Seeding is a versatile method for optimizing crystal growth. Coupling this technique with capillary counter diffusion crystallization enhances the size and diffraction quality of the crystals. In this article, crystals for organic solvent-tolerant recombinant elastase strain K were successfully produced through microseeding with capillary counter-diffusion crystallization. This technique improved the nucleation success rate with a low protein concentration (3.00 mg/mL). The crystal was grown in 1 M ammonium phosphate monobasic and 0.1 M sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate pH 5.6. The optimized crystal size was 1 × 0.1 × 0.05 mm³. Elastase strain K successfully diffracted up to 1.39 Å at SPring-8, Japan, using synchrotron radiation for preliminary data diffraction analysis. The space group was determined to be monoclinic space group P12(1)1 with unit cell parameters of a = 38.99 Ǻ, b = 90.173 Å and c = 40.60 Å.
Since 2005, invasive isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been collected in the Czech Republic as part of the European Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). Forty-eight microbiology laboratories throughout the country including approximately 81% of the population provide consecutive isolates from blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Surprisingly, no metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) was found in 1,259 invasive isolates tested over the past three years until the detection of two MBL-producing strains in mid-2008. Both strains were isolated from patients hospitalised in one regional hospital. The MBL was identified as IMP-7, which had been seen previously in Canada, Japan, Malaysia and Slovakia.
The utilization of organic solvents as reaction media for enzymatic reactions provides numerous industrially attractive advantages. However, an adaptation of enzyme towards organic solvent is unpredictable and not fully understood because of limited information on the organic solvent tolerant enzymes. To understand how the enzyme can adapt to the organic solvent environment, structural and computational approaches were employed. A recombinant elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K was an organic solvent tolerant zinc metalloprotease was successfully crystallized and diffracted up to 1.39 Å. Crystal structure of elastase from strain K showed the typical, canonical alpha-beta hydrolase fold consisting of 10-helices (118 residues), 10- β-strands (38 residues) and 142 residues were formed other secondary structure such as loop and coil to whole structure. The elastase from Pseusomonas aeruginosa strain K possess His-140, His-144 and Glu-164 served as a ligand for zinc ion. The conserved catalytic triad was composed of Glu-141, Tyr-155 and His-223. Three-dimensional structure features such as calcium-binding and presence of disulphide-bridge contribute to the stabilizing the elastase structure. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation of elastase revealed that, amino acid residues located at the surface area and disulphide bridge in Cys-30 to Cys-58 were responsible for enzyme stability in organic solvents.
In this study, the bacterial lipoxygenase (LOX) gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 (pse-LOX) was cloned, sequenced and heterologous expressed in Escherichia coli by auto-induction expression strategy. Production of the recombinant pse-LOX (pse-rLOX) gene up to 23,850 U/mL (264 mg pure protein/L bacterial culture fluid) was observed in the end of this process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to manipulate LOX heterologous expression process using auto-induction expression approach, and it is the highest production of recombinant LOX compared with other reports. Subsequently, the resulted pse-rLOX was proved to efficiently degrade triphenylmethane dyes such as malachite green, brilliant green and aniline blue. Generally, an overproduction of the LOX from P. aeruginosa was observed in E. coli, and this recombinant gene is a potential candidate as biocatalyst for triphenylmethane dyes decolorization.
Carbapenems are the primary choice of treatment for severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. However, the emergence of carbapenem resistance due to the production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) is of global concern. In this study, 90 imipenem- (IPM- or IP-) resistant P. aeruginosa (IRPA) isolates, including 32 previously tested positive and genotyped for MBL genes by PCR, were subjected to double-disk synergy test (DDST), combined disk test (CDT), and imipenem/imipenem-inhibitor (IP/IPI) E-test to evaluate their MBLs detection capability. All three methods were shown to have a sensitivity of 100%. However, DDST was the most specific of the three (96.6%), followed by IP/IPI E-test interpreted based on the single criteria of IP/IPI ≥8 as positive (62.1%), and CDT was the least specific (43.1%). Based on the data from this evaluation, we propose that only IRPA with IP MIC >16 μg/mL and IP/IPI ≥8 by IP/IPI E-test should be taken as positive for MBL activity. With the new dual interpretation criteria, the MBL IP/IPI E-test was shown to achieve 100% sensitivity as well as specificity for the IRPA in this study. Therefore, the IP/IPI E-test is a viable alternative phenotypic assay to detect MBL production in IRPA in our population in circumstances where PCR detection is not a feasible option.
The physical factors affecting the production of an organic solvent-tolerant protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K was investigated. Growth and protease production were detected from 37 to 45 degrees C with 37 degrees C being the optimum temperature for P. aeruginosa. Maximum enzyme activity was achieved at static conditions with 4.0% (v/v) inoculum. Shifting the culture from stationary to shaking condition decreased the protease production (6.0-10.0% v/v). Extracellular organic solvent-tolerant protease was detected over a broad pH range from 6.0 to 9.0. However, the highest yield of protease was observed at pH 7.0. Neutral media increased the protease production compared to acidic or alkaline media.
Our newly discovered metalloprotease, designated as ALP NS12 was selected using gelatin agar plates with incubation at 100 °C. Subcloning of the fragments in to pUC118 to make E. coli HB101 (pPEMP01NS) with following two-step chromatography using diethylaminoethyl sepharose (DEAE-sepharose) and Sephadex G-100 columns to purify 97-kDa expressed enzyme was performed. Although activity of immobilized ALP NS12 on glass surface was established at temperatures between 70 and 120 °C and pH ranges 4.0-13.0, the optimum temperature and pH were achieved at 100 °C and 11.0, respectively. Enhancement of enzyme activity was obtained in the presence of 5 mM MnCl2 (91 %), CaCl2 (357 %), FeCl2 (175 %), MgCl2 (94 %), ZnCl2 (412 %), NiCl (86 %), NaCl (239 %), and Na-sulfate (81 %) while inhibition was observed with EDTA (5 mM), PMSF (3 mM), urea (8 M), and SDS (1 %) at 65, 37, 33, and 42 %, respectively. Consequently, the enzyme was well analyzed using crystallography and protein modeling. ALP NS12 can be applied in industrial processes at extreme temperatures and under highly basic conditions, chelators, and detergents.
We have isolated and identified a carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from Malaysia that produces an IMP-7 metallo-beta-lactamase. This isolate showed high-level resistance to meropenem and imipenem, the MICs of which were 256 and 128 micro g/ml, respectively. Isoelectric focusing analyses revealed pI values of >9.0, 8.2, and 7.8, which indicated the possible presence of IMP and OXA. DNA sequencing confirmed the identity of the IMP-7 determinant.
To investigate the epidemiological traits of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MPPA) clinical isolates collected by the Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP).
In this study, 90 non-replicate imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) Malaysian isolates collected between October 2005 and March 2008 were subjected to a screening test for detection of the integron and the gene cassette. Class 1 integrons were detected in 54 IRPA clinical isolates, whilst three isolates contained class 2 integrons. Analysis of the gene cassettes associated with the class 1 integrons showed the detection of accC1 in isolates carrying bla(IMP-7) and aacA7 in isolates carrying bla(VIM-2). aadA6 was detected in two isolates carrying bla(IMP-4). Using random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis, 14 PCR fingerprint patterns were generated from the 32 isolates carrying metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes (35.5 %), whilst 20 patterns were generated from the 58 non-MBL gene isolates (64.4 %). Based on the differences in the fingerprinting patterns, two clusters (A and B) were identified among the MBL-producing isolates. Cluster A comprised 18 isolates (56 %) carrying the bla(VIM) gene, whereas cluster B comprised 14 (44 %) isolates carrying the bla(IMP) gene. The non-MBL isolates were divided into clusters C and D. Cluster C comprised 22 non-MBL isolates harbouring class 1 integrons, whilst cluster D consisted of three isolates carrying class 2 integrons. These findings suggest that the class 1 integron is widespread among P. aeruginosa isolated in Malaysia and that characterization of cassette arrays of integrons will be a useful epidemiological tool to study the evolution of multidrug resistance and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.
Ninety (n = 90) imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) clinical isolates collected randomly during 2005 to 2008 from University Malaya Medical Center were assessed for the presence of different variants of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) genes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay detected 32 (n = 32) MBL gene PCR-positive isolates with the presence of bla(IMP) gene in 14 (n = 14) and bla(VIM) in 18 (n = 18) isolates. Four allelic variants, bla(IMP-7) (12 isolates), bla(IMP-4) (2 isolates), bla(VIM-2) (17 isolates), and bla(VIM-11) (1 isolate), of MBL genes were identified. This study is the first report of detection of bla(IMP-4), bla(VIM-2), and bla(VIM-11) MBL genes from IRPA clinical isolates in Malaysia.
Study site: University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC)
The structural gene of elastase strain K (elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K), namely HindIII1500PstI, was successfully sequenced to contain 1497 bp. The amino acid sequence, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, revealed that the mature elastase consists of 301 amino acids, with a molecular mass of 33.1 kDa, and contains a conserved motif HEXXH, zinc ligands and residues involved in the catalysis of elastase strain K. The structural gene was successfully cloned to a shuttle vector, pUCP19, and transformed into Escherichia coli strains TOP10, KRX, JM109 and Tuner™ pLacI as well as P. aeruginosa strains PA01 (A.T.C.C. 47085) and S5, with detection of significant protein expression. Overexpression was detected from transformants KRX/pUCP19/HindIII1500PstI of E. coli and PA01/pUCP19/HindIII1500PstI of P. aeruginosa, with increases in elastolytic activity to 13.83- and 5.04-fold respectively relative to their controls. In addition, recombinant elastase strain K showed considerable stability towards numerous organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene, undecan-1-ol and n-dodecane, which typically pose a detrimental effect on enzymes; our finding provides further information to support the potential application of the enzyme in synthetic industries, particularly peptide synthesis.
A gene encoding an organic solvent-stable protease was amplified from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K by polymerase chain reaction using consensus primers based on multiple sequence alignment of alkaline and metalloprotease genes from Pseudomonas species. The gene, which consisted of 1440 bp nucleotides and deduced 479 amino acid residues, was successfully expressed in pGEX-4T-1 expression system in the presence of 1.0 mM IPTG, after an incubation of 6 h at 37 degrees C. Under these conditions, the recombinant strain K protease was, subsequently, released into the periplasm of E. coli BL21 (DE3) with an optimum proteolytic activity detected at 1.0112 U/ml. To date, this is the first reported expression of alkaline protease (aprA) with such remarkable property in Escherichia coli.
Clinical utilization of carbapenems remains under threat with the emergence of acquired carbapenemase-producing bacteria, particularly metallo-β-lactamases (MBL). Rapid detection of MBL-producing Gram-negative bacilli is essential to prevent their widespread dissemination. However, no standardized detection method is available for routine laboratory use. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a chelating-agent based double disk synergic test and disk potentiation test for MBL-producing strain detection and to determine the isolation rate of MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter from clinical samples in our tertiary teaching hospital. A total of 22 and 66 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter isolates respectively were tested with ceftazidime (CAZ) disk by modified double disk synergic test and disk potentiation test using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 2-mercaptopropionic acid (as chelating agents) to detect MBL production. The tests were compared with EDTA-phenanthroline-imipenem (EPI) microdilution MIC test as gold standard. MBL positive strains were detected in 17 (77.3%) P. aeruginosa and 2 (3.5%) Acinetobacter isolates. The disk potentiation test with 2-mercaptopropionic acid (2-MPA) dilution of 1:12 provided the most acceptable sensitivities and specificities (88.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity in P. aeruginosa; 100% sensitivity and specificity in Acinetobacter) compared to other screening methods used in this study. This study provided useful information on the local prevalence of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter in our hospital. Disc potentiation test with CAZ/2-MPA disc appears to be reliable and convenient MBL detection method in the routine clinical laboratory.
Recombinant elastase strain K overexpressed from E. coli KRX/pCon2(3) was purified to homogeneity by a combination of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, with a final yield of 48% and a 25-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protein had exhibited a first ever reported homodimer size of 65 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF, a size which is totally distinct from that of typically reported 33 kDa monomer from P. aeruginosa. The organic solvent stability experiment had demonstrated a stability pattern which completely opposed the rules laid out in previous reports in which activity stability and enhancement were observed in hydrophilic organic solvents such as DMSO, methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol. The high stability and enhancement of the enzyme in hydrophilic solvents were explained from the view of alteration in secondary structures. Elastinolytic activation and stability were observed in 25 and 50% of methanol, respectively, despite slight reduction in α-helical structure caused upon the addition of the solvent. Further characterization experiments had postulated great stability and enhancement of elastase strain K in broad range of temperatures, pHs, metal ions, surfactants, denaturing agents and substrate specificity, indicating its potential application in detergent formulation.