Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 160 in total

  1. Faridah Yunos, Kamel Ariffin Mohd Atan, Muhammad Rezal Kamel Ariffin, Mohamad Rushdan Md Said
    Elliptic curve cryptosystems (ECC) provides better security for each bit key utilized compared to the RSA cryptosystem. For this reason, it is projected to have more practical usage than the RSA. In ECC, scalar multiplication (or point multiplication) is the dominant operation, namely, computing nP from a point P on an elliptic curve, where n is an integer defined as the point resulting from adding P + P + ... + P, n times. However, for practical uses, it is very important to improve the efficiency of the scalar multiplication. Solinas (1997) proposes that the τ-adic Non-Adjacent Form (τ-NAF) is one of the most efficient algorithms used to compute scalar multiplications on Anomalous Binary curves. In this paper, we give a new property (i.e., Theorem 1.2) of τ-NAF(n) representation for every length, l. This is useful for evaluating the maximum and minimum norms occurring among all length-l elements of Z(τ). We also propose a new cryptographic method by using randomization of a multiplier n to nr an element of Z(τ). It is based on τ-NAF. We focused on estimating the length of RTNAF(nr) expansion by using a new method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  2. Alyessary AS, Yap AUJ, Othman SA, Ibrahim N, Rahman MT, Radzi Z
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2018 Aug;154(2):260-269.
    PMID: 30075928 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.11.031
    INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the effect of bone-borne accelerated expansion protocols on sutural separation and sutural bone modeling using a microcomputed tomography system. We also determined the optimum instant sutural expansion possible without disruption of bone modeling.

    METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits, 20 to 24 weeks old, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups. Modified hyrax expanders were placed across their interfrontal sutures and secured with miniscrew implants located bilaterally in the frontal bone. The hyrax appliances were activated as follows: group 1 (control), 0.5-mm per day expansion for 12 days; group 2, 1-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 10 days; group 3, 2.5-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days, and group 4, 4-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 4 days. After 6 weeks of retention, sutural separation and sutural bone modeling were assessed by microcomputed tomography and quantified. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and the Spearman rho correlation (P <0.05).

    RESULTS: Median amounts of sutural separation ranged from 2.84 to 4.41 mm for groups 1 and 4, respectively. Median bone volume fraction ranged from 59.96% to 69.15% for groups 4 and 3, respectively. A significant correlation (r = 0.970; P <0.01) was observed between the amounts of instant expansion and sutural separation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pending histologic verifications, our findings suggest that the protocol involving 2.5 mm of instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days is optimal for accelerated sutural expansion. When 4 mm of instant expansion was used, the sutural bone volume fraction was decreased.

    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  3. Dzulkarnain AA, Wan Mhd Pandi WM, Wilson WJ, Bradley AP, Sapian F
    Int J Audiol, 2014 Aug;53(8):514-21.
    PMID: 24702636 DOI: 10.3109/14992027.2014.897763
    To determine if a computer simulation can be used to improve the ability of audiology students to analyse ABR waveforms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  4. Chia KS, Abdul Rahim H, Abdul Rahim R
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2012 Feb;13(2):145-51.
    PMID: 22302428 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B11c0150
    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400-1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  5. Mehat MZ, Shuid AN, Mohamed N, Muhammad N, Soelaiman IN
    J. Bone Miner. Metab., 2010 Sep;28(5):503-9.
    PMID: 20145960 DOI: 10.1007/s00774-010-0159-2
    Bone is a specialized connective tissue that functions as the load-bearing structure of the body. Free radicals may affect bone remodeling by regulating osteoclast activity in either the physiological or pathological condition. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been demonstrated to offer protection against osteoporosis and to improve the bone material and structure of animal models. The aim of this study was to observe and compare the effects of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tocopherol), delta-tocotrienol (delta-tocotrienol), and gamma-tocotrienol (gamma-tocotrienol) on the static and dynamic bone histomorphometric parameters in normal male rats. Thirty-two normal Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 3 months and weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into four groups. The control group was supplemented with oral gavages of olive oil (vehicle), whereas the alpha-tocopherol, delta-tocotrienol, and gamma-tocotrienol groups were given oral gavages of 60 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol, delta-tocotrienol, and gamma-tocotrienol, respectively. The rats were injected twice with calcein to fluorochrome-label the bones. After 4 months of treatment, the rats were killed, and the left femurs were dissected out and prepared for bone histomorphometry. Both the static and dynamic parameters of the vitamin E-treated groups were better than those of the normal control group. Among the vitamin E-treated groups, the tocotrienol groups showed better histomorphometry results compared to the α-tocopherol group, with the γ-tocotrienol group demonstrating the best effects on both sets of parameters. We concluded that vitamin E can promote bone formation in normal rats, with gamma-tocotrienol being the most potent form of vitamin E.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  6. Wan Hassan WE, Phipps RH, Owen E
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 1989 Aug;21(3):175-82.
    PMID: 2799944
    In experiments conducted over a four-year period the effect of pasture type (Setaria sphacelata and a Brachiaria decumbens/Leucaena leucocephala mixture), management system (rotational grazing and cut and carry) and level of concentrate supplement (0, 4 and 6 kg fresh weight/cow per day) on milk production in smallholder dairy units was examined. All units were 1 ha in size and stocked with five Sahiwal X Friesian cows. Milk yields/ha were higher from rotational grazing and the brachiaria/leucaena pasture when compared with the cut and carry system and the setaria pasture respectively. In subsequent experiments smallholder units were based on brachiaria/leucaena and rotational grazing. A supplement of 4 kg fresh weight of concentrate (11 MJ/kg DM and 150 g/kg DM CP) increased milk yield/ha from 7,760 to 13,045 kg while in a third trial milk yield/ha was further increased from 14,148 to 16,760 kg when concentrate level was raised from 4 to 6 kg fresh weight/day. The results indicate that smallholder dairy units in Malaysia could be economically viable and competitive with other agricultural enterprises such as rubber and oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  7. Yuen KH, Desmukh AA, Newton JM
    Pharm. Res., 1993 Apr;10(4):588-92.
    PMID: 8483843
    A novel multiparticulate sustained-release theophylline formulation, which consisted of spherical drug pellets coated with a rate-controlling membrane, was evaluated in vivo. Two preparations that differ solely in the coat thickness, and hence rate of in vitro drug release, were studied in comparison with a solution of the drug. Both preparations produced serum concentration profiles that are reflective of a slow and sustained rate of absorption. The in vivo release versus time profiles calculated using a deconvolution procedure showed that the two preparations differed in the rate but not the extent of drug release. Satisfactory correlation was also obtained between the in vivo and the in vitro results. When the two preparations were further compared using the parameters, time to reach peak concentration (Tp), peak concentration (Cp), and total area under the serum concentration versus time curves (AUC), a statistically significant difference was observed in the Tp and Cp values but not the AUC values, suggesting that the preparations differed in the rate but not the extent of absorption. In addition, the extent of absorption from both preparations was comparable to that obtained with the drug solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  8. Yao SC, Chai MC, Singh A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1990 Mar;45(1):29-36.
    PMID: 2152066
    Existing criteria for admission of newborns to the special care nursery, Sarawak General Hospital, resulted in the admission of many neonates with certain risk factors ("at risk" neonates). To test whether such babies could be safely and better cared for in postnatal wards, 392 of these babies were randomly allocated into two groups. One group of 196 was admitted to the special care nursery and the other group of 196 was cared for with their mothers in the postnatal wards. The two groups were compared for mortality, morbidity and breastfeeding. There was no significant difference in mortality and morbidity between the two groups. While in hospital a larger proportion of babies cared for in postnatal wards were breastfed, compared to babies admitted to the special care nursery. In addition, they initiated their breastfeeding earlier. Babies with these risk factors should therefore be cared for with their mothers in the postnatal wards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  9. Woon KC
    Aust Orthod J, 1988 Mar;10(3):183-5.
    PMID: 3166621
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  10. Mak JW, Lam PL, Rain AN, Suresh K
    J. Helminthol., 1987 Dec;61(4):311-4.
    PMID: 3437112
    Four Presbytis cristata were treated with oral ivermectin at the same time as the subcutaneous inoculation of 100 infective larvae monthly for three months. Two animals given 0.2 mg/kg monthly and two others given 0.3 mg/kg monthly as well as three control animals became patent for microfilaraemia. However, only 1% of the infective dose was recovered as adult worms from animals in the higher drug dosage group compared to 8.2% and 6.2% in the lower dosage and control groups respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  11. Mohd Tahir N, Wan Hassan WN, Saub R
    Eur J Orthod, 2018 Oct 12.
    PMID: 30321319 DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjy063
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare vacuum-formed thermoplastic retainers (VFRs) constructed on stone models (VFR-CV) and those constructed on three-dimensional (3D) printed models (VFR-3D) based on patients' perspective and post-treatment stability.

    Study design: The research was designed as a crossover, randomized control trial.

    Materials and methods: Subjects comprised patients receiving fixed appliances at a teaching institution and indicated for VFRs. Post-treatment stone models were scanned with a structured-light scanner. A fused deposition modelling machine was used to construct acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)-based replicas from the 3D scanned images. VFRs were fabricated on the original stone and printed models. Analysis comprised independent t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance.

    Randomization: Subjects were allocated to two groups using Latin squares methods and simple randomization. A week after debond, subjects received either VFR-CV first (group A) or VFR-3D first (group B) for 3 months, then the interventions were crossed over for another 3 months.

    Blinding: In this single-blinded study, subjects were assigned a blinding code for data entry; data were analysed by a third party.

    Outcome measures: The primary outcome measured was oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) based on Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). Secondary outcome was post-treatment stability measured using Little's Irregularity Index (LII).

    Results: A total of 30 subjects (15 in each group) were recruited but 3 dropped out. Analysis included 13 subjects from group A and 14 subjects from group B. Group A showed an increase in LII (P < 0.05) after wearing VFR-CV and VFR-3D, whereas group B had no significant increase in LII after wearing both VFRs. Both groups reported significant improvement in OHRQoL after the first intervention but no significant differences after the second intervention. LII changes and OHIP-14 scores at T2 and T3 between groups, and overall between the retainers were not significantly different. No harm was reported during the study.

    Conclusion: VFRs made on ABS-based 3D printed models showed no differences in terms of patients' OHRQoL and stability compared with conventionally made retainers.

    Registration: NCT02866617 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  12. Vollrath J
    Bioethics, 1989 Apr;3(2):93-105.
    PMID: 11649247 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8519.1989.tb00331.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation*
  13. Tan PC, Mackeen A, Khong SY, Omar SZ, Noor Azmi MA
    Sci Rep, 2016 Mar 18;6:23223.
    PMID: 26987593 DOI: 10.1038/srep23223
    A peripheral intravenous catheter is often inserted as part of care during labour. The catheter is inserted into the back of the hand or lower forearm vein in usual practice. There is no trial data to guide the care provider on which is the better insertion site in any clinical setting. 307 women admitted to the labour ward who required insertion of intravenous catheter were randomised to back of hand or lower forearm vein catheter insertion. Catheter insertion is by junior to mid-grade providers. We evaluated insertion success at the first attempt, pain during insertion and catheter replacement due to malfunction as main outcomes. After catheter removal, we recorded patient satisfaction with site, future site preference and insertion site swelling, bruising, tenderness, vein thrombosis and pain. Insertion of a catheter into back of hand vein is more likely to be successful at the first attempt. Insertion pain score, catheter replacement rate, patient satisfaction, patient fidelity to site in a future insertion and insertion site complications rate are not different between trial arms. In conclusion, both insertion sites are suitable; the back of the hand vein maybe easier to cannulate and seems to be preferred by our frontline providers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  14. Aljuobori A, Zulkifli I, Soleimani AF, Abdullah N, Liang JB, Mujahid A
    Poult. Sci., 2016 Jun 01;95(6):1326-31.
    PMID: 26944983 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew023
    Extruded canola meal (ECM) was included in diet of broiler chickens at 0, 10, 20, and 30% (wt/wt) from 1 to 35 days of age. A total of 240 day-old male chicks were assigned in groups of 5 to 48 battery cages in environmentally controlled chambers and diets were replicated with 12 cages/treatment. From d 29 to 35, birds from each dietary group were exposed to either thermoneutral (23 ± 1°C; unheated) or high (36 ± 1°C; heated) temperature conditions. High ambient temperature, irrespective of ECM inclusion, depressed the growth performance of birds. Inclusion of ECM increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) linearly in unheated birds during d 1 to 28 (P < 0.001) and d 29 to 35 (P = 0.001). However, no adverse effects of ECM inclusion were observed on the growth performance of heated birds. The absence of these detrimental effects could be associated with the lack of triiodothyronine (T3) elevation by ECM inclusion in heated birds. In conclusion, ECM can be fed, at least, up to 30%, without any adverse effect on growth performance of broiler chickens raised under chronic high ambient temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  15. Upadhyay DK, Ibrahim MI, Mishra P, Alurkar VM, Ansari M
    Daru, 2016 Feb 29;24:6.
    PMID: 26926657 DOI: 10.1186/s40199-016-0145-x
    BACKGROUND: Cost is a vital component for people with chronic diseases as treatment is expected to be long or even lifelong in some diseases. Pharmacist contributions in decreasing the healthcare cost burden of chronic patients are not well described due to lack of sufficient evidences worldwide. In developing countries like Nepal, the estimation of direct healthcare cost burden among newly diagnosed diabetics is still a challenge for healthcare professionals, and pharmacist role in patient care is still theoretical and practically non-existent. This study reports the impact of pharmacist-supervised intervention through pharmaceutical care program on direct healthcare costs burden of newly diagnosed diabetics in Nepal through a non-clinical randomised controlled trial approach.

    METHODS: An interventional, pre-post non-clinical randomised controlled study was conducted among randomly distributed 162 [control (n = 54), test 1 (n = 54) and test 2 (n = 54) groups] newly diagnosed diabetics by a consecutive sampling method for 18 months. Direct healthcare costs (direct medical and non-medical costs) from patients perspective was estimated by 'bottom up' approach to identify their out-of-pocket expenses (1USD = NPR 73.38) before and after intervention at the baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months follow-ups. Test groups' patients were nourished with pharmaceutical care intervention while control group patients only received care from physician/nurses. Non-parametric tests i.e. Friedman test, Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to find the differences in direct healthcare costs among the groups before and after the intervention (p ≤ 0.05).

    RESULTS: Friedman test identified significant differences in direct healthcare cost of test 1 (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  16. Jawad HS, Lokman IH, Zuki AB, Kassim AB
    Poult. Sci., 2016 Apr;95(4):966-73.
    PMID: 26908881 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pev444
    Partial ablation of the uropygial gland is being used in the poultry industry as a new way to enhance body performance of chickens. However, limited data are available estimating the efficacy of partial uropygialectomy (PU) to improve body organ activity. The present study evaluated the effect of partial ablation of the uropygial gland on the serum growth hormone concentration level and digestive system histology of 120 Akar Putra chickens in 5 trials with 3 replicates per trial. The experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment T1; partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied in the T2, T3, T4, and T5 treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. All treatment groups were provided the same diet. Venous blood samples were collected on wk 7, 10, and 12 to assay the levels of growth hormone concentration. On the last d of the experiment, 4 birds per replicate were randomly isolated and euthanized to perform the necropsy. Digestive system organs' cross sections were measured by a computerized image analyzer after being stained with haematoxylin and eosin. In comparison with the control group, surgical removal of the uropygial gland, especially at wk 3, had a greater (P<0.01) effect on the total duodenum, jejunum, and ilium wall thickness. In addition, effects (P<0.05) were observed on the wall thickness of males' cecum and colon. Moreover, the wall layers of the esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, and rectum were not affected by the treatment. However, removing the uropygial gland showed significant impact (P<0.05) in males' growth hormone concentration level at wk 7 and (P<0.01) effects at wk 12 in both sexes. This study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chickens particularly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  17. Awad EA, Zulkifli I, Soleimani AF, Loh TC
    Poult. Sci., 2015 Nov;94(11):2772-7.
    PMID: 26371331 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pev258
    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding low-protein diets fortified with individual non-essential amino acids (NEAA) on growth performance, serum metabolites (uric acid, UA; triglycerides, TG; total protein, TP; and albumin, Alb), organ weight, breast yield, and abdominal fat weight in broiler chicks raised under the hot and humid tropical climate. Eight isocaloric (3,017 kcal/kg) experimental diets were formulated and fed to male broiler chicks from d 1-21 as follows: 1) 22.2% crude protein (CP) (positive control; PC); 2) 16.2% CP + mixture essential amino acids (EAA) to meet or exceed the National Research Council (1994) recommendations (negative control; NC); 3) NC + glycine (Gly) to equal the total glycine + serine level in the PC; diets 4 through 7 were obtained by supplementing NC diet with individual glutamic acid, proline, alanine, or aspartic acid (Glu, Pro, Ala, or Asp, respectively); 8) NC + NEAA (Gly + Glu + Pro + Ala + Asp) to equal the total level of these NEAA in the PC. Fortifying NC diet with mixture NEAA resulted in a similar growth performance as PC. However, fortification of low-CP diet with individual NEAA failed to improve body weight (BW) (P < 0.0001), feed intake (FI) (P = 0.0001), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.0001). Serum uric acid (UA) was lower (P = 0.0356) in NC birds and NC diet supplemented with individual NEAA birds, whereas serum triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.007) and relative weight of abdominal fat (P = 0.001) were higher in these birds. In conclusion, no single NEAA fortification may compensate the depressed growth performance attributed to a low-CP diet. However, fortification with Gly may improve FCR. There is a possibility that broilers raised under the hot and humid climate require higher Gly fortification than the level used in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  18. Lee CK, Chang CC, Johor A, Othman P, Baba R
    Int. J. Dermatol., 2015 Jul;54(7):765-70.
    PMID: 25427962 DOI: 10.1111/ijd.12451
    Hand dermatitis associated fingerprint changes is a significant problem and affects fingerprint verification processes. This study was done to develop a clinically useful prediction model for fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  19. Wong JL, Siti Azrin AH, Narizan MI, Norliah Y, Noraida M, Amanina A, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Sep;31(3):534-9.
    PMID: 25382481 MyJurnal
    Hands of Health Care Personnel (HCP) are one of the most common vehicles for the transmission of infection. Microorganisms can survive well on the hands of HCP for a certain duration. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to bring awareness to HCP that their hands can actually be contaminated with many microorganisms. These microbes on the hands of HCP can potentially infect their patients if they do not comply with the proper hand hygiene practice. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a randomly selected Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and general ward in a hospital. Twenty five HCP from each ward were randomly selected and their hands were imprinted on blood culture plates. Microorganism growth were quantified and identified. Data were analyzed and presented as descriptive analysis. One hundred blood agar plates were processed and analyzed. Majority (71%) of the samples had more than 50 colony-forming units (CFU) and only 17% of the samples had less than 25 CFU. Microorganisms identified include Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Moraxella, Delftiaacidovorans and fungi. All isolated microorganisms were antibiotic sensitive strain. This study showed that the hands of HCP were contaminated with many microorganisms. Therefore, it is imperative that HCP must practice proper hand hygiene when taking care of their patients in the wards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
  20. Juliana N, Shahar S, Chelliah KK, Ghazali AR, Osman F, Sahar MA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(14):5759-65.
    PMID: 25081698
    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a potential supplement for mammogram screening. This study aimed to evaluate and feasibility of EIT as opposed to mammography and to determine pain perception with both imaging methods. Women undergoing screening mammography at the Radiology Department of National University of Malaysia Medical Centre were randomly selected for EIT imaging. All women were requested to give a pain score after each imaging session. Two independent raters were chosen to define the image findings of EIT. A total of 164 women in the age range from 40 to 65-year-old participated and were divided into two groups; normal and abnormal. EIT sensitivity and specificity for rater 1 were 69.4% and 63.3, whereas for rater 2 they were 55.3% and 57.0% respectively. The reliability for each rater ranged between good to very good (p<0.05). Quantitative values of EIT showed there were significant differences in all values between groups (ANCOVA, p<0.05). Interestingly, EIT scored a median pain score of 1.51±0.75 whereas mammography scored 4.15±0.87 (Mann Whitney U test, p<0.05). From these quantitative values, EIT has the potential as a health discriminating index. Its ability to replace image findings from mammography needs further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Random Allocation
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