Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 120 in total

  1. Suraiya S, Semail N, Ismail MF, Abdullah JM
    Genome Announc, 2016;4(3).
    PMID: 27198011 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00323-16
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is known to cause pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. This organism showed special phylogeographical specificity. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of M. tuberculosis clinical isolate spoligotype SIT745/EAI1-MYS, which was isolated from a Malaysian tuberculosis patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  2. Shadmany M, Boykin LM, Muhamad R, Omar D
    J. Econ. Entomol., 2019 02 12;112(1):75-84.
    PMID: 30272175 DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy273
    The tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex with members capable of inducing huge economic losses. Precise identification of members of this complex proves essential in managing existing populations and preventing new incursions. Despite records of serious outbreaks of this pest in Malaysia little is known about species status of B. tabaci in this region. To address this, a comprehensive sampling of B. tabaci from different host plants was conducted in 10 states of Malaysia from 2010 to 2012. Members of the complex were identified by sequencing partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) gene and constructing a Bayesian phylogenetic tree. Seven putative species were identified including Asia I, Mediterranean (MED), China 1, China 2, Asia II 6, Asia II 7, and Asia II 10. The most important finding of the study is the identification of the invasive MED species from locations without previous records of this species. All putative species except Asia I and MED are recorded from Malaysia for the first time. This study provided the first introductory map of B. tabaci species composition in Malaysia and emphasizes the urgent need for further studies to assess the status of MED invasion in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  3. Williams EW, Gardner EM, Harris R, Chaveerach A, Pereira JT, Zerega NJ
    Ann Bot, 2017 03 01;119(4):611-627.
    PMID: 28073771 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcw249
    Background and Aims: The breadfruit genus ( Artocarpus , Moraceae) includes valuable underutilized fruit tree crops with a centre of diversity in Southeast Asia. It belongs to the monophyletic tribe Artocarpeae, whose only other members include two small neotropical genera. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogeny, estimate divergence dates and infer ancestral ranges of Artocarpeae, especially Artocarpus , to better understand spatial and temporal evolutionary relationships and dispersal patterns in a geologically complex region.

    Methods: To investigate the phylogeny and biogeography of Artocarpeae, this study used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to analyze DNA sequences from six plastid and two nuclear regions from 75% of Artocarpus species, both neotropical Artocarpeae genera, and members of all other Moraceae tribes. Six fossil-based calibrations within the Moraceae family were used to infer divergence times. Ancestral areas and estimated dispersal events were also inferred.

    Key Results: Artocarpeae, Artocarpus and four monophyletic Artocarpus subgenera were well supported. A late Cretaceous origin of the Artocarpeae tribe in the Americas is inferred, followed by Eocene radiation of Artocarpus in Asia, with the greatest diversification occurring during the Miocene. Borneo is reconstructed as the ancestral range of Artocarpus , with dozens of independent in situ diversification events inferred there, as well as dispersal events to other regions of Southeast Asia. Dispersal pathways of Artocarpus and its ancestors are proposed.

    Conclusions: Borneo was central in the diversification of the genus Artocarpus and probably served as the centre from which species dispersed and diversified in several directions. The greatest amount of diversification is inferred to have occurred during the Miocene, when sea levels fluctuated and land connections frequently existed between Borneo, mainland Asia, Sumatra and Java. Many species found in these areas have extant overlapping ranges, suggesting that sympatric speciation may have occurred. By contrast, Artocarpus diversity east of Borneo (where many of the islands have no historical connections to the landmasses of the Sunda and Sahul shelves) is unique and probably the product of over water long-distance dispersal events and subsequent diversification in allopatry. This work represents the most comprehensive Artocarpus phylogeny and biogeography study to date and supports Borneo as an evolutionary biodiversity hotspot.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  4. Yong HS, Lim PE, Tan J, Song SL, Suana IW, Eamsobhana P
    PLoS One, 2015;10(6):e0129455.
    PMID: 26090853 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129455
    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography*
  5. Gauffre-Autelin P, von Rintelen T, Stelbrink B, Albrecht C
    Parasit Vectors, 2017 03 06;10(1):126.
    PMID: 28264699 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-017-2043-6
    BACKGROUND: The planorbid snail Indoplanorbis exustus is the sole intermediate host for the Schistosoma indicum species group, trematode parasites responsible for cattle schistosomiasis and human cercarial dermatitis. This freshwater snail is widely distributed in Southern Asia, ranging from Iran to China eastwards including India and from the southeastern Himalayas to Southeast Asia southwards. The veterinary and medical importance of this snail explains the interest in understanding its geographical distribution patterns and evolutionary history. In this study, we used a large and comprehensive sampling throughout Indo-Malaya, including specimens from South India and Indonesia, areas that have been formerly less studied.

    RESULTS: The phylogenetic inference revealed five highly divergent clades (genetic distances among clades: 4.4-13.9%) that are morphologically indistinguishable, supporting the assumption that this presumed nominal species may represent a cryptic species complex. The species group may have originated in the humid subtropical plains of Nepal or in southern adjacent regions in the Early Miocene. The major cladogenetic events leading to the fives clades occurred successively from the Early Miocene to the Early Pleistocene, coinciding with major periods of monsoonal intensification associated with major regional paleogeographic events in the Miocene and repeated climate changes due to the Plio-Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Our coverage of the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) highlights the presence of a single clade there. Contrary to expectations, an AMOVA did not reveal any population genetic structure among islands or along a widely recognised zoogeographical regional barrier, suggesting a recent colonisation independent of natural biogeographical constraints. Neutrality tests and mismatch distributions suggested a sudden demographic and spatial population expansion that could have occurred naturally in the Pleistocene or may possibly result of a modern colonisation triggered by anthropogenic activities.

    CONCLUSIONS: Even though Indoplanorbis is the main focus of this study, our findings may also have important implications for fully understanding its role in hosting digenetic trematodes. The existence of a cryptic species complex, the historical phylogeographical patterns and the recent range expansion in the IAA provide meaningful insights to the understanding and monitoring of the parasites potential spread. It brings a substantial contribution to veterinary and public health issues.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography*
  6. Veera Singham G, Othman AS, Lee CY
    PLoS One, 2017;12(11):e0186690.
    PMID: 29186140 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186690
    Dispersal of soil-dwelling organisms via the repeatedly exposed Sunda shelf through much of the Pleistocene in Southeast Asia has not been studied extensively, especially for invertebrates. Here we investigated the phylogeography of an endemic termite species, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen), to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of dispersal routes of terrestrial fauna in Pleistocene Southeast Asia. We sampled 213 termite colonies from 66 localities throughout the region. Independently inherited microsatellites and mtDNA markers were used to infer the phylogeographic framework of M. gilvus. Discrete phylogeographic analysis and molecular dating based on fossil calibration were used to infer the dynamics of M. gilvus dispersal in time and space across Southeast Asia. We found that the termite dispersal events were consistently dated within the Pleistocene time frame. The dispersal pattern was multidirectional, radiating eastwards and southwards out of Indochina, which was identified as the origin for dispersal events. We found no direct dispersal events between Sumatra and Borneo despite the presence of a terrestrial connection between them during the Pleistocene. Instead, central Java served as an important link allowing termite colonies to be established in Borneo and Sumatra. Our findings support the hypothesis of a north-south dispersal corridor in Southeast Asia and suggest the presence of alternative dispersal routes across Sundaland during the Pleistocene. For the first time, we also propose that a west-east dispersal through over-water rafting likely occurred across the Pleistocene South China Sea. We found at least two independent entry routes for terrestrial species to infiltrate Sumatra and Borneo at different times.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography*
  7. Lee GE, Condamine FL, Bechteler J, Pérez-Escobar OA, Scheben A, Schäfer-Verwimp A, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 08 24;10(1):14123.
    PMID: 32839508 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-71039-1
    Understanding the biogeographical and diversification processes explaining current diversity patterns of subcosmopolitan-distributed groups is challenging. We aimed at disentangling the historical biogeography of the subcosmopolitan liverwort genus Lejeunea with estimation of ancestral areas of origin and testing if sexual system and palaeotemperature variations can be factors of diversification. We assembled a dense taxon sampling for 120 species sampled throughout the geographical distribution of the genus. Lejeunea diverged from its sister group after the Paleocene-Eocene boundary (52.2 Ma, 95% credibility intervals 50.1-54.2 Ma), and the initial diversification of the crown group occurred in the early to middle Eocene (44.5 Ma, 95% credibility intervals 38.5-50.8 Ma). The DEC model indicated that (1) Lejeunea likely originated in an area composed of the Neotropics and the Nearctic, (2) dispersals through terrestrial land bridges in the late Oligocene and Miocene allowed Lejeunea to colonize the Old World, (3) the Boreotropical forest covering the northern regions until the late Eocene did not facilitate Lejeunea dispersals, and (4) a single long-distance dispersal event was inferred between the Neotropics and Africa. Biogeographical and diversification analyses show the Miocene was an important period when Lejeunea diversified globally. We found slight support for higher diversification rates of species with both male and female reproductive organs on the same individual (monoicy), and a moderate positive influence of palaeotemperatures on diversification. Our study shows that an ancient origin associated with a dispersal history facilitated by terrestrial land bridges and not long-distance dispersals are likely to explain the subcosmopolitan distribution of Lejeunea. By enhancing the diversification rates, monoicy likely favoured the colonisations of new areas, especially in the Miocene that was a key epoch shaping the worldwide distribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography*
  8. Guan M, Tan H, Fazhan H, Xie Z, Shi X, Zhang Y, et al.
    Mitochondrial DNA B Resour, 2018 Oct 26;3(2):1244-1245.
    PMID: 33474478 DOI: 10.1080/23802359.2018.1532345
    The mitochondrial genome plays an important role in studies on phylogeography and population genetic diversity. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Lupocycloporus gracilimanus (Stimpson, 1858) which is the first mitochondrial genome reported in genus Lupocycloporus by now. The mitogenome is 15,990 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a putative control region. The phylogenetic analysis showed that L. gracilimanus was closest to genus Scylla. The present research should provide valuable information for phylogenetic analysis and classification of Portunidae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  9. Yokoyama S, Starmer WT
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2017 03 01;34(3):525-534.
    PMID: 28087772 DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msw270
    Originating in Africa, the Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread to Asia, Pacific Islands and now to the Americas and beyond. Since the first isolation in 1947, ZIKV strains have been sampled at various times in the last 69 years, but this history has not been reflected in studying the patterns of mutation accumulation in their genomes. Implementing the viral history, we show that the ZIKV ancestor appeared sometime in 1930-1945 and, at that point, its mutation rate was probably less than 0.2 × 10-3/nucleotide site/year and subsequently increased significantly in most of its descendants. Sustaining a high mutation rate of 4 × 10-3/site/year throughout its evolution, the Ancestral Asian strain, which was sampled from a mosquito in Malaysia, accumulated 13 mutations in the 3'-untranslated region of RNA stem-loops prior to 1963, seven of which generate more stable stem-loop structures and are likely to inhibit cellular antiviral activities, including immune and RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. The seven mutations have been maintained in all Asian and American strains and may be responsible for serious medical problems we are facing today and offer testable hypotheses to examine their roles in molecular interactions during brain development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography/legislation & jurisprudence*; Phylogeography/methods*
  10. Jamsari AF, Jamaluddin JA, Pau TM, Siti-Azizah MN
    Genet Mol Biol, 2011 01;34(1):152-60.
    PMID: 21637559 DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572011000100026
    Nucleotide sequences of a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were used to assess the manner in which historical processes and geomorphological effects may have influenced genetic structuring and phylogeographic patterns in Channa striata. Assaying was based on individuals from twelve populations in four river systems, which were separated into two regions, the eastern and western, of the biodiversely rich state of Perak in central Peninsular Malaysia. In 238 specimens, a total of 368-bp sequences with ten polymorphic sites and eleven unique haplotypes were detected. Data on all the twelve populations revealed incomplete divergence due to past historical coalescence and the short period of separation. Nevertheless, SAMOVA and F(ST) revealed geographical structuring existed to a certain extent in both regions. For the eastern region, the data also showed that the upstream populations were genetically significantly different compared to the mid- and downstream ones. It is inferred that physical barriers and historical processes played a dominant role in structuring the genetic dispersal of the species. A further inference is that the Grik, Tanjung Rambutan and Sungkai are potential candidates for conservation and aquaculture programmes since they contained most of the total diversity in this area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  11. Lim HC, Rahman MA, Lim SL, Moyle RG, Sheldon FH
    Evolution, 2011 Feb;65(2):321-34.
    PMID: 20796023 DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01105.x
    Sundaland, a biogeographic region of Southeast Asia, is a major biodiversity hotspot. However, little is known about the relative importance of Pleistocene habitat barriers and rivers in structuring populations and promoting diversification here. We sampled 16 lowland rainforest bird species primarily from peninsular Malaysia and Borneo to test the long-standing hypothesis that animals on different Sundaic landmasses intermixed extensively when lower sea-levels during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) exposed land-bridges. This hypothesis was rejected in all but five species through coalescent simulations. Furthermore, we detected a range of phylogeographic patterns; Bornean populations are often genetically distinct from each other, despite their current habitat connectivity. Environmental niche modeling showed that the presence of unsuitable habitats between western and eastern Sundaland during the LGM coincided with deeper interpopulation genetic divergences. The location of this habitat barrier had been hypothesized previously based on other evidence. Paleo-riverine barriers are unlikely to have produced such a pattern, but we cannot rule out that they acted with habitat changes to impede population exchanges across the Sunda shelf. The distinctiveness of northeastern Borneo populations may be underlied by a combination of factors such as rivers, LGM expansion of montane forests and other aspects of regional physiography.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  12. Buckley CD
    PLoS One, 2012;7(12):e52064.
    PMID: 23272211 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052064
    The warp ikat method of making decorated textiles is one of the most geographically widespread in southeast Asia, being used by Austronesian peoples in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, and Daic peoples on the Asian mainland. In this study a dataset consisting of the decorative characters of 36 of these warp ikat weaving traditions is investigated using Bayesian and Neighbornet techniques, and the results are used to construct a phylogenetic tree and taxonomy for warp ikat weaving in southeast Asia. The results and analysis show that these diverse traditions have a common ancestor amongst neolithic cultures the Asian mainland, and parallels exist between the patterns of textile weaving descent and linguistic phylogeny for the Austronesian group. Ancestral state analysis is used to reconstruct some of the features of the ancestral weaving tradition. The widely held theory that weaving motifs originated in the late Bronze Age Dong-Son culture is shown to be inconsistent with the data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  13. Vale FF, Vadivelu J, Oleastro M, Breurec S, Engstrand L, Perets TT, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:14333.
    PMID: 26387443 DOI: 10.1038/srep14333
    Prophages of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium known to co-evolve in the stomach of its human host, were recently identified. However, their role in the diversity of H. pylori strains is unknown. We demonstrate here and for the first time that the diversity of the prophage genes offers the ability to distinguish between European populations, and that H. pylori prophages and their host bacteria share a complex evolutionary history. By comparing the phylogenetic trees of two prophage genes (integrase and holin) and the multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-based data obtained for seven housekeeping genes, we observed that the majority of the strains belong to the same phylogeographic group in both trees. Furthermore, we found that the Bayesian analysis of the population structure of the prophage genes identified two H. pylori European populations, hpNEurope and hpSWEurope, while the MLST sequences identified one European population, hpEurope. The population structure analysis of H. pylori prophages was even more discriminative than the traditional MLST-based method for the European population. Prophages are new players to be considered not only to show the diversity of H. pylori strains but also to more sharply define human populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  14. Wee AK, Takayama K, Chua JL, Asakawa T, Meenakshisundaram SH, Onrizal, et al.
    BMC Evol. Biol., 2015 Mar 29;15:57.
    PMID: 25888261 DOI: 10.1186/s12862-015-0331-3
    BACKGROUND: Mangrove forests are ecologically important but globally threatened intertidal plant communities. Effective mangrove conservation requires the determination of species identity, management units, and genetic structure. Here, we investigate the genetic distinctiveness and genetic structure of an iconic but yet taxonomically confusing species complex Rhizophora mucronata and R. stylosa across their distributional range, by employing a suite of 20 informative nuclear SSR markers.

    RESULTS: Our results demonstrated the general genetic distinctiveness of R. mucronata and R. stylosa, and potential hybridization or introgression between them. We investigated the population genetics of each species without the putative hybrids, and found strong genetic structure between oceanic regions in both R. mucronata and R. stylosa. In R. mucronata, a strong divergence was detected between populations from the Indian Ocean region (Indian Ocean and Andaman Sea) and the Pacific Ocean region (Malacca Strait, South China Sea and Northwest Pacific Ocean). In R. stylosa, the genetic break was located more eastward, between populations from South and East China Sea and populations from the Southwest Pacific Ocean. The location of these genetic breaks coincided with the boundaries of oceanic currents, thus suggesting that oceanic circulation patterns might have acted as a cryptic barrier to gene flow.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings have important implications on the conservation of mangroves, especially relating to replanting efforts and the definition of evolutionary significant units in Rhizophora species. We outlined the genetic structure and identified geographical areas that require further investigations for both R. mucronata and R. stylosa. These results serve as the foundation for the conservation genetics of R. mucronata and R. stylosa and highlighted the need to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of closely-related species, determine their respective genetic structure, and avoid artificially promoting hybridization in mangrove restoration programmes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  15. Gibbs S, Hundt PJ, Nelson A, Egan JP, Tongnunui P, Simons AM
    Zootaxa, 2018 Jan 03;4369(2):270-280.
    PMID: 29689891 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4369.2.7
    The combtooth blenny (Blenniidae) genus Omobranchus contains small, cryptobenthic fishes common to nearshore habitats throughout the Indo-West Pacific. Recent molecular systematic studies have resolved Omobranchus as monophyletic but little research has been done to resolve species-level relationships. Herein, phylogenetic analyses of one mitochondrial (CO1) and four nuclear (ENC1, myh6, sreb2, and tbr1) genes provide evidence for the monophyly of Omobranchus and support for the elongatus and banditus species group. Sampling of multiple individuals from widespread species (O. ferox, O. punctatus, and O. elongatus) suggested that the Thai-Malay Peninsula is a phylogeographic break that may be a historic barrier to gene flow. Additionally, common meristics and other morphological characters are used to describe an early life history stage of O. ferox and O. punctatus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  16. Ng PK, Lin SM, Lim PE, Hurtado AQ, Phang SM, Yow YY, et al.
    PLoS One, 2017;12(7):e0182176.
    PMID: 28759629 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182176
    Many studies classifying Gracilaria species for the exploitation of agarophytes and the development of the agar industry were conducted before the prevalence of molecular tools, resulting in the description of many species based solely on their morphology. Gracilaria firma and G. changii are among the commercially important agarophytes from the western Pacific; both feature branches with basal constrictions that taper toward acute apices. In this study, we contrasted the morpho-anatomical circumscriptions of the two traditionally described species with molecular data from samples that included representatives of G. changii collected from its type locality. Concerted molecular analyses using the rbcL and cox1 gene sequences, coupled with morphological observations of the collections from the western Pacific, revealed no inherent differences to support the treatment of the two entities as distinct taxa. We propose merging G. changii (a later synonym) into G. firma and recognize G. firma based on thallus branches with abrupt basal constrictions that gradually taper toward acute (or sometimes broken) apices, cystocarps consisting of small gonimoblast cells and inconspicuous multinucleate tubular nutritive cells issuing from gonimoblasts extending into the inner pericarp at the cystocarp floor, as well as deep spermatangial conceptacles of the verrucosa-type. The validation of specimens under different names as a single genetic species is useful to allow communication and knowledge transfer among groups from different fields. This study also revealed considerably low number of haplotypes and nucleotide diversity with apparent phylogeographic patterns for G. firma in the region. Populations from the Philippines and Taiwan were divergent from each other as well as from the populations from Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Vietnam. Establishment of baseline data on the genetic diversity of this commercially important agarophyte is relevant in the context of cultivation, as limited genetic diversity may jeopardize the potential for its genetic improvement over time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  17. Leaw CP, Tan TH, Lim HC, Teng ST, Yong HL, Smith KF, et al.
    Harmful Algae, 2016 05;55:137-149.
    PMID: 28073527 DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2016.02.010
    In this study, inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity within the marine harmful dinoflagellate genus Coolia Meunier was evaluated using isolates obtained from the tropics to subtropics in both Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. The aim was to assess the phylogeographic history of the genus and to clarify the validity of established species including Coolia malayensis. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1-D2 LSU rDNA sequences identified six major lineages (L1-L6) corresponding to the morphospecies Coolia malayensis (L1), C. monotis (L2), C. santacroce (L3), C. palmyrensis (L4), C. tropicalis (L5), and C. canariensis (L6). A median joining network (MJN) of C. malayensis ITS2 rDNA sequences revealed a total of 16 haplotypes; however, no spatial genetic differentiation among populations was observed. These MJN results in conjunction with CBC analysis, rDNA phylogenies and geographical distribution analyses confirm C. malayensis as a distinct species which is globally distributed in the tropical to warm-temperate regions. A molecular clock analysis using ITS2 rDNA revealed the evolutionary history of Coolia dated back to the Mesozoic, and supports the hypothesis that historical vicariant events in the early Cenozoic drove the allopatric differentiation of C. malayensis and C. monotis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  18. Norhazrina N, Vanderpoorten A, Hedenäs L, Patiño J
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2016 12;105:139-145.
    PMID: 27530707 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.08.008
    As opposed to angiosperms, moss species richness is similar among tropical regions of the world, in line with the hypothesis that tropical bryophytes are extremely good dispersers. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the pantropical moss genus Pelekium to test the hypothesis that high migration rates erase any difference in species richness among tropical regions. In contrast with this hypothesis, several species considered to have a pantropical range were resolved as a complex of species with a strong geographic structure. Consequently, a significant phylogeographical signal was found in the data, evidencing that cladogenetic diversification within regions takes place at a faster rate than intercontinental migration. The shape of the Pelekium phylogeny, along with the selection of a constant-rate model of diversification among species in the genus, suggests, however, that the cladogenetic speciation patterns observed in Pelekium are not comparable to some of the spectacular examples of tropical radiations reported in angiosperms. Rather, the results presented here point to the constant accumulation of diversity through time in Pelekium. This, combined with evidence for long-distance dispersal limitations in the genus, suggests that the similar patterns of species richness among tropical areas are better explained in terms of comparable rates of diversification across tropical regions than by the homogenization of species richness by recurrent migrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  19. Midot F, Lau SYL, Wong WC, Tung HJ, Yap ML, Lo ML, et al.
    Microorganisms, 2019 Oct 16;7(10).
    PMID: 31623251 DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms7100464
    Ganoderma boninense causes basal stem rot (BSR) and is responsible for substantial economic losses to Southeast Asia's palm oil industry. Sarawak, a major producer in Malaysia, is also affected by this disease. Emergence of BSR in oil palm planted on peat throughout Sarawak is alarming as the soil type was previously regarded as non-conducive. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a single species, G. boninense as the cause of BSR in Sarawak. Information on evolutionary and demographic history for G. boninense in Sarawak inferred through informative genes is lacking. Hence, a haplotype study on single nucleotide polymorphisms in internal transcribed spacers (SNPs-ITS) of G. boninense was carried out. Sequence variations were analysed for population structure, phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships. The internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of 117 isolates from four populations in eight locations across Sarawak coastal areas revealed seven haplotypes. A major haplotype, designated GbHap1 (81.2%), was found throughout all sampling locations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed mainly in the ITS1 region. The genetic structure was not detected, and genetic distance did not correlate with geographical distance. Haplotype network analysis suggested evidence of recent demographic expansion. Low genetic differences among populations also suggested that these isolates belong to a single G. boninense founder population adapting to oil palm as the host.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
  20. Seri Masran SNA, Ab Majid AH
    J Med Entomol, 2019 06 27;56(4):942-952.
    PMID: 30882146 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjz024
    The surge in tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) infestations has led to an increase in genomic studies. In this study, the population genetics and breeding patterns of 22 Malaysian populations were analyzed, including genetic differentiation and genetic distance. For seven microsatellite loci, the number of alleles varied from 6 to 14. The allelels per loci contrasted sharply between the overall population and within the populations. The average observed and expected heterozygosity was 0.280 and 0.828 for the overall population and 0.281 and 0.657 among the populations, respectively. Based on polymorphic information criteria, the markers with a value >0.5 were highly polymorphic. In the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the loci of Ch 09ttn, Ch 01dn, and Ch 13dn of the overall population showed signs of a null allele. The stutter peaks caused no scoring errors; large allele dropouts were not detected for any loci; and a correlation imbalance was not indicated. The genetic differentiation among populations was moderate, with a coefficient of genetic differentiation (FST) of 0.144. The bed bug populations showed strong inbreeding, with highly positive coefficients of inbreeding (FIS). The molecular variation attributed to inbreeding was 83% within the populations, compared with 17% among the populations. The admixture individuals in STRUCTURE and neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees also indicated weak genetic structure in the geographical populations, suggesting moderate gene flows between populations. Thus, moderately active dispersion and human-mediated transport shaped the genetic structure of C. hemipterus populations in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phylogeography
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