Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 4295 in total

  1. Kim KH, Muhamad MA, Cheah SH, Rahman A
    JUMMEC, 1996;1:33-38.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physiology
  2. Suvarna BS
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ), 2012 Apr-Jun;10(38):77-82.
    PMID: 23132482
    Sirtuins are evolutionary conserved NAD+ dependent acetyl-lysine deacetylases and ADP ribosyltransferases dual-function enzymes involved in the regulation of metabolism and lifespan. Sirtuins represent a promising new class of III NAD dependent histone deacetylases that regulate a number of physiological processes, originally identified in yeast. Sirtuins regulate various normal and abnormal cellular and metabolic processes, including tumorgenesis, neurodegeneration and processes associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Several age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and longevity have also been linked to the functions of sirtuins. Because of these associations, the identification of small molecules sirtuin modulators has been of significant interest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sirtuins/physiology*
  3. Cheng HM
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2008 Dec;32(4):303.
    PMID: 19047507 DOI: 10.1152/advan.90110.2008
    Matched MeSH terms: Physiology/education*
  4. Ramachandran CP, Zaini MA
    Med J Malaya, 1967 Dec;22(2):136-44.
    PMID: 4231979
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/physiology*; Filarioidea/physiology*; Insect Vectors/physiology*
  5. Jalilsood T, Baradaran A, Song AA, Foo HL, Mustafa S, Saad WZ, et al.
    Microb Cell Fact, 2015;14:96.
    PMID: 26150120 DOI: 10.1186/s12934-015-0283-8
    Bacterial biofilms are a preferred mode of growth for many types of microorganisms in their natural environments. The ability of pathogens to integrate within a biofilm is pivotal to their survival. The possibility of biofilm formation in Lactobacillus communities is also important in various industrial and medical settings. Lactobacilli can eliminate the colonization of different pathogenic microorganisms. Alternatively, new opportunities are now arising with the rapidly expanding potential of lactic acid bacteria biofilms as bio-control agents against food-borne pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus cereus/physiology*; Lactobacillus/physiology
  6. Kaka U, Chen HC, Goh YM, Abubakar AA, Fakurazi S, Ebrahimi M
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:375421.
    PMID: 26075236 DOI: 10.1155/2015/375421
    This study was conducted to validate the use of a modified algometer device to measure mechanical nociceptive thresholds in six dogs. Dogs were administered morphine intravenously (IV) at 1 mg/kg or saline at equivolume in a crossover design with one-week washout period. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds were determined before, after the administration of treatments at 5 minutes, and hourly for 8 hours. Thresholds were recorded at the carpal pad, metacarpal foot pad, tibia, femur, and abdomen. Heart rates, body temperature, and respiration were recorded at similar time points. Thresholds increased significantly (P < 0.05) from baseline values for up to 3 hours at tibia and abdomen, 4 hours at metacarpal pad, and 5 hours at the carpal pad and femur. Hypothermia, bradycardia, and change in respiration were observed in all dogs after morphine injection. Saline did not alter any threshold levels during the eight-hour study period, indicating no evidence of tolerance, learned avoidance, or local hyperaesthesia. The device and methods of testing were well tolerated by all the dogs. Results suggest that the modified algometer and method of application are useful to measure nociceptive mechanical thresholds in awake dogs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hindlimb/physiology*; Locomotion/physiology*; Wakefulness/physiology*; Nociception/physiology*
  7. Rusli MU, Booth DT, Joseph J
    J Exp Biol, 2016 05 15;219(Pt 10):1505-13.
    PMID: 27207954 DOI: 10.1242/jeb.134742
    A potential advantage of group movement in animals is increased locomotion efficiency. This implies a reduced energetic cost for individuals that occur in larger groups such as herds, flocks and schools. When chelonian hatchlings hatch in the underground nest with finite energy for their post-hatching dispersal phase, they face the challenge of minimizing energetic expenditure while escaping the nest. The term 'social facilitation' has been used to describe the combined digging effort of sea turtle hatchlings during nest escape. Given that in a normal clutch, a substantial part of the energy reserve within the residual yolk is used by hatchlings in the digging out process, a decreased cohort size may reduce the energy reserve available to cross the beach and sustain the initial swimming frenzy. This hypothesis was experimentally tested by varying cohort size in hatchling green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and measuring energy expenditure during the nest escape process using open-flow respirometry. The energetic cost of escaping through 40 cm of sand was calculated to vary between 4.4 and 28.3 kJ per individual, the cost decreasing as the number of individuals in the cohort increased. This represents 11-68% of the energy contained in a hatchling's residual yolk at hatching. The reduced energetic cost associated with large cohorts resulted from both a lower metabolic rate per individual and a shortened nest escape time. We conclude that synchronous digging activity of many hatchlings during nest escape evolved not only to facilitate rapid nest emergence but also to reduce the energetic cost to individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Behavior, Animal/physiology*; Energy Metabolism/physiology*; Ovum/physiology; Oxygen Consumption/physiology; Swimming/physiology; Turtles/physiology*
  8. Shafizadeh M, Davids K, Correia V, Wheat J, Hizan H
    J Sports Sci, 2016 Sep;34(17):1596-601.
    PMID: 26652039 DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2015.1125011
    The aim of this study was to examine whether perceptual variables can provide informational constraints for the goalkeepers to intercept the ball successfully in 1v1 dyads. Video images of 42 actions (1v1 in direct shots) were selected randomly from different matches and divided into conceded goals (n = 20) and saved actions (n = 22) to investigate interceptive actions of 20 goalkeepers in the English Premier League in season 2013-2014. Time to Contact (TTC) of the closing distance gap between shooter and goalkeeper was obtained by digitising actions in the 18-yard penalty box. Statistical analyses revealed that, in sequences of play resulting in an intercepted shot at goal, goalkeepers closed down outfield players in the X axis, whereas when a goal was conceded, there was a significantly delayed movement by goalkeepers toward the shooters in this plane. The results of canonical correlations showed that a decreasing distance between a shooter and goalkeeper, and accompanied reduction in relative interpersonal velocity followed a temporal pattern. Findings of this study showed how perception of key informational constraints on dyadic system relations, such as TTC, interpersonal distance and relative velocity, constrain elite goalkeepers' interceptive actions, playing an important role in successful performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Competitive Behavior/physiology*; Soccer/physiology*; Space Perception/physiology*; Time Perception/physiology*; Athletic Performance/physiology*
  9. Shani S, Ahmad RE, Naveen SV, Murali MR, Puvanan K, Abbas AA, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:845293.
    PMID: 25436230 DOI: 10.1155/2014/845293
    Platelet rich concentrate (PRC) is a natural adjuvant that aids in human mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) proliferation in vitro; however, its role requires further exploration. This study was conducted to determine the optimal concentration of PRC required for achieving the maximal proliferation, and the need for activating the platelets to achieve this effect, and if PRC could independently induce early differentiation of hMSC. The gene expression of markers for osteocytes (ALP, RUNX2), chondrocytes (SOX9, COL2A1), and adipocytes (PPAR-γ) was determined at each time point in hMSC treated with 15% activated and nonactivated PRC since maximal proliferative effect was achieved at this concentration. The isolated PRC had approximately fourfold higher platelet count than whole blood. There was no significant difference in hMSC proliferation between the activated and nonactivated PRC. Only RUNX2 and SOX9 genes were upregulated throughout the 8 days. However, protein expression study showed formation of oil globules from day 4, significant increase in ALP at days 6 and 8 (P ≤ 0.05), and increased glycosaminoglycan levels at all time points (P < 0.05), suggesting the early differentiation of hMSC into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. This study demonstrates that the use of PRC increased hMSC proliferation and induced early differentiation of hMSC into multiple mesenchymal lineages, without preactivation or addition of differentiation medium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Platelets/physiology*; Cell Differentiation/physiology*; Cell Lineage/physiology*; Cell Proliferation/physiology*; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells/physiology*
  10. Beaudrot L, Struebig MJ, Meijaard E, van Balen S, Husson S, Young CF, et al.
    Am J Primatol, 2013 Feb;75(2):170-85.
    PMID: 23184656 DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22095
    For several decades, primatologists have been interested in understanding how sympatric primate species are able to coexist. Most of our understanding of primate community ecology derives from the assumption that these animals interact predominantly with other primates. In this study, we investigate to what extent multiple community assembly hypotheses consistent with this assumption are supported when tested with communities of primates in isolation versus with communities of primates, birds, bats, and squirrels together. We focus on vertebrate communities on the island of Borneo, where we examine the determinants of presence or absence of species, and how these communities are structured. We test for checkerboard distributions, guild proportionality, and Fox's assembly rule for favored states, and predict that statistical signals reflecting interactions between ecologically similar species will be stronger when nonprimate taxa are included in analyses. We found strong support for checkerboard distributions in several communities, particularly when taxonomic groups were combined, and after controlling for habitat effects. We found evidence of guild proportionality in some communities, but did not find significant support for Fox's assembly rule in any of the communities examined. These results demonstrate the presence of vertebrate community structure that is ecologically determined rather than randomly generated, which is a finding consistent with the interpretation that interactions within and between these taxonomic groups may have shaped species composition in these communities. This research highlights the importance of considering the broader vertebrate communities with which primates co-occur, and so we urge primatologists to explicitly consider nonprimate taxa in the study of primate ecology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/physiology*; Chiroptera/physiology; Mammals/physiology*; Primates/physiology; Sciuridae/physiology
  11. Alam MA, Juraimi AS, Rafii MY, Abdul Hamid A
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:105695.
    PMID: 25802833 DOI: 10.1155/2015/105695
    13 selected purslane accessions were subjected to five salinity levels 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32 dS m(-1). Salinity effect was evaluated on the basis of biomass yield reduction, physiological attributes, and stem-root anatomical changes. Aggravated salinity stress caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all measured parameters and the highest salinity showed more detrimental effect compared to control as well as lower salinity levels. The fresh and dry matter production was found to increase in Ac1, Ac9, and Ac13 from lower to higher salinity levels but others were badly affected. Considering salinity effect on purslane physiology, increase in chlorophyll content was seen in Ac2, Ac4, Ac6, and Ac8 at 16 dS m(-1) salinity, whereas Ac4, Ac9, and Ac12 showed increased photosynthesis at the same salinity levels compared to control. Anatomically, stem cortical tissues of Ac5, Ac9, and Ac12 were unaffected at control and 8 dS m(-1) salinity but root cortical tissues did not show any significant damage except a bit enlargement in Ac12 and Ac13. A dendrogram was constructed by UPGMA based on biomass yield and physiological traits where all 13 accessions were grouped into 5 clusters proving greater diversity among them. The 3-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) has also confirmed the output of grouping from cluster analysis. Overall, salinity stressed among all 13 purslane accessions considering biomass production, physiological growth, and anatomical development Ac9 was the best salt-tolerant purslane accession and Ac13 was the most affected accession.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chlorophyll/physiology; Photosynthesis/physiology; Plant Roots/physiology*; Plant Stems/physiology*; Portulaca/physiology*
  12. Mohammed Z, Dickinson CM
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, 2000 Nov;20(6):464-72.
    PMID: 11127126 DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-1313.2000.tb01124.x
    For the reading task, contrast reserve is defined as the ratio of the letter contrast of the printed letters, to the reader's contrast threshold. Acuity reserve is the ratio of the print size used for the reading task, to the reader's visual acuity. The effects of low contrast reserve on reading performance were investigated at various magnifications, ranging from 3x to 7.5x, with the field of view systematically controlled. Eye movements were recorded whilst normally sighted subjects read using the magnifiers. It was shown that with adequate contrast reserve, increasing the field of view improved the reading rate because of the resulting increase in forward saccade length. Conversely, reducing the contrast reserve slowed the reading rate by decreasing the length of forward saccades and increasing the mean fixation duration, suggesting that the perceptual span is reduced at low contrast reserve. This study also shows that when the contrast reserve is low, providing magnification higher than that required for letter recognition (that is, increasing the acuity reserve) will not improve the reading performance. Furthermore, even when the contrast reserve was high, reading rates were lower for the magnifications of 5x and higher, because increases in saccade length do not match those of the retinal image size at these magnifications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eye Movements/physiology; Saccades/physiology; Visual Acuity/physiology*; Visual Fields/physiology*; Contrast Sensitivity/physiology
  13. Ng KW
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Mar;47(1):3-10.
    PMID: 1387446
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Development/physiology; Colony-Stimulating Factors/physiology; Interleukins/physiology; Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/physiology; Cytokines/physiology*
  14. Sahebi M, Hanafi MM, van Wijnen AJ, Rice D, Rafii MY, Azizi P, et al.
    Gene, 2018 Jul 30;665:155-166.
    PMID: 29684486 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.04.050
    Plants maintain extensive growth flexibility under different environmental conditions, allowing them to continuously and rapidly adapt to alterations in their environment. A large portion of many plant genomes consists of transposable elements (TEs) that create new genetic variations within plant species. Different types of mutations may be created by TEs in plants. Many TEs can avoid the host's defense mechanisms and survive alterations in transposition activity, internal sequence and target site. Thus, plant genomes are expected to utilize a variety of mechanisms to tolerate TEs that are near or within genes. TEs affect the expression of not only nearby genes but also unlinked inserted genes. TEs can create new promoters, leading to novel expression patterns or alternative coding regions to generate alternate transcripts in plant species. TEs can also provide novel cis-acting regulatory elements that act as enhancers or inserts within original enhancers that are required for transcription. Thus, the regulation of plant gene expression is strongly managed by the insertion of TEs into nearby genes. TEs can also lead to chromatin modifications and thereby affect gene expression in plants. TEs are able to generate new genes and modify existing gene structures by duplicating, mobilizing and recombining gene fragments. They can also facilitate cellular functions by sharing their transposase-coding regions. Hence, TE insertions can not only act as simple mutagens but can also alter the elementary functions of the plant genome. Here, we review recent discoveries concerning the contribution of TEs to gene expression in plant genomes and discuss the different mechanisms by which TEs can affect plant gene expression and reduce host defense mechanisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Transposable Elements/physiology*; Transcription, Genetic/physiology*; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology*; Genome, Plant/physiology*; Response Elements/physiology*
  15. Husain I, Ahmad W, Ali A, Anwar L, Nuruddin SM, Ashraf K, et al.
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 2021;20(7):613-624.
    PMID: 33530918 DOI: 10.2174/1871527320666210202121624
    A proteome is defined as a comprehensive protein set either of an organ or an organism at a given time and under specific physiological conditions. Accordingly, the study of the nervous system's proteomes is called neuroproteomics. In the neuroproteomics process, various pieces of the nervous system are "fragmented" to understand the dynamics of each given sub-proteome in a much better way. Functional proteomics addresses the organisation of proteins into complexes and the formation of organelles from these multiprotein complexes that control various physiological processes. Current functional studies of neuroproteomics mainly talk about the synapse structure and its organisation, the major building site of the neuronal communication channel. The proteomes of synaptic vesicle, presynaptic terminal, and postsynaptic density, have been examined by various proteomics techniques. The objectives of functional neuroproteomics are: to solve the proteome of single neurons or astrocytes grown in cell cultures or from the primary brain cells isolated from tissues under various conditions, to identify the set of proteins that characterize specific pathogenesis, or to determine the group of proteins making up postsynaptic or presynaptic densities. It is usual to solve a particular sub-proteome like the heat-shock response proteome or the proteome responding to inflammation. Post-translational protein modifications alter their functions and interactions. The techniques to detect synapse phosphoproteome are available. However, techniques for the analysis of ubiquitination and sumoylation are under development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/physiology*; Neurons/physiology; Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology; Synapses/physiology; Proteome/physiology*
  16. Bray DP, Yaman K, Underhilll BA, Mitchell F, Carter V, Hamilton JG
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014 Dec;8(12):e3316.
    PMID: 25474027 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003316
    BACKGROUND: The sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes is arguably the most important vector of leishmaniasis worldwide. As there is no vaccine against the parasites that cause leishmaniasis, disease prevention focuses on control of the insect vector. Understanding reproductive behaviour will be essential to controlling populations of P. argentipes, and developing new strategies for reducing leishmaniasis transmission. Through statistical analysis of male-female interactions, this study provides a detailed description of P. argentipes courtship, and behaviours critical to mating success are highlighted. The potential for a role of cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship is also investigated, by comparing chemicals extracted from the surface of male and female flies.

    PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: P. argentipes courtship shared many similarities with that of both Phlebotomus papatasi and the New World leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Male wing-flapping while approaching the female during courtship predicted mating success, and touching between males and females was a common and frequent occurrence. Both sexes were able to reject a potential partner. Significant differences were found in the profile of chemicals extracted from the surface of males and females. Results of GC analysis indicate that female extracts contained a number of peaks with relatively short retention times not present in males. Extracts from males had higher peaks for chemicals with relatively long retention times.

    CONCLUSIONS: The importance of male approach flapping suggests that production of audio signals through wing beating, or dispersal of sex pheromones, are important to mating in this species. Frequent touching as a means of communication, and the differences in the chemical profiles extracted from males and females, may also indicate a role for cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship. Comparing characteristics of successful and unsuccessful mates could aid in identifying the modality of signals involved in P. argentipes courtship, and their potential for use in developing new strategies for vector control.

    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Vectors/physiology*; Phlebotomus/physiology*
  17. Tan SS, Maul TH, Mennie NR
    PLoS One, 2013;8(5):e63042.
    PMID: 23696791 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063042
    Visual to auditory conversion systems have been in existence for several decades. Besides being among the front runners in providing visual capabilities to blind users, the auditory cues generated from image sonification systems are still easier to learn and adapt to compared to other similar techniques. Other advantages include low cost, easy customizability, and universality. However, every system developed so far has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. In order to improve these systems further, we propose an automated and quantitative method to measure the performance of such systems. With these quantitative measurements, it is possible to gauge the relative strengths and weaknesses of different systems and rank the systems accordingly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Auditory Perception/physiology*; Visual Perception/physiology*
  18. Sharma JN
    Gen. Pharmacol., 1988;19(2):177-87.
    PMID: 3280399
    The evidence presented here suggests strongly that the kallikreins-kininogens-kinins-kininase II system has most significant role in regulation of systemic BP. This system is involved in mediation and modulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, PGS and vasopressin in the regulation of sodium water balance, renal hemodynamic and BP. Therefore, reduction in the kinin-formation due to high production of kininase II, and lower formation of tissue kallikrein might result in an increased release of vasoconstrictor angiotensin II on one side, and on the other side much reduced production of PGE, vasodilator. These changes might lead to deranged vascular smooth muscle structures and cell membrane functions, retention of sodium and water, increased plasma volume, and renovascular constriction. These physiological defects might result in the development of essential hypertension (Fig. 4). Although, it is possible now to treat hypertensive conditions with tissue kallikrein and kininase II inhibitors. These discoveries have opened up new vistas to research on the pharmacological applications of kallikreins-kininogens-kinins-kininases in human diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kallikreins/physiology*; Kinins/physiology*
  19. Singh G
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Dec;32(2):152-6.
    PMID: 614483
    Matched MeSH terms: Neural Pathways/physiology; Nociceptors/physiology
  20. Nor Fatihah S, Muhd-Farouk H, Amin-Safwan A, Hafiz Mahsol H, Ikhwanuddin M
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2017;20(7):365-371.
    PMID: 29023069 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2017.365.371
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mud spiny lobsters, Panulirus polyphagus (P. polyphagus) are one of the most important fisheries resources now-a-days due to quality that it's possessed. However, there is still lack of in-depth study about this species mainly on males testicular characteristics and sexual maturity size. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the histological characteristics on the testes and sexual maturity sizes of mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The testes were dissected out and fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution for 11 h, dehydrated in 70% alcohol and lastly placed in tissue processor for 18±1 h at 60°C. The tissues blocks were cut at the thickness of 4 μm on a rotary microtome. Stained tissues were taken under Advance Microscope (Nikon Eclipse 80i Nomarski DIC). Collected data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2013. Data were presented as mean±standard deviation. Statistical analyses were done using one-way ANOVA using SPSS (Version 22).

    RESULTS: These lobules of mature P. polyphagus were formed via different germinative lineage cells such as spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. The histological characteristics of testes showed that the process of spermatogenesis went through the stages of four testes maturation which were spermatogonia I and II, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids and spermatozoa stages within different body weight of P. polyphagus. It was found that there were significant difference between body weight and carapace length to the testicular maturation stages (one-way ANOVA and p = 0.000).

    CONCLUSION: The results of this experiment indicated that males P. polyphagus have four stages of testes maturation and can be considered to have fully mature testes that ready for fertilization at 452 g body weight (BW) and 107 mm carapace length (CL) or more.

    Matched MeSH terms: Testis/physiology*; Palinuridae/physiology*
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links