The purposes of the study were: (1) to determine the agility and leg power among Malaysian national junior netball players and (2) to determine the impact of eight-week aerobic and strength-training programme on these two variables. A total of 21 netball players from Bukit Jalil Sport School were selected as the subjects in this study. The SEMO Agility Run test was used to determine the agility level while leg power was measured using the Vertical Jump test. Pre-test and post-test results showed no significant differences in the agility and leg power level among the netball players. The mean values for the agility and leg power post-test were 12.59 (SD = 0.56) seconds and 50.24 (SD = 4.90) cm respectively. The pre-test and post-test results for different playing positions recorded the highest improvement in agility and leg power among attacker, followed by centre, and defender. Thus, the training conducted in this study was found to have improved agility and leg power marginally, especially among attacker and centre netball players.
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of portable devices (Mp4) in delivering imagery based on video modelling (expert model) among 30 female netball players, examining their personal experience. In the pre-test-intervention-post-test study design, 15 participants were randomly assigned into each of the Mp4 (initial and repeated instructions). Participants practised the imagery for seven days and were interviewed at post-test. In interviews most of the participants in the Mp4 conditions reported that their confidence for shooting increased. They considered the Mp4 to be a useful device to practice imagery at any time and place, but imagery training routines varied among participants and were influenced by their personal life and free time activities. The results of this study signified that the Mp4 has the potential to be a reliable tool to deliver imagery training based on video modelling among netballers.
Sepak Takraw is a popular sport among the Southeast Asian countries and various brands of takraw balls are available in the local market to suit the needs of players. In this study, four different takraw balls commonly used by the Malaysian takraw players were selected for testing of mechanical properties by using compression and fatigue analysis. It was found that the GE takraw balls were more suitable to be used by Malaysian takraw players due to higher fatigue life and tensile strength. This finding is particularly useful for the local sport academy in deciding which ball is to be used in the future takraw competitions.
Two major types of services in sepak takraw are kuda and sila services. Even though both services are delivered at high speed, each is composed of different kinematic features. The purpose of the study was to determine the fundamental differences in perceptual strategies in
anticipating the kuda and sila services. The receiver of the game in sepak takraw makes decisions under severe time constraint in both spatial and temporal uncertainty. The study examined two groups of 12 players each; the experts and the novices. Perceptual displays in anticipation of the
kuda and sila services were prompted using video stimulations consisting of seven temporal occlusions t1 (240 milliseconds at pre-contact), t2 (160 milliseconds at pre-contact), t3 (80 milliseconds at pre-contact, t4 (0 millisecond at contact), t5 (80 milliseconds at post-contact), t6 (160
milliseconds at post-contact), and t7 (no occlusion). Significant differences amongst expert players in anticipating kuda and sila services were at t1 F (14, 180) = 2.37; p < 0.05], t2 F (14, 180) = 5.60; p < 0.05], t3 F (14, 180) = 3.81; p < 0.05] and t4 F (14, 180) = 2.00; p < 0.05]. Similar comparisons at t5, t6, and t7 did not yield any significant differences. In addition, there were significant differences amongst novice players in anticipating kuda and sila services at t2 F (14,
180) = 2.27; p < 0.05], t3 F (14, 180) = 1.94; p < 0.05], t4 F (14, 180) = 2.61; p < 0.05], and t5 F (14, 180) = 9.38; p < 0.05]. Overall findings revealed that expert players found it more difficult to anticipate kuda service compared to sila service at t1. Hence, the kuda service is more
difficult to anticipate than sila service. Participants of this study demonstrated a more effective visual perceptual strategy to counter attack a sila service than they would with a kuda service.
Introduction: Parents play an important role in the management of their asthmatic children. Thus the ability of parents to recognise asthma trigger factors are very important.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify the trigger factors that were recognised by parents to cause acute exacerbation in their children and analyse the association of these factors with severity of asthma and parental asthma knowledge.
Methods: Sixty-seven parents were interviewed to identify factors that can exacerbate acute asthmatic attack in their asthmatic children. The factors were then categorised as: infection, exercise, allergen, irritant, emotion and weather. The profiles of children were asthma severity status, duration of asthma, age, frequency of admission and steroid dosage. Parents' profiles were their age, number of asthmatic children and the level of asthma knowledge.
Result: Fifty-six (83.5%) parents identified more than one trigger factor for their children's exacerbation. The commonest frequency was two trigger factors (31.3%). Upper respiratory tract infection (77.6%) was the commonest trigger factor. There was no association between the number of trigger factors with the severity of asthma and level of parental asthma knowledge. The number of trigger factors significantly correlated with asthma duration (r = 0.33, p = 0.006). The asthma severity was associated significantly with weather (p = 0.042) but not with other trigger factors.
Conclusion: The majority of parents recognised more than one trigger factors to cause asthma exacerbation.
The aim of the study was to compare the body fat percentages between Malaysian national women basketball players and netball players. Both basketball and netball players were elite players who represented Malaysia in the 1997 Southeast Asia Games in Jakarta, Indonesia and the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur. The percentage of body fat was determined by means of skinfold measurement at seven different locations. Results of the findings showed that overall, the basketball players had higher percentages of body fat than netball players. The average percentages of body fat of basketball and netball players were 19.68 ± 4.93% and 18.93 ± 4.41%, respectively. Both Malaysian national basketball and netball players' average percentage of body fat were found to be higher than the ideal average percentage of body fat range between 10-16% for female athletes in elite team sports. The players in the defence position in basketball were found to have the highest percentage of body fat (23.00%), followed by centre position players (21.62%) and attack position players (15.10%). These results differed from netball players' in similar playing positions. Among the netball players, the defence position players had the highest percentage of body fat (21.00%), followed by attack position players (18.63%), and centre position players (16.57%).
Facial mimicry is a central feature of human social interactions. Although it has been evidenced in other mammals, no study has yet shown that this phenomenon can reach the level of precision seem in humans and gorillas. Here, we studied the facial complexity of group-housed sun bears, a typically solitary species, with special focus on testing for exact facial mimicry. Our results provided evidence that the bears have the ability to mimic the expressions of their conspecifics and that they do so by matching the exact facial variants they interact with. In addition, the data showed the bears produced the open-mouth faces predominantly when they received the recipient's attention, suggesting a degree of social sensitivity. Our finding questions the relationship between communicative complexity and social complexity, and suggests the possibility that the capacity for complex facial communication is phylogenetically more widespread than previously thought.
Employee motivation affects productivity and need to be channeled towards the accomplishment of organizational goals. A cross sectional study was conducted among Public Health Specialists (PHS) in the Ministry of Health Malaysia to study their motivation level and the factors influencing this. The respondents were from the Association of Public Health Specialists of Malaysia working in the Ministry of Health. Quantitative Technique self-administered questionnaires were used in this study and the questionnaires were mailed to the respondents. The response rate for this study was 72.3%. In measuring the motivation level, five (5) aspects were studied. The social aspect, self -achievement aspect and autonomy aspect were found to be the main aspects that motivated the respondents. With regard to motivation level, 55.8 % respondents had low motivation level. In order to improve the motivation level among PHS, the aspect of self actualization and autonomy required serious attention. In the future, PHS are expected to play a major role in controlling, promoting, preventing, maintaining, restoring and solving problems in order to enhance the health of the Malaysian population.
Badminton is a court
based racquet games to be played either in single (one versus one) or double (two versus two)
in a court. Badminton is a famous sport especially in Asia and among the excellent team in
badminton includes China, Indonesia, Malaysia and South Korea. Outside of Asia, badminton
is well known in England and Denmark. One of the main tasks of strength and conditioning
coach or trainer is to design and implement physical conditioning program. Well developed
and implemented training programs mainly dependable on how accurate the training program
variables being devised and manipulated, in order to serve the need and goals of involved
athletes. Appropriate manipulation of training program variables and modifications made
from time to time relies a lot on the accuracy and reliability of monitoring assessment used.
The main purpose of this review is to identify what has been done previously regarding
physiological and biomechanical profiling of badminton players. It is also the aim of this
review to discuss on the type of test previously used in previous studies, especially with
regards to strength and power assessment, were close enough to movement pattern perform
by a badminton players during an actual badminton match.
The construction industry is an important industry in the Malaysian’s economy. Much has been said about the quality of the product as well as the image of the industry due to the small percentage of local workers on site. The industry’s welfare and safety record is not at all encouraging. To stop the rot, the government has taken important and significant steps by the establishment of the Malaysian Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). These efforts have shown some significant positive improvement in the perception and action of those involved in the industry but we are still far from the standard shown in other developed countries in terms of site safety. This paper is to discuss the roles and responsibilities of the key players in the industry be it the clients, consultants or contractors. The focus is on the ‘upstream’ activities i.e. the pre-construction stage, rather than the ‘downstream’ i.e. the construction phase of a project.
Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs.
MESH: screen time
Matched MeSH terms: Play and Playthings/psychology*
In Malaysia, inexpensive toys are sold in various urban and rural shops. Although safety regulations for toys are available in Malaysia there are limited reports about the chemicals in toys. Thus, this study aimed to assess the levels of phthalates (bis-[2-ethylhexyl] phthalate [DEHP], diethyl phthalate [DEP], diisobutyl phthalate [DiBP] and dibutyl phthalate [DBP]) in inexpensive toys sold at local markets in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) and its health risks to children. All 30 toys analysed exceeded the European Union limit (0.1 % by mass) indicating that the phthalate used as plasticizers is still prominent in toys. Bis-[2-ethylhexyl] phthalate (DEHP) was the highest detected phthalate in toy sample which was manufactured in Malaysia and sold without Malaysian Conformity Mark. Significant association was found between phthalate levels and country, indicating a need to monitor and raise public awareness about potential toxic chemicals in inexpensive toys and children's products. There are few inexpensive toys that have a hazard index value of more than one, which is associated with developmental toxicity and causes developmental effects in children. Given the severity and complexity of these toys to children health, there is a need for regular monitoring and effective enforcements to develop an acceptable baseline level of children toys products manufactured in or imported to Malaysia. Furthermore, risk management efforts should also include all the stakeholders involved in toy production, policy makers as well as consumers to ensure only toy products with proper labels being sole and purchased.
Activities that engage young children with the sensory properties of foods are popular with nursery schools, despite the lack of evidence for their efficacy in increasing children's consumption of healthy foods. This study provides the first empirical exploration of the effectiveness of a non-taste sensory activity program in a nursery school setting. Ninety-two children aged between 12 and 36 months were allocated either to an intervention group, who took part in looking, listening, feeling and smelling activities with unusual fruits and vegetables every day for 4 weeks, or to a non-intervention control group. In a subsequent mealtime taste test, children touched and tasted more of the vegetables to which they had been familiarized in their playtime activities than of a matched set of non-exposed foods. The results demonstrate that hands-on activities with unfamiliar fruits and vegetables can enhance children's willingness to taste these foods, and confirm the potential for such activities to support healthy eating initiatives.
Long-term observations are presented on the behaviour of the siamang ape, Symphalangus syndactylus, in the lowland forest of central Malaya. The data were collected during two dry and three fruiting seasons between 1969 and 1973 inclusive on two groups with adjacent ranges; comparisons are made within and between sample periods, and between groups. The influence of weather on daily activities is considered. Food intake is analysed in terms of number of food trees, number of visits to these trees, and the cumulative time spent feeding on various food categories. Ranging behaviour is investigated in terms of distance travelled, area covered, and distribution of time and of food trees about the range. The occurrence of calling is described and compared with that of the white-handed gibbon in the same area. A discussion ensues on each of these aspects of behaviour in turn. Emphasis is laid on the similarity of behaviour of the two groups at any one time, and on the degree of their response to the fluctuations of environment variables. Finally, the application to siamang of ranging concepts currently used in animal behaviour is considered briefly.
Soil contaminated with helminth eggs and protozoan cysts is a potential source of infection and poses a threat to the public, especially to young children frequenting playgrounds. The present study determines the levels of infection of helminth eggs in soil samples from urban and suburban playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia and identifies one source of contamination via faecal screening from stray animals. Three hundred soil samples from 60 playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia were screened using the centrifugal flotation technique to identify and determine egg/cyst counts per gram (EPG) for each parasite. All playgrounds, especially those in Penang, were found to be contaminated with eggs from four nematode genera, with Toxocara eggs (95.7%) the highest, followed by Ascaris (93.3%), Ancylostoma (88.3%) and Trichuris (77.0%). In addition, faeces from animal shelters were found to contain both helminth eggs and protozoan cysts, with overall infection rates being 54% and 57% for feline and canine samples, respectively. The most frequently occurring parasite in feline samples was Toxocara cati (37%; EPG, 42.47 ± 156.08), while in dog faeces it was Ancylostoma sp. (54%; EPG, 197.16 ± 383.28). Infection levels also tended to be influenced by season, type of park/playground and the texture of soil/faeces. The occurrence of Toxocara, Ancylostoma and Trichuris eggs in soil samples highlights the risk of transmission to the human population, especially children, while the presence of Ascaris eggs suggests a human source of contamination and raises the issue of hygiene standards and public health risks at sites under investigation.
The aim of this study was to explore the assessment, intervention, and family-centred practices of Malaysian and Australian speech-language pathologists (SLPs) when working with children with developmental disabilities who are pre-symbolic. A questionnaire was developed for the study, which was completed by 65 SLPs from Malaysia and 157 SLPs from Australia. Data reduction techniques were used prior to comparison of responses across questionnaire items. Results indicated that SLPs relied mostly on informal assessments. Malaysian and Australian SLPs differed significantly in terms of obtaining information from outside the clinic to inform assessment. When providing intervention, SLPs focused mostly on improving children's pre-verbal skills. A third of Australian SLPs listed the introduction of some form of symbolic communication as an early intervention goal, compared to only a small percentage of Malaysian SLPs. Regarding family involvement, SLPs most often involved mothers, with fathers and siblings being involved to a lesser extent. Overall, it appeared that practices of Malaysian SLPs had been influenced by developments in research, although there were some areas of service delivery that continued to rely on traditional models. Factors leading to similarities and differences in practice of SLPs from both countries as well as clinical and research implications of the study are discussed.