31.5 ± 3.2 years, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/epidemiology*
  7. Ikhwanuddin M, Azra MN, Siti-Aimuni H, Abol-Munafi AB
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2012 Aug 01;15(15):720-8.
    PMID: 24171257
    Blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus is widely study and research throughout the Indo-West Pacific, but little is known of its reproductive biology in Malaysia. The present study describes the fecundity, embryonic development and ovarian development stages of the P. pelagicus from Johor coastal water, Malaysia. Carapace width range of berried crabs sampled was from 9.64 to 13.32 cm, while the body weight range was from 75 to 235 g. The mean number of egg produced by females in different sizes ranged from 105443.333 +/- 35448.075 per eggs batch. Mean egg size during embryonic development at stage 1 was 0.307 +/- 0.037, while 0.386 +/- 0.039 and 0.396 +/- 0.033 for stage 2 and stage 3, respectively. Study showed that there was significant (p < 0.05) relationship between the number of eggs and carapace width/body weight. Mean diameter oocyte during ovarian development at stage 1 was 97.732 +/- 12.391 while for stage 2 was 149.516 +/- 23.287. Stage 3 showed increasingly of size with mean diameter was 158.506 +/- 27.616 and 181.013 +/- 24.339 for stage 4.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ovary/embryology*; Ovary/physiology
  8. Chiang GL, Loong KP, Mahadevan S, Eng KL
    PMID: 2906483
    Five mark-release-recapture experiments with wild caught Ma. uniformis were conducted in an open swamp area at Batang Berjuntai in Selangor, 40 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between May 1983 and January 1985. A total of 64 (0.14%) from the 45,950 females released were recaptured feeding on humans and cattle and resting in cattle-sheds. Substantially fewer (0.03% to 0.09%) females were recaptured from releases of blood-fed females than from releases of unfed females (0.20% to 0.23%). More than 70% of all recaptures were taken within a radius of 1.5 km around the point of release and the longest detected flight was 3.5 km. The mean dispersal distance for blood-fed and unfed females was 1.445 +/- 1.06 and 1.706 +/- 1.03 km, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the overall mean dispersal of the two groups of females (p greater than 0.05). The duration of the gonotrophic cycle in the field was between 3 to 4 days. Daily survivorship estimates (0.783-0.867) based on the recapture rates of date specific marked females was comparable to that estimated vertically from the dissection of unmarked females (0.751-0.795). These experiments revealed the remarkable flying ability of Ma. uniformis and the importance of reinvasion must be recognized when control operations are restricted to small areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ovary/physiology
  9. Fook CW
    Med J Malaya, 1970 Jun;24(4):314-6.
    PMID: 4248357
    Matched MeSH terms: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications*
  10. Aaqillah-Amr MA, Hidir A, Noordiyana MN, Ikhwanuddin M
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2018 Aug;195:274-283.
    PMID: 29910008 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.06.005
    This study describes the fatty acids, total carotenoids, and cell diameter characteristics of the female ovary and hepatopancreas of the mud crab, Scylla olivacea, with comparisons at different ovarian maturation stages. Seventy-one S. olivacea individuals at all stages of ovarian maturation were sampled from the Setiu wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia. The ovary and hepatopancreas of each crab were used for morphological studies, histological and biochemical analyses (fatty acid composition and total carotenoids). Morphological observations indicated there was an increase in ovarian gonado-somatic index (GSI), with color changes from translucent to dark red; however, a relatively consistent hepato-somatic index (HSI) in the hepatopancreas, with the color ranging from yellow to yellowish-brown. Histological analysis indicated that oocyte diameter was positively correlated with GSI. Hepatopancreatic tubules had a relatively constant diameter from Stage 2 to 4, with increased proportions of R- and B-cells. Biochemical analysis indicated there was a significant increase in total carotenoids in the ovary during maturation. The hepatopancreas, however, had relatively consistent total carotenoid concentrations that were greater than those of the ovary. Overall, the lipid analysis results indicated there were lesser concentrations of fatty acids in the hepatopancreas, while in the ovary there were increasing concentrations during maturation. The lesser concentrations of fatty acids in the hepatopancreas than ovary suggested that energy was transferred to the ovary for future embryonic and larval development. The relationship between the hepatopancreas and the ovary in nutrient content is an important finding in providing a baseline to formulate an optimal diet for improved mud crab hatchery practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ovary/growth & development*
  11. Nettely T, Rajaee AH, Denil NA, Idris MH, Nesarul MH, Amin SMN, et al.
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):715-24.
    PMID: 28779731
    Samples of threadfin breams Nemipterus japonicus were collected from a village in Kuala Nyalau and a fish landing centre at Bintulu from April 2013 to March 2014. A total of 360 individuals of N. japonicus (214 male and 146 female) were used in this reproductive study.? The total length (TL) of individuals were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and body weight (BW) was recorded to the nearest 0.1 g. Month-wise distribution of the sexes was significantly higher for males in September and March, while in the month of May the number of females was significantly higher (X(2) = 6.53; P < 0.05). Males showed a preponderance in the size-class of 19.0-20.9 cm (X(2) = 80.24; P < 0.001), 21.0 -22.9 cm (X(2) = 56.39; P < 0.001) and 23.0 -24.9 cm (X(2) = 17; P < 0.001). The gonadosomatic index (GSI) values of N. japonicus ranged from 0.07 to 0.19 for males and 0.34 to 4.99 for females. Females had higher GSI than males throughout the study period. For males, a higher GSI (0.11-0.19) was observed during January to February, while it was found to be higher (2.73-4.99) for females during January to March, indicating the spawning season. The present study revealed that ovarian maturity based on histological analysis of N. japonicus was classified into seven stages namely, immature (I), immature (II), maturing (III), mature (IV), ripe (V), spawning (VI) and spent (VII). The fecundity of N. japonicus was estimated to be within a range of 19221 to 85923 with higher GSI (3.08-6.78) from the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ovary/physiology
  12. Mat Jin N, Ahmad SM, Mohd Faizal A, Abdul Karim AKB, Abu MA
    Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig, 2022 Dec 01;43(4):469-474.
    PMID: 35545610 DOI: 10.1515/hmbci-2021-0096
    OBJECTIVES: We aim to discuss the hematological cancer cases that opted for ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) as fertility preservation before the gonadotoxic chemotherapy agent.

    CASE PRESENTATION: The ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) was started in August 2020 in our center. Up to now, there were four cases have been performed and included in this report. The ovarian tissue cortex was cryopreserved with cryoprotectant using Kitazato™ (Tokyo, Japan) media and fit in the closed system devices. A total of four post-OTC patients were included. The mean age was 24 years old, whereas the mean serum AMH level was 30.43 pmol/L. Most of them were diagnosed with lymphoma, except one was leukemia. All of them received additional GnRH analog following OTC as a chemoprotective agent before cancer treatment. Currently, they are recovering well and on regular follow-up with the hematological department.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although The OTC is an ultimate option for prepubertal girls, it can be proposed as a good strategy for adult cancer women who could not delay cancer therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ovary/pathology
  13. Okomoda VT, Amighty RO, Bem TM, Amaantimin J, Nurizzati I, Koh ICC, et al.
    Theriogenology, 2023 Mar 01;198:203-209.
    PMID: 36592519 DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2022.12.037
    Ovarian lavage is a term used to describe the injection of fish with a catheter through the oviduct into the ovary. In this study, the efficacy of this technique was evaluated as a route for hormone administration and sperm preservation in the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Firstly, the effects of hormone injection routes (namely, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and ovarian lavage) were evaluated on breeding and haematological parameters. In the second study, the fish's spermatozoa were stored in the ovaries for 1, 2, 3, and 4 days before stripping, sperm activation with freshwater, and fertilization. The breeding performance was then compared with eggs fertilized using spermatozoa refrigerated for the same duration. The study showed that the administration of synthetic hormone (ovaprim®) through the ovaries was comparable to the intramuscular route, while those injected intraperitoneally had the least values (P  0.05) the fertilization (92-93%) and hatching (81-83%) of the eggs when compared to the control (91% and 82%). Beyond this 24hr threshold, breeding performances were significantly reduced in the ovarian lavage treatments compared to those fertilized with refrigerated sperm (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Ovary*
  14. Koike H, Harada M, Kusamoto A, Xu Z, Tanaka T, Sakaguchi N, et al.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2023;14:1124405.
    PMID: 36875481 DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1124405
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among reproductive-age women, affecting up to 15% of women in this group, and the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. Although its etiology remains unclear, recent research has revealed the critical role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pathophysiology of PCOS. ER stress is defined as a condition in which unfolded or misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER because of an imbalance in the demand for protein folding and the protein-folding capacity of the ER. ER stress results in the activation of several signal transduction cascades, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), which regulates various cellular activities. In principle, the UPR restores homeostasis and keeps the cell alive. However, if the ER stress cannot be resolved, it induces programmed cell death. ER stress has recently been recognized to play diverse roles in both physiological and pathological conditions of the ovary. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the roles of ER stress in the pathogenesis of PCOS. ER stress pathways are activated in the ovaries of both a mouse model of PCOS and in humans, and local hyperandrogenism in the follicular microenvironment associated with PCOS is responsible for activating these. The activation of ER stress contributes to the pathophysiology of PCOS through multiple effects in granulosa cells. Finally, we discuss the potential for ER stress to serve as a novel therapeutic target for PCOS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome*
  15. Tzeng CR, Huang Z, Asada Y, Zhang C, Ho MT, Li RHW, et al.
    Hum Reprod, 2023 Jul 05;38(7):1368-1378.
    PMID: 37105234 DOI: 10.1093/humrep/dead081
    STUDY QUESTION: How do age, ethnicity, and other characteristics affect serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in Asian women undergoing fertility treatment?

    SUMMARY ANSWER: Age, ethnicity, obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) significantly impacted serum AMH levels, with the rate of decrease accelerating as age increased; a concentration of 4.0 ng/ml was the optimal cut-off for diagnosis of PCOS.

    WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There are significant differences in ovarian reserve among women from different races and ethnicities, and Asian women often have poorer reproductive outcomes during assisted reproductive treatment cycles.

    STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A population-based multi-nation, multi-centre, multi-ethnicity prospective cohort study of 4613 women was conducted from January 2020 to May 2021. Infertile women of 20-43 years of age were enrolled. The exclusion criteria included: age <20 or >43, non-Asian ethnicity, and missing critical data.

    PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Participants were Asian women of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Vietnamese, Malay, Indian, and Indonesian ethnicities from 12 IVF centres across Asia. These women were all naïve to ovarian stimulation cycles and attended IVF centres for fertility assessment. The AMH measurement was performed using an AMH automated assay on a clinically validated platform.

    MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A total of 4556 infertile Asian women were included in the final analyses. The mean ± SD for serum AMH concentrations (ng/ml) across specific age groups were: overall, 3.44 ± 2.93; age <30, 4.58 ± 3.16; 30-31, 4.23 ± 3.23; 32-33, 3.90 ± 3.06; 34-35, 3.21 ± 2.65; 36-37, 2.74 ± 2.44; 38-39, 2.30 ± 1.91; 40 and above, 1.67 ± 2.00. The rate of AMH decrease was ∼0.13 ng/ml/year in patients aged 25-33 and 0.31 ng/ml/year in women aged 33-43. The highest rates of PCOS were found in Indians (18.6%), Malays (18.9%), and Vietnamese (17.7%). Age (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome*
  16. Tan TT, Lui SK, Satgunasingam N, Khalid BA
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Dec;44(4):302-6.
    PMID: 2520038
    62 cases of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) were reviewed with regards to their clinical and endocrine features. The subgroup of patients with acanthosis nigricans (AN) was further studied in detail. The prevalence of the syndrome was significantly higher in the Indian (35.5% of cases). Obesity, AN, hirsutism, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and raised level of serum testosterone were present in 77.1%, 74%, 79%, 21% and 48% of the cases respectively. Patients with AN was associated with higher body mass index, serum testosterone level, and prevalence of hirsutism and NIDDM than patients without AN. These observations are in keeping with the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia may be of importance in the pathogenesis of a sub-group of PCO associated with insulin resistant states.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/blood; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/diagnosis; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/etiology*
  17. Zhang S, Liu Q, Chang M, Pan Y, Yahaya BH, Liu Y, et al.
    Cell Death Dis, 2023 May 24;14(5):340.
    PMID: 37225709 DOI: 10.1038/s41419-023-05859-0
    Chemotherapy was conventionally applied to kill cancer cells, but regrettably, they also induce damage to normal cells with high-proliferative capacity resulting in cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, peripheral nerve toxicity, and ovarian toxicity. Of these, chemotherapy-induced ovarian damages mainly include but are not limited to decreased ovarian reserve, infertility, and ovarian atrophy. Therefore, exploring the underlying mechanism of chemotherapeutic drug-induced ovarian damage will pave the way to develop fertility-protective adjuvants for female patients during conventional cancer treatment. Herein, we firstly confirmed the abnormal gonadal hormone levels in patients who received chemotherapy and further found that conventional chemotherapeutic drugs (cyclophosphamide, CTX; paclitaxel, Tax; doxorubicin, Dox and cisplatin, Cis) treatment significantly decreased both the ovarian volume of mice and the number of primordial and antral follicles and accompanied with the ovarian fibrosis and reduced ovarian reserve in animal models. Subsequently, Tax, Dox, and Cis treatment can induce the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs), likely resulting from excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production-induced oxidative damage and impaired cellular anti-oxidative capacity. Thirdly, the following experiments demonstrated that Cis treatment could induce mitochondrial dysfunction through overproducing superoxide in GCs and trigger lipid peroxidation leading to ferroptosis, first reported in chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage. In addition, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment could alleviate the Cis-induced toxicity in GCs by downregulating cellular ROS levels and enhancing the anti-oxidative capacity (promoting the expression of glutathione peroxidase, GPX4; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1, HO-1). Our study confirmed the chemotherapy-induced chaotic hormonal state and ovarian damage in preclinical and clinical examination and indicated that chemotherapeutic drugs initiated ferroptosis in ovarian cells through excessive ROS-induced lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to ovarian cell death. Consequently, developing fertility protectants from the chemotherapy-induced oxidative stress and ferroptosis perspective will ameliorate ovarian damage and further improve the life quality of cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ovary
  18. Yimer N, Rosnina Y, Wahid H, Saharee AA, Yap KC, Ganesamurthi P
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2010 Apr;42(4):607-15.
    PMID: 19809886 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-009-9464-y
    The primary objectives of this study were to investigate incidence of abnormal ovarian cyclicity (AOC) and its type in dairy and beef cows with prolonged postpartum period (>90 days) and in heifers that fail to conceive. A total of 53 animals were included in the study: 17 Friesian crosses, 16 Braford crosses, eight Brangus crosses, and 12 local Kedah-Kelantan (KKX) crosses. These animals were initially checked for absence of pregnancy via palpation per rectum. Blood samples for progesterone analysis were obtained twice a week for 2 to 3 months following their spontaneous oestrous cycle, and all animals were rechecked for pregnancy at the end of the study. Progesterone analysis indicated that 33.9% of the total animals were having AOC: 18.9% with cessation of ovarian cyclicity, 9.4% with prolonged luteal phases (PLP), and 5.7% short luteal phases. The highest incidence was observed in Brangus crosses (62.5%), followed by Braford crosses (43.8%), and Friesian crosses (35.3%). In contrast, no AOC was observed in the local KKX breeds, and all of them were found to be pregnant at the end of the study. A significant difference (p < 0.05) in the incidence of AOC and its type was observed between Kedah-Kelantan crosses and the other breeds. Although not significant (p > 0.05), Friesian crosses showed a higher percentage incidence of AOC than beef cows (40% vs 36.4%), with major types being PLP (26.7%) in dairy and cessation of ovarian cycle (27.3%) in beef cows. Compared with beef heifers, beef cows showed a higher percentage of AOC (36.4% vs 28.6%) where again, cessation of cyclicity was the predominant abnormality. In conclusion, AOC reflected by abnormal endocrine pattern is a possible cause of reduction in fertility for dairy and beef cows beyond 90 days postpartum and heifers that fail to conceive.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ovary/physiology*
  19. Ansari RM
    J Integr Med, 2016 Jan;14(1):22-8.
    PMID: 26778225 DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60240-6
    Infertility due to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a worldwide problem that is increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance, the prime factor of PCOS, induces comorbid metabolic syndrome as well. Durian (Durio zibenthinus Linn), a fruit of Southeast Asia, is used as a natural supplement in healthy diets. This paper is a short literature review that examines the fruit's effects against various components of metabolic syndrome and its fertility-enhancing properties in PCOS. Various published literature was reviewed to learn of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-obesity, anticholesterol, and antihypoglycaemic nature of the fruit. The literature search was done using PubMed, Google Scholar and library databases. The keywords used were polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, metabolic syndrome and Durian zibenthinus Linn. Reviewed studies showed that the fruit is effective against various components of metabolic syndrome, but the mechanisms of action against anovulation and menstrual disturbances in PCOS have yet to be studied. The traditional use of durian as a fertility-enhancing agent needs to be validated scientifically by isolating its various components and ascertaining its fertility enhancing properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/drug therapy*
  20. Goh JYL, Rachagan SP, Low EC
    Med J Malaysia, 1987 Mar;42(1):70-1.
    PMID: 3431507
    A case of an ovarian ectopic pregnancy is
    presented. The diagnosis was made at laparotomy.
    Histology of the surgical specimen confirmed a
    primary ovarian pregnancy. The aetiologic factors
    and diagnostic criteria are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ovary/pathology*
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