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  1. Ong LM, Punithavathi N, Lena YLL, Mahanim O, Leekha S, Storvas Clinical Trial Study Group
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Aug;66(3):214-9.
    PMID: 22111443
    A multicentre study was conducted to assess the long term efficacy and safety of a generic atorvastatin in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolaemia. Eighty five patients who received 10mg or 20 mg of atorvastatin for 8 weeks depending on target cholesterol goal were followed up by their own physicians and had final evaluation at 52 weeks. Reduction in mean low density Lipoprotein (LDL-C) was 36.5%, 37.9% and 32.2% at weeks 4, 8 and 52 respectively. LDL-C target was maintained in 81% and 69% of patients at week 8 and 52 respectively without drug related serious adverse events. Generic atorvastatin is safe and effective in usual clinical care setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/therapeutic use*
  2. Lim NK, Aik OT, Meng LL, Htun TH, Razack AH
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2014 Mar;24 Suppl 1:S68-70.
    PMID: 24718014 DOI: 03.2014/JCPSP.S68S70
    Superior vena caval syndrome (SVCS) is a debilitating condition attributed to malignancy in more than 70% of cases. However, solitary head and neck metastases arising from renal cell carcinomas without evidence of disease elsewhere are rare. We report a case of renal cell carcinoma presenting as a rapidly growing right cervical lymph node with compression on the subclavian vein causing superior vena caval syndrome (SVCS). There was pulmonary embolism as well. Biopsy of the neck mass confirmed metastatic clear cell carcinoma with primary found in the (L) kidney. The patient had partial response to focussed radiotherapy to neck mass and Sunitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) before succumbing to the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/therapeutic use
  3. Al-Mansoub MA, Asmawi MZ, Murugaiyah V
    J Sci Food Agric, 2014 Jun;94(8):1552-8.
    PMID: 24166055 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6456
    Garcinia atroviridis is a seasonal fruit plant found in many parts of South East Asia. The fruit rind is used in cooking and traditionally consumed for various reasons, including to lower blood cholesterol. A comparative study was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction solvents and plant parts used on the lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of Garcinia atroviridis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/therapeutic use
  4. Hing Ling PK, Civeira F, Dan AG, Hanson ME, Massaad R, De Tilleghem Cle B, et al.
    Lipids Health Dis, 2012;11:18.
    PMID: 22293030 DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-18
    A considerable number of patients with severely elevated LDL-C do not achieve recommended treatment targets, despite treatment with statins. Adults at high cardiovascular risk with hypercholesterolemia and LDL-C ≥ 2.59 and ≤ 4.14 mmol/L (N = 250), pretreated with atorvastatin 20 mg were randomized to ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40 mg or atorvastatin 40 mg for 6 weeks. The percent change in LDL-C and other lipids was assessed using a constrained longitudinal data analysis method with terms for treatment, time, time-by-treatment interaction, stratum, and time-by-stratum interaction. Percentage of subjects achieving LDL-C < 1.81 mmol/L, < 2.00 mmol/L, or < 2.59 mmol/L was assessed using a logistic regression model with terms for treatment and stratum. Tolerability was assessed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/therapeutic use*
  5. Al-Khateeb A, Mohamed MS, Imran K, Ibrahim S, Zilfalill BA, Yusof Z
    PMID: 21710862
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate Malaysian dyslipidemic patient treatment practices and outcomes. Factors contributing to success in reaching treatment goal were determined. A retrospective review of the records of dyslipidemic patients who attended the Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital in 2007 was conducted. All the patients were receiving standard recommended doses of statins. Records were analysed for 890 patients. Patients were divided into three categories: 384 patients (43.1%) had coronary heart disease or coronary heart disease risk equivalents, 216 patients (24.3%) had moderate risk for coronary heart disease and 290 patients (32.6%) had low risk. Statins were the most commonly prescribed drug group (92%), of which atorvastatin was the most commonly prescribed drug (50.6%). The overall success rate for reaching goal was 64.2%. The percentages of patients achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets in the coronary heart disease and coronary heart disease risk equivalents, moderate, and low-risk groups were 50.5, 66.7, and 80.3%, respectively (p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression showed achievement of therapeutic goal declined with increasing risk group. The baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol value was inversely related to therapeutic goal attainment. An inadequate proportion of dyslipidemic patients achieved the National Cholesterol Education Program therapeutic goals for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, especially those in the coronary heart disease and coronary heart disease risk equivalent group. The achievement of this goal was dependent on baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/therapeutic use
  6. Xiao Y, Zhang S, Dai N, Fei G, Goh KL, Chun HJ, et al.
    Gut, 2020 02;69(2):224-230.
    PMID: 31409606 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318365
    OBJECTIVE: To establish the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in the treatment of Asian patients with erosive oesophagitis (EO).

    DESIGN: In this phase III, double-blind, multicentre study, patients with endoscopically confirmed EO were randomised 1:1 to receive vonoprazan 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg, once daily for up to 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was EO healing rate at 8 weeks. The secondary endpoints were EO healing rates at 2 and 4 weeks. Safety endpoints included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).

    RESULTS: In the vonoprazan (n=238) and lansoprazole (n=230) arms, 8-week EO healing rates were 92.4% and 91.3%, respectively (difference 1.1% (95% CI -3.822% to 6.087%)). The respective 2-week EO healing rates were 75.0% and 67.8% (difference 7.2% (95% CI -1.054% to 15.371%)), and the respective 4-week EO healing rates were 85.3% and 83.5% (difference 1.8% (95% CI -4.763% to 8.395%)). In patients with baseline Los Angeles classification grade C/D, 2-week, 4-week and 8-week EO healing rates were higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole (2 weeks: 62.2% vs 51.5%, difference 10.6% (95% CI -5.708% to 27.002%); 4 weeks: 73.3% vs 67.2%, difference 6.2% (95% CI -8.884 to 21.223); and 8 weeks: 84.0% vs 80.6%, difference 3.4% (95% CI -9.187% to 15.993%)). Overall, EO healing rates appeared higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole. TEAE rates were 38.1% and 36.6% in the vonoprazan and lansoprazole group, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in terms of EO healing rate at 8 weeks in this population. Safety outcomes were similar in the two treatment arms.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02388724.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/therapeutic use*
  7. Amudha K, Choy AM, Mustafa MR, Lang CC
    Cardiovasc Ther, 2008;26(4):253-61.
    PMID: 19035876 DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-5922.2008.00064.x
    Endothelial function is impaired in healthy subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). We investigated whether endothelial dysfunction can be normalized by statin therapy in this potentially predisposed population. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured in 56 first-degree relatives (FDRs) (normotensive, normal glucose tolerance) and 20 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched controls with no family history of DM. Other measurements included insulin resistance index using the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), plasma lipids, and markers of inflammation. The FDRs were then randomized and treated with atorvastatin (80 mg) or placebo daily in a 4-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The FDRs had significantly impaired FMD (4.4 +/- 8.1% vs. 13.0 +/- 4.2%; P < 0.001), higher HOMA(IR) (1.72 +/- 1.45 vs. 1.25 +/- 0.43; P = 0.002), and elevated levels of plasma markers of inflammation-highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (2.6 +/- 3.8 mg/L vs. 0.7 +/- 1.0 mg/L; P = 0.06), interleukin (IL)-6 (0.07 +/- 0.13 ng/mL vs. 0.03 +/- 0.01 ng/mL; P < 0.001), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) (267.7 +/- 30.7 ng/mL vs. 238.2 +/- 20.4 ng/mL; P < 0.001). FMD improved in the atorvastatin-treated subjects when compared with the placebo-treated subjects (atorvastatin, from 3.7 +/- 8.5% to 9.8 +/- 7.3%; placebo, from 3.9 +/- 5.6% to 4.7 +/- 4.2%; P = 0.001). There were also reductions in the levels of IL-6 (0.08 +/- 0.02 ng/mL vs. 0.04 +/- 0.01 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and hsCRP (3.0 +/- 3.9 mg/L vs. 1.0 +/- 1.3 mg/L; P = 0.006). Our study suggests that treatment with atorvastatin may improve endothelial function and decrease levels of inflammatory markers in FDRs of type 2 DM patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/therapeutic use*
  8. Zhu JR, Tomlinson B, Ro YM, Sim KH, Lee YT, Sriratanasathavorn C
    Curr Med Res Opin, 2007 Dec;23(12):3055-68.
    PMID: 18196620
    BACKGROUND: Most studies investigating the benefits of statins have focused on North American and European populations. This study focuses on evaluating the lipid-lowering effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin in Asian patients.

    OBJECTIVES: The DIrect Statin COmparison of LDL-C Values: an Evaluation of Rosuvastatin therapY (DISCOVERY)-Asia study is one of nine independently powered studies assessing the efficacy of starting doses of statins in achieving target lipid levels in different countries worldwide. DISCOVERY-Asia was a 12-week, randomised, open-label, parallel-group study conducted in China, Hong Kong, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand.

    RESULTS: A total of 1482 adults with primary hypercholesterolaemia and high cardiovascular risk (> 20%/10 years, type 2 diabetes, or a history of coronary heart disease) were randomised in a 2 : 1 ratio to receive rosuvastatin 10 mg once daily (o.d.) or atorvastatin 10 mg o.d. The percentage of patients achieving the 1998 European Joint Task Force low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of < 3.0 mmol/L at 12 weeks was significantly higher in the rosuvastatin group (n = 950) compared with the atorvastatin group (n = 471) (79.5 vs. 69.4%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Similar results were observed for 1998 European goals for total cholesterol (TC), and the 2003 European goals for LDL-C and TC. LDL-C and TC levels were reduced significantly more with rosuvastatin compared with atorvastatin. Both drugs were well-tolerated and the incidence and type of adverse events were similar in each group.

    TRIALS REGISTRATION: The trial registry summary is available at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00241488

    CONCLUSIONS: This 12-week study showed that the starting dose of rosuvastatin 10 mg o.d. was significantly more effective than the starting dose of natorvastatin 10 mg o.d. at enabling patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia to achieve European goals for LDL-C and TC in a largely Asian population in real-life clinical practice. The safety profile of rosuvastatin 10 mg is similar to that of atorvastatin 10 mg in the Asian population studied here, and is consistent with the known safety profile of rosuvastatin in the white population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/therapeutic use*
  9. Gobe GC, Ng KL, Small DM, Vesey DA, Johnson DW, Samaratunga H, et al.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2016 Apr 22;473(1):47-53.
    PMID: 26995091 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.03.048
    Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC), an endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis, is upregulated in a number of human cancers, thereby conferring drug resistance and giving a rationale for the inhibition of ARC to overcome drug resistance. Our hypothesis was that ARC would be similarly upregulated and targetable for therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Expression of ARC was assessed in 85 human RCC samples and paired non-neoplastic kidney by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, as well as in four RCC cell lines by qPCR, Western immunoblot and confocal microscopy. Contrary to expectations, ARC was significantly decreased in the majority of clear cell RCC and in three (ACHN, Caki-1 and 786-0) of the four RCC cell lines compared with the HK-2 non-cancerous human proximal tubular epithelial cell line. Inhibition of ARC with shRNA in the RCC cell line (SN12K1) that had shown increased ARC expression conferred resistance to Sunitinib, and upregulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We therefore propose that decreased ARC, particularly in clear cell RCC, confers resistance to targeted therapy through restoration of tyrosine kinase-independent alternate angiogenesis pathways. Although the results are contrary to expectations from other cancer studies, they were confirmed here with multiple analytical methods. We believe the highly heterogeneous nature of cancers like RCC predicate that expression patterns of molecules must be interpreted in relation to respective matched non-neoplastic regions. In the current study, this procedure indicated that ARC is decreased in RCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/therapeutic use*
  10. Nawawi H, Osman NS, Annuar R, Khalid BA, Yusoff K
    Atherosclerosis, 2003 Aug;169(2):283-91.
    PMID: 12921980
    Adhesion molecules and cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of intimal injury in atherosclerosis but their relationship with endothelial function remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of atorvastatin on soluble adhesion molecules, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated dilatation (FMD) in patients with familial (FH) and non-familial hypercholesterolaemia (NFH). A total of 74 patients (27 FH and 47 NFH) were recruited. Fasting lipid profiles, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin, IL-6 and FMD were measured at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 and 9 months post-atorvastatin treatment (FH--80 mg/day, NFH--10 mg/day). In both groups, compared to baseline, sICAM-1 levels were significantly reduced at 2 weeks, further reduced at 3 months and maintained at 9 months (P<0.0001). The IL-6 levels were significantly reduced at 3 months and 9 months compared to baseline for FH (P<0.005) and NFH (P<0.0001). In both groups, the FMD at 2 weeks was higher than baseline (P<0.005), with progressive improvement up to 9 months. FMD was negatively correlated with sICAM-1 and IL-6. In conclusion, both low and high doses of atorvastatin lead to early progressive improvement in endothelial function in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia. sICAM-1 and IL-6 levels reflect endothelial dysfunction in these patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pyrroles/therapeutic use*
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