PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: P. argentipes courtship shared many similarities with that of both Phlebotomus papatasi and the New World leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Male wing-flapping while approaching the female during courtship predicted mating success, and touching between males and females was a common and frequent occurrence. Both sexes were able to reject a potential partner. Significant differences were found in the profile of chemicals extracted from the surface of males and females. Results of GC analysis indicate that female extracts contained a number of peaks with relatively short retention times not present in males. Extracts from males had higher peaks for chemicals with relatively long retention times.
CONCLUSIONS: The importance of male approach flapping suggests that production of audio signals through wing beating, or dispersal of sex pheromones, are important to mating in this species. Frequent touching as a means of communication, and the differences in the chemical profiles extracted from males and females, may also indicate a role for cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship. Comparing characteristics of successful and unsuccessful mates could aid in identifying the modality of signals involved in P. argentipes courtship, and their potential for use in developing new strategies for vector control.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The testes were dissected out and fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution for 11 h, dehydrated in 70% alcohol and lastly placed in tissue processor for 18±1 h at 60°C. The tissues blocks were cut at the thickness of 4 μm on a rotary microtome. Stained tissues were taken under Advance Microscope (Nikon Eclipse 80i Nomarski DIC). Collected data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2013. Data were presented as mean±standard deviation. Statistical analyses were done using one-way ANOVA using SPSS (Version 22).
RESULTS: These lobules of mature P. polyphagus were formed via different germinative lineage cells such as spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. The histological characteristics of testes showed that the process of spermatogenesis went through the stages of four testes maturation which were spermatogonia I and II, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids and spermatozoa stages within different body weight of P. polyphagus. It was found that there were significant difference between body weight and carapace length to the testicular maturation stages (one-way ANOVA and p = 0.000).
CONCLUSION: The results of this experiment indicated that males P. polyphagus have four stages of testes maturation and can be considered to have fully mature testes that ready for fertilization at 452 g body weight (BW) and 107 mm carapace length (CL) or more.