Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 163 in total

  1. Faridah Yunos, Kamel Ariffin Mohd Atan, Muhammad Rezal Kamel Ariffin, Mohamad Rushdan Md Said
    Elliptic curve cryptosystems (ECC) provides better security for each bit key utilized compared to the RSA cryptosystem. For this reason, it is projected to have more practical usage than the RSA. In ECC, scalar multiplication (or point multiplication) is the dominant operation, namely, computing nP from a point P on an elliptic curve, where n is an integer defined as the point resulting from adding P + P + ... + P, n times. However, for practical uses, it is very important to improve the efficiency of the scalar multiplication. Solinas (1997) proposes that the τ-adic Non-Adjacent Form (τ-NAF) is one of the most efficient algorithms used to compute scalar multiplications on Anomalous Binary curves. In this paper, we give a new property (i.e., Theorem 1.2) of τ-NAF(n) representation for every length, l. This is useful for evaluating the maximum and minimum norms occurring among all length-l elements of Z(τ). We also propose a new cryptographic method by using randomization of a multiplier n to nr an element of Z(τ). It is based on τ-NAF. We focused on estimating the length of RTNAF(nr) expansion by using a new method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  2. Alyessary AS, Yap AUJ, Othman SA, Ibrahim N, Rahman MT, Radzi Z
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2018 Aug;154(2):260-269.
    PMID: 30075928 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.11.031
    INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the effect of bone-borne accelerated expansion protocols on sutural separation and sutural bone modeling using a microcomputed tomography system. We also determined the optimum instant sutural expansion possible without disruption of bone modeling.

    METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits, 20 to 24 weeks old, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups. Modified hyrax expanders were placed across their interfrontal sutures and secured with miniscrew implants located bilaterally in the frontal bone. The hyrax appliances were activated as follows: group 1 (control), 0.5-mm per day expansion for 12 days; group 2, 1-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 10 days; group 3, 2.5-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days, and group 4, 4-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 4 days. After 6 weeks of retention, sutural separation and sutural bone modeling were assessed by microcomputed tomography and quantified. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and the Spearman rho correlation (P <0.05).

    RESULTS: Median amounts of sutural separation ranged from 2.84 to 4.41 mm for groups 1 and 4, respectively. Median bone volume fraction ranged from 59.96% to 69.15% for groups 4 and 3, respectively. A significant correlation (r = 0.970; P <0.01) was observed between the amounts of instant expansion and sutural separation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pending histologic verifications, our findings suggest that the protocol involving 2.5 mm of instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days is optimal for accelerated sutural expansion. When 4 mm of instant expansion was used, the sutural bone volume fraction was decreased.

    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  3. Yuen KH, Desmukh AA, Newton JM
    Pharm. Res., 1993 Apr;10(4):588-92.
    PMID: 8483843
    A novel multiparticulate sustained-release theophylline formulation, which consisted of spherical drug pellets coated with a rate-controlling membrane, was evaluated in vivo. Two preparations that differ solely in the coat thickness, and hence rate of in vitro drug release, were studied in comparison with a solution of the drug. Both preparations produced serum concentration profiles that are reflective of a slow and sustained rate of absorption. The in vivo release versus time profiles calculated using a deconvolution procedure showed that the two preparations differed in the rate but not the extent of drug release. Satisfactory correlation was also obtained between the in vivo and the in vitro results. When the two preparations were further compared using the parameters, time to reach peak concentration (Tp), peak concentration (Cp), and total area under the serum concentration versus time curves (AUC), a statistically significant difference was observed in the Tp and Cp values but not the AUC values, suggesting that the preparations differed in the rate but not the extent of absorption. In addition, the extent of absorption from both preparations was comparable to that obtained with the drug solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  4. Yao SC, Chai MC, Singh A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1990 Mar;45(1):29-36.
    PMID: 2152066
    Existing criteria for admission of newborns to the special care nursery, Sarawak General Hospital, resulted in the admission of many neonates with certain risk factors ("at risk" neonates). To test whether such babies could be safely and better cared for in postnatal wards, 392 of these babies were randomly allocated into two groups. One group of 196 was admitted to the special care nursery and the other group of 196 was cared for with their mothers in the postnatal wards. The two groups were compared for mortality, morbidity and breastfeeding. There was no significant difference in mortality and morbidity between the two groups. While in hospital a larger proportion of babies cared for in postnatal wards were breastfed, compared to babies admitted to the special care nursery. In addition, they initiated their breastfeeding earlier. Babies with these risk factors should therefore be cared for with their mothers in the postnatal wards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  5. Wan Hassan WE, Phipps RH, Owen E
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 1989 Aug;21(3):175-82.
    PMID: 2799944
    In experiments conducted over a four-year period the effect of pasture type (Setaria sphacelata and a Brachiaria decumbens/Leucaena leucocephala mixture), management system (rotational grazing and cut and carry) and level of concentrate supplement (0, 4 and 6 kg fresh weight/cow per day) on milk production in smallholder dairy units was examined. All units were 1 ha in size and stocked with five Sahiwal X Friesian cows. Milk yields/ha were higher from rotational grazing and the brachiaria/leucaena pasture when compared with the cut and carry system and the setaria pasture respectively. In subsequent experiments smallholder units were based on brachiaria/leucaena and rotational grazing. A supplement of 4 kg fresh weight of concentrate (11 MJ/kg DM and 150 g/kg DM CP) increased milk yield/ha from 7,760 to 13,045 kg while in a third trial milk yield/ha was further increased from 14,148 to 16,760 kg when concentrate level was raised from 4 to 6 kg fresh weight/day. The results indicate that smallholder dairy units in Malaysia could be economically viable and competitive with other agricultural enterprises such as rubber and oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  6. Leonard JH, Paungmali A, Sitilertpisan P, Pirunsan U, Uthaikhup S
    Clin Ter, 2015;166(5):e312-6.
    PMID: 26550815 DOI: 10.7417/T.2015.1884
    OBJECTIVE: Lumbo-pelvic core stabilization training (LPST) is one of the therapeutic exercises common in practice for rehabilitation of patients with chronic low back pain. This study was carried out to examine the therapeutic effects of LPST on the muscle thickness of transversus abdominis (TrA) at rest and during contraction among patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 25 participants (7 males and 18 females) with chronic non-specific low back pain participated in a within-subject, repeated measures, double-blinded, placebo-controlled comparisons trial. The participants received three different types of experimental therapeutic training conditions which includes the lumbo-pelvic core stabilization training (LPST), the placebo treatment with passive cycling (PC) and a controlled intervention with rest (CI). The interventions were carried out by randomization with 48 hours between the sessions. The effectiveness of interventions was studied by measuring the changes in muscle thickness of TrA at rest and during contraction using a real time ultrasonography.
    RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that the LPST provided significant therapeutic benefits as measured by an increase in the muscle thickness of the TrA at rest (p<0.05) and during contraction (p<0.01). The percentage change of the muscle thickness observed during LPST was significantly higher (p<0.01) when compared to the other two experimental training conditions.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the LPST might provide therapeutic benefits by increasing the muscle thickness and function of TrA. Therefore, it is suggested that LPST technique should be considered as part of management program for treatment of low back pain.
    KEYWORDS: Back pain; Core stabilization; Lumbo-pelvic exercise; Rehabilitation; Transversus abdominis
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  7. Chia KS, Abdul Rahim H, Abdul Rahim R
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2012 Feb;13(2):145-51.
    PMID: 22302428 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B11c0150
    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400-1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  8. Mehat MZ, Shuid AN, Mohamed N, Muhammad N, Soelaiman IN
    J. Bone Miner. Metab., 2010 Sep;28(5):503-9.
    PMID: 20145960 DOI: 10.1007/s00774-010-0159-2
    Bone is a specialized connective tissue that functions as the load-bearing structure of the body. Free radicals may affect bone remodeling by regulating osteoclast activity in either the physiological or pathological condition. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been demonstrated to offer protection against osteoporosis and to improve the bone material and structure of animal models. The aim of this study was to observe and compare the effects of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tocopherol), delta-tocotrienol (delta-tocotrienol), and gamma-tocotrienol (gamma-tocotrienol) on the static and dynamic bone histomorphometric parameters in normal male rats. Thirty-two normal Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 3 months and weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into four groups. The control group was supplemented with oral gavages of olive oil (vehicle), whereas the alpha-tocopherol, delta-tocotrienol, and gamma-tocotrienol groups were given oral gavages of 60 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol, delta-tocotrienol, and gamma-tocotrienol, respectively. The rats were injected twice with calcein to fluorochrome-label the bones. After 4 months of treatment, the rats were killed, and the left femurs were dissected out and prepared for bone histomorphometry. Both the static and dynamic parameters of the vitamin E-treated groups were better than those of the normal control group. Among the vitamin E-treated groups, the tocotrienol groups showed better histomorphometry results compared to the α-tocopherol group, with the γ-tocotrienol group demonstrating the best effects on both sets of parameters. We concluded that vitamin E can promote bone formation in normal rats, with gamma-tocotrienol being the most potent form of vitamin E.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  9. Dzulkarnain AA, Wan Mhd Pandi WM, Wilson WJ, Bradley AP, Sapian F
    Int J Audiol, 2014 Aug;53(8):514-21.
    PMID: 24702636 DOI: 10.3109/14992027.2014.897763
    To determine if a computer simulation can be used to improve the ability of audiology students to analyse ABR waveforms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  10. Woon KC
    Aust Orthod J, 1988 Mar;10(3):183-5.
    PMID: 3166621
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  11. Mak JW, Lam PL, Rain AN, Suresh K
    J. Helminthol., 1987 Dec;61(4):311-4.
    PMID: 3437112
    Four Presbytis cristata were treated with oral ivermectin at the same time as the subcutaneous inoculation of 100 infective larvae monthly for three months. Two animals given 0.2 mg/kg monthly and two others given 0.3 mg/kg monthly as well as three control animals became patent for microfilaraemia. However, only 1% of the infective dose was recovered as adult worms from animals in the higher drug dosage group compared to 8.2% and 6.2% in the lower dosage and control groups respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  12. Mohd Tahir N, Wan Hassan WN, Saub R
    Eur J Orthod, 2018 Oct 12.
    PMID: 30321319 DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjy063
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare vacuum-formed thermoplastic retainers (VFRs) constructed on stone models (VFR-CV) and those constructed on three-dimensional (3D) printed models (VFR-3D) based on patients' perspective and post-treatment stability.

    Study design: The research was designed as a crossover, randomized control trial.

    Materials and methods: Subjects comprised patients receiving fixed appliances at a teaching institution and indicated for VFRs. Post-treatment stone models were scanned with a structured-light scanner. A fused deposition modelling machine was used to construct acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)-based replicas from the 3D scanned images. VFRs were fabricated on the original stone and printed models. Analysis comprised independent t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance.

    Randomization: Subjects were allocated to two groups using Latin squares methods and simple randomization. A week after debond, subjects received either VFR-CV first (group A) or VFR-3D first (group B) for 3 months, then the interventions were crossed over for another 3 months.

    Blinding: In this single-blinded study, subjects were assigned a blinding code for data entry; data were analysed by a third party.

    Outcome measures: The primary outcome measured was oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) based on Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). Secondary outcome was post-treatment stability measured using Little's Irregularity Index (LII).

    Results: A total of 30 subjects (15 in each group) were recruited but 3 dropped out. Analysis included 13 subjects from group A and 14 subjects from group B. Group A showed an increase in LII (P < 0.05) after wearing VFR-CV and VFR-3D, whereas group B had no significant increase in LII after wearing both VFRs. Both groups reported significant improvement in OHRQoL after the first intervention but no significant differences after the second intervention. LII changes and OHIP-14 scores at T2 and T3 between groups, and overall between the retainers were not significantly different. No harm was reported during the study.

    Conclusion: VFRs made on ABS-based 3D printed models showed no differences in terms of patients' OHRQoL and stability compared with conventionally made retainers.

    Registration: NCT02866617 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  13. Prathibha B, Reddy PP, Anjum MS, Monica M, Praveen BH
    Dent Res J (Isfahan), 2019 2 13;16(1):36-41.
    PMID: 30745917
    Background: The aim of this study is comparing the retention and caries preventive effect of the glass-ionomer fissure sealant and resin-based fissure sealant.

    Materials and Methods: A randomized-controlled split-mouth study was conducted to compare the retention and the caries preventive effect of light-cured resin-based sealant (3M ESPE) and glass ionomer sealant (Fuji VII). The sealants were applied to either the right or the left lower mandibular molars (7-9 yrs of age) in 120 school children, based on the randomization process. They were recalled for assessment of clinical retention at intervals of 3, 6, and 12 months. The caries-preventive effect between the two materials was tested statistically by the McNemar's test for matched pairs, and the differences observed with regard to the retention of the materials was tested by Chi-square tests. The level of significance was set to be at P < 0.05.

    Results: At the end of 12th month, sealant retention is found to be higher in the resin-based sealant group compared to the glass ionomer group. In the glass ionomer sealants placed, 101 (91%) were caries-free and 10 (9%) had caries. In the resin-based sealant, 105 (94.60%) had sound teeth and 6 (5.4%) had dental caries (P = 0.34).

    Conclusion: The glass ionomer sealant was less retentive when compared to resin sealants. The caries incidence between the glass ionomer and resin-based sealants was not statistically significant.

    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  14. Vollrath J
    Bioethics, 1989 Apr;3(2):93-105.
    PMID: 11649247 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8519.1989.tb00331.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation*
  15. Dadrasnia A, Agamuthu P
    Waste Manag Res, 2013 Nov;31(11):1133-9.
    PMID: 24025373 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X13502382
    Toxic inorganic and organic chemicals are major contributors to environmental contamination and pose major health risks to human population. In this work, Dracaena reflexa and Podocarpus polystachyus were investigated for their potential to remove hydrocarbons from 2.5% and 1% diesel fuel-contaminated soil amended individually with 5% organic wastes (tea leaf, soy cake and potato skin) for a period of 270 days. Loss of 90% and 99% oil was recorded in soil contaminated with 2.5% and 1% oil with soy cake amendment, respectively, compared with 52% and 62% in unamended soil with D. reflexa at the end of 270 days. Similarly, 84% and 91% oil loss was recorded for P. polystachyus amended with organic wastes in 2.5% and 1% oil, respectively. Diesel fuel disappeared more rapidly in the soil amendment with SC than in other organic waste supplementation. It was evident that plants did not accumulate hydrocarbon from the soil, while the number of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria was high in the rhizosphere, thus suggesting that the mechanism of the oil degradation was rhizodegradation. The kinetic model result indicated a high rate of degradation in soil amendment with SC at 1% with D. reflexa compared with other treatments. Thus, a positive relationship was observed between diesel hydrocarbon degradation with plant biomass production. Dracaena reflexa with organic wastes amendment has a greater potential of restoring hydrocarbon-contaminated soil compared to P. polystachyus plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  16. Taib IS, Budin SB, Ghazali AR, Jayusman PA, Louis SR, Mohamed J
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2013 Jan;68(1):93-100.
    PMID: 23420164
    Fenitrothion residue is found primarily in soil, water and food products and can lead to a variety of toxic effects on the immune, hepatobiliary and hematological systems. However, the effects of fenitrothion on the male reproductive system remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fenitrothion on the sperm and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  17. Liong MT, Dunshea FR, Shah NP
    Br. J. Nutr., 2007 Oct;98(4):736-44.
    PMID: 17490507
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a synbiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962, fructooligosaccharide, inulin and mannitol on plasma lipid profiles and erythrocyte membrane properties in hypercholesterolaemic pigs on high- and low-fat diets. Twenty-four white male Landrace pigs were randomly allocated to four treatment groups for 8 weeks (n 6). Treatment factors were the supplementation of synbiotic (with and without) and dietary fat (5 and 15 %). The supplementation of synbiotic reduced plasma total cholesterol (P = 0.001), TAG (P = 0.002) and LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.045) for both dietary fats. A higher concentration of esterified-cholesterol in HDL of pigs supplemented with synbiotic than the control regardless of dietary fat (P = 0.036) indicated that cholesterol was reduced in the form of cholesteryl esters. Reduced concentration of cholesteryl esters (P < 0.001) and increased concentration of TAG (P = 0.042) in LDL of pigs on synbiotic suggested that LDL-cholesterol was reduced via the hydrolysis of smaller and denser LDL particles. The erythrocytes of pigs without any synbiotic showed more prevalence of spur cells than those given the synbiotic, as supported by the higher cholesterol: phospholipid ratio in erythrocytes (P = 0.001). Also, membrane fluidity and rigidity were improved as supported by the decreased fluorescence anisotropies in the Hb-free erythrocyte membrane of pigs given synbiotic (P < 0.001). The administration of the synbiotic reduced plasma TAG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolaemic pigs, possibly in the form of cholesteryl esters, via the interrelated pathways of lipid transporters (VLDL, LDL and HDL). The synbiotic also reduced deformation of erythrocytes via improved membrane fluidity and permeability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  18. Shafarin MS, Zamri-Saad M, Jamil SM, Siti Khairani B, Saharee AA
    PMID: 17381677
    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by Pasteurella multocida 6:B. Outbreaks of the disease have been closely associated with carrier animals that transmit the organism to susceptible animals during stressful condition. This study was conducted to determine whether goats exposed intranasally to P. multocida 6:B can transmit the organism to contact goats. Thirty-six healthy local Katjang goats were divided into four groups and goats of groups 1 and 3 were each inoculated intranasally with a 1-ml inoculum that contained 1 x 10(9) CFU/ml of live P. multocida 6:B. Following the exposure, all goats of groups 3 and 4 were injected with dexamethasone at the rate of 1 mg/kg for three consecutive days. At the end of the dexamethasone treatment, goats of groups 1 and 2 were commingled but kept separate from goats of groups 3 and 4, which were commingled in another pen. Three surviving goats from each group were killed on days 7, 14 and 21 post-exposure for postmortem examination. Naso-pharyngeal mucus and heart blood were collected on swabs. Tissues from lungs, lymph nodes and tonsils were collected for bacteriological isolation and identification. Only one goat of group 3 died 6 days post-exposure showing clinical signs and lesions typical of HS. Other goats showed mild signs of upper respiratory tract infection. Goats of all groups developed acute mild pneumonic lesions, however, those treated with dexamethasone had significantly (P < 0.05) more extensive lesion scoring based on the lesion scoring system. P. multocida 6:B was isolated from the nasal mucosa and lung lesions of exposed and contact goats not treated with dexamethasone. Exposed and contact goats treated with dexamethasone carried the organism for 21 days. P. multocida isolation from heart blood was made only from exposed and contact goats treated with dexamethasone. P. multocida was isolated from the lymph node of the goat that died during the experiment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  19. Narayanan SN, Kumar RS, Paval J, Kedage V, Bhat MS, Nayak S, et al.
    Neurol. Sci., 2013 Jul;34(7):1117-24.
    PMID: 22976773 DOI: 10.1007/s10072-012-1189-4
    In the current study the modulatory role of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on emotionality and locomotion was evaluated in adolescent rats. Male albino Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned into the following groups having 12 animals in each group. Group I (Control): they remained in the home cage throughout the experimental period. Group II (Sham exposed): they were exposed to mobile phone in switch-off mode for 28 days, and Group III (RF-EMR exposed): they were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz) from an active GSM (Global system for mobile communications) mobile phone with a peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2) for 28 days. On 29th day, the animals were tested for emotionality and locomotion. Elevated plus maze (EPM) test revealed that, percentage of entries into the open arm, percentage of time spent on the open arm and distance travelled on the open arm were significantly reduced in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Rearing frequency and grooming frequency were also decreased in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Defecation boli count during the EPM test was more with the RF-EMR group. No statistically significant difference was found in total distance travelled, total arm entries, percentage of closed arm entries and parallelism index in the RF-EMR exposed rats compared to controls. Results indicate that mobile phone radiation could affect the emotionality of rats without affecting the general locomotion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  20. Zaid SS, Sulaiman SA, Othman NH, Soelaiman IN, Shuid AN, Mohamad N, et al.
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012 Jul;67(7):779-84.
    PMID: 22892923
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tualang honey on trabecular structure and compare these effects with those of calcium supplementation in ovariectomized rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
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