Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3-N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.
This paper discusses the comparative assessment of eight candidate distributions in providing accurate and reliable maximum rainfall estimates for Malaysia. The models considered were the Gamma, Generalised Normal, Generalised Pareto, Generalised Extreme Value, Gumbel, Log Pearson Type III, Pearson Type III and Wakeby. Annual maximum rainfall series for one-hour resolution from a network of seventeen automatic gauging stations located throughout Peninsular Malaysia were selected for this study. The length of rainfall records varies from twenty-three to twenty-eight years. Model parameters were estimated using the L-moment method. The quantitative assessment of the descriptive ability of each model was based on the Probability Plot Correlation Coefficient test combined with root mean squared error, relative root mean squared error and maximum absolute deviation. Bootstrap resampling was employed to investigate the extrapolative ability of each distribution. On the basis of these comparisons, it can be concluded that the GEV distribution is the most appropriate distribution for describing the annual maximum rainfall series in Malaysia.
The well-known geostatistics method (variance-reduction method) is commonly used to determine the optimal rain gauge network. The main problem in geostatistics method to determine the best semivariogram model in order to be used in estimating the variance. An optimal choice of the semivariogram model is an important point for a good data evaluation process. Three different semivariogram models which are Spherical, Gaussian and Exponential are used and their performances are compared in this study. Cross validation technique is applied to compute the errors of the semivariograms. Rain-fall data for the period of 1975 – 2008 from the existing 84 rain gauge stations covering the state of Johor are used in this study. The result shows that the exponential model is the best semivariogram model and chosen to determine the optimal number and location of rain gauge station.
Runoff potentiality of a watershed was assessed based on identifying curve number (CN), soil conservation service (SCS), and functional data analysis (FDA) techniques. Daily discrete rainfall data were collected from weather stations in the study area and analyzed through lowess method for smoothing curve. As runoff data represents a periodic pattern in each watershed, Fourier series was introduced to fit the smooth curve of eight watersheds. Seven terms of Fourier series were introduced for the watersheds 5 and 8, while 8 terms of Fourier series were used for the rest of the watersheds for the best fit of data. Bootstrapping smooth curve analysis reveals that watersheds 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 are with monthly mean runoffs of 29, 24, 22, 23, 26, and 27 mm, respectively, and these watersheds would likely contribute to surface runoff in the study area. The purpose of this study was to transform runoff data into a smooth curve for representing the surface runoff pattern and mean runoff of each watershed through statistical method. This study provides information of runoff potentiality of each watershed and also provides input data for hydrological modeling.
This paper presents the modelled raindrop size parameters in Skudai region of the Johor Bahru, western Malaysia. Presently, there is no model to forecast the characteristics of DSD in Malaysia, and this has an underpinning implication on wet weather pollution predictions. The climate of Skudai exhibits local variability in regional scale. This study established five different parametric expressions describing the rain rate of Skudai; these models are idiosyncratic to the climate of the region. Sophisticated equipment that converts sound to a relevant raindrop diameter is often too expensive and its cost sometimes overrides its attractiveness. In this study, a physical low-cost method was used to record the DSD of the study area. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to test the aptness of the data to exponential and lognormal distributions, which were subsequently used to formulate the parameterisation of the distributions. This research abrogates the concept of exclusive occurrence of convective storm in tropical regions and presented a new insight into their concurrence appearance.
Larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse typically inhabit natural and artificial containers. Since these larval habitats are replenished by rainfall, Ae. albopictus may experience increased loss of immature stages in areas with high levels of rainfall. In this study, we investigated the effects of rainfall and container water level on population density, and oviposition activity of Ae. albopictus. In field and laboratory experiments, we found that rainfall resulted in the flushing of breeding habitats. Excess rain negatively impacted larval and pupal retention, especially in small habitats. When filled with water to overflowing, container habitats were significantly repellent to ovipositing females. Taken together, these data suggest that rainfall triggers population loss of Ae. albopictus and related species through a direct detrimental effect (flushing out) and an indirect effect (ovipositional repellency).
There are many factors that influence PM(10) concentration in the atmosphere. This paper will look at the PM(10) concentration in relation with the wet season (north east monsoon) and dry season (south west monsoon) in Seberang Perai, Malaysia from the year 2000 to 2004. It is expected that PM(10) will reach the peak during south west monsoon as the weather during this season becomes dry and this study has proved that the highest PM(10) concentrations in 2000 to 2004 were recorded in this monsoon. Two probability distributions using Weibull and lognormal were used to model the PM(10) concentration. The best model used for prediction was selected based on performance indicators. Lognormal distribution represents the data better than Weibull distribution model for 2000, 2001, and 2002. However, for 2003 and 2004, Weibull distribution represents better than the lognormal distribution. The proposed distributions were successfully used for estimation of exceedences and predicting the return periods of the sequence year.
The influence of rain and malathion on the initial oviposition as well as development of blowfly species infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in sunlit and shaded habitats were studied over a period of 1 year in Kelantan, Malaysia. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was the most dominant species that infested the carcasses, followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In general, rain, depending on its intensity, delayed initial oviposition by 1-2 days and prolonged the pupation period by 1-3 days. The presence of malathion in the carcasses delayed initial oviposition by 1-3 days and prolonged the pupation period by 2-3 days. These findings deserve consideration while estimating postmortem interval since rain is a commonplace occurrence in Malaysia and malathion is one of the common poisons as an agent for choice to commit suicide.
Rainfall-runoff processes in a small oil palm catchment (8.2 ha) in Johor, Malaysia were examined. Storm hydrographs show rapid responses to rainfall with a short time to peak. The estimated initial hydrologic loss for the oil palm catchment is 5 mm. Despite the low initial loss, the catchment exhibits a high proportion of baseflow, approximately 54% of the total runoff. On an event basis, the stormflow response factor and runoff coefficient ranges from 0.003 to 0.21, and 0.02 to 0.44, respectively. Peakflow and stormflow volume were moderately correlated with rainfall. The hydrographs were satisfactorily modelled using the Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS). The efficiency indexes of the calibration and validation exercises are 0.81 and 0.82, respectively. Based on these preliminary findings, it could be suggested that an oil palm plantation would be able to serve reasonably well in regulating basic hydrological functions.
Studies of larval mite populations along transects, as measured with black plates, were conducted in forest and grassland habitats for a period of 67 weeks. Larvae of both Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) deliense and L. (L.) fletcheri were influenced greatly by rainfall, with the larvae being abundant and easily collected during periods of heavy rainfall and difficult or impossible to collect during dry periods. Simulated rainfall maintained larval populations for longer periods during dry weather.
Open biomass burning in Peninsula Malaysia, Sumatra, and parts of the Indochinese region is a major source of transboundary haze pollution in the Southeast Asia. To study the influence of haze on rainwater chemistry, a short-term investigation was carried out during the occurrence of a severe haze episode from March to April 2014. Rainwater samples were collected after a prolonged drought and analyzed for heavy metals and major ion concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. The chemical composition and morphology of the solid particulates suspended in rainwater were examined using a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The dataset was further interpreted using enrichment factors (EF), statistical analysis, and a back trajectory (BT) model to find the possible sources of the particulates and pollutants. The results show a drop in rainwater pH from near neutral (pH 6.54) to acidic (
Inflow and infiltration are important aspects of sewerage systems that need to be considered during the design stage and constantly monitored once the sewerage system is in operation. The aim of this research is to analyse the relationship of rainfall as well as inflow infiltration with sewage flow patterns through data collected from fieldwork. Three sewer pipelines were selected at the residential areas of Taman Lepar Hilir Saujana, Bandar Putra and Kota Sas for data collection. Sewage flow data were collected in terms of flowrate, velocity and depth of flow using flowmeters with ultrasonic sensors that utilize the continuous Doppler effect in the sewer pipelines, while rainfall intensity data were collected using rain gauges installed at the study locations. Based on the result, the average infiltration rates of Qpeak and Qave for the locations were 17% and 21%, which exceeded the respective values of 5% and 10% stated in Hammer and Hammer. The flowrate of wastewater in the sewer pipelines was found to be directly proportional to rainfall. These findings indicate that the sewer pipelines in the study areas may have been affected by capacity reduction, whereas the sewerage treatment plants receiving the wastewater influent may have been overloaded.
Residual soils occur in most countries of the world but the greater areas and depths are normally found in tropical humid areas. In these places, the soil forming processes are still very active and the weathering is much faster than the erosive factor. Most residual exhibit high soil suctions for most of the year. The absence of positive pore water pressure except immediately after rain, renders conventional soil mechanics for saturated soil irrelevant. In particular, the effective stress theories of saturated soil are not applicable at the practical leve l. Ignorance or lack of understanding of the geotechnical behavior of soil in the partially or unsaturated state has caused a lot of damages to infrastructures, buildings and other structures. For instances, the collapsibility and volume change of partially saturated soils in connection with the drying or wetting causes a lot of damage to foundation, roads and other structures. As such, the development of extended soil mechanics, which embraces the soil in the unsaturated state or subjected to soil suction, is essential. This paper examines the collapsibility and volume change behavior specifically of an unsaturated residual soil under various levels of applied matric suction (u -u ), and net mean stress (a-u) in a predetermined stress path. The volume change of ;he"' soil is found to be sensitive to both the applied matric suction and net mean stress. The soil is found to exhibit a collapsibility behavior upon a reduction in applied matric suction to 25 kPa at constant net mean stress.
In this paper, stormwater runoff from a residential catchment located in Miri, Sarawak, was characterized to determine the pollutant concentrations and loading. The observed average event mean concentrations were 116 mg/L for TSS, 115 mg/L for COD, 1.5 mg/L for NH3-N, and 0.23 mg/L for Pb. Based on Interim National Water Quality Standards (INWQS) for Malaysia, the average event mean concentration, EMC value for TSS exceeded class II (50 mg/L), exceeded class V (>100 mg/L) for COD, and exceeded class III (0.9 mg/L) for NH3-N. All four water quality parameters exhibited first flush characteristic but to varying magnitude which was influenced by the storm characteristics.
This study attempts to trace changes in the wet spells over Peninsular Malaysia based on the daily rainfall data from 32 selected rainfall stations which include four sub-regions; northwest, west, south and east, for the period of 1975 to 2004. Six wet spells indices comprising of the main characteristics (maximum, mean, standard deviation), the persistency of two consecutive wet days and the frequency of the short and long duration of wet spells will be used to identify whether or not these indices increase or decrease over Peninsular Malaysia during the monsoon seasons. The study indicates that the eastern areas of the peninsula could be considered as the wettest areas since almost all the indices of wet spells over these areas are higher than over the other regions during the northeast monsoon (NE). The Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test revealed that almost all of the stations located in the eastern areas of the peninsula exhibited a positive trend in the mean, variability and persistency of wet spells indices during the NE monsoon, while a negative trend was observed during the southwest monsoon (SW) in these areas. Moreover, these indices showed a positive trend, and at the same time a decreasing trend was observed in the frequency of the long wet spells in most stations located over the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia during the SW monsoon for the period of 1975 to 2004.
Climate changes have become serious issues that have been widely discussed by researchers. One of the issues concerns with the study in changes of rainfall patterns. Changes in rainfall patterns affect the dryness and wetness conditions of a region. In this study, the three-dimensional loglinear model was used to fit the observed frequencies and to model the expected frequencies of wet class transition on eight rainfall stations in Peninsular Malaysia. The expected frequency values could be employed to determine the odds value of wet classes of each station. Further, the odds values were used to estimate the wet class of the following month if the wet class of the previous month and current month were identified. The wet classification based on SPI index (Standardized Precipitation Index). For station that was analyzed, there was no difference found were between estimated and observed wet classes. It was concluded that the loglinear models can be used to estimate the wetness classes through the estimates of odds values.
Statistical distributions of annual extreme (AE) and partial duration (PD) for rainfall events are analysed using a database of 50 rain-gauge stations in Peninsular Malaysia, involving records of time series data which extend from 1975 to 2004. The generalised extreme value (GEV) and generalised Pareto (GP) distributions are considered to model the series of annual extreme and partial duration. In both cases, the three parameter models such as GEV and GP distributions are fitted by means of L-moments method, which is one of the commonly used methods for robust estimation. The goodness-of-fit of the theoretical distribution to the data is then evaluated by means of L-moment ratio diagram and several goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests for each of the 50 stations. It is found that for the majority of stations, the AE and PD series are well fitted by the GEV and GP models, respectively. Based on the models that have been identified, we can reasonably predict the risks associated with extreme rainfall for various return periods.
This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of cypermethrin in total suspended particulate in air in several farming areas of Cameron Highlands. Samples of total suspended particulate were collected using a high volume air sampler (Model Graseby) from six different sampling sites around Cameron Highlands. Laboratory analysis of total suspended particulate was conducted by the standard method. High dosages of cypermethrin were used by farmers in the dry season. Results of the study showed that the concentrations of cypermethrin in total suspended particulate in the air samples were higher during the dry season (May-July 2004) compared to the rainy season (September-October 2004). There was a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of cypermethrin and total suspended particulate (p<0.05).