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  1. Mahdy ZA, Basri H, Md Isa Z, Ahmad S, Shamsuddin K, Mohd Amin R
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2014 Apr;40(4):983-7.
    PMID: 24320794 DOI: 10.1111/jog.12277
    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances*
  2. Seal CJ, Nugent AP, Tee ES, Thielecke F
    Br J Nutr, 2016 06;115(11):2031-8.
    PMID: 27082494 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114516001161
    Increased whole-grain (WG) consumption reduces the risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes and some cancers, is related to reduced body weight and weight gain and is related to improved intestinal health. Definitions of 'WG' and 'WG food' are proposed and used in some countries but are not consistent. Many countries promote WG consumption, but the emphasis given and the messages used vary. We surveyed dietary recommendations of fifty-three countries for mentions of WG to assess the extent, rationale and diversity in emphasis and wording of any recommendations. If present, recommendations were classified as either 'primary', where the recommendation was specific for WG, or 'secondary', where recommendations were made in order to achieve another (primary) target, most often dietary fibre intake. In total, 127 organisations were screened, including government, non-governmental organisations, charities and professional bodies, the WHO and European Food Safety Authority, of which forty-nine including WHO provide a WG intake recommendation. Recommendations ranged from 'specific' with specified target amounts (e.g. x g WG/d), 'semi-quantitative' where intake was linked to intake of cereal/carbohydrate foods with proportions of WG suggested (e.g. x servings of cereals of which y servings should be WG) to 'non-specific' based on 'eating more' WG or 'choosing WG where possible'. This lack of a harmonised message may result in confusion for the consumer, lessen the impact of public health messages and pose barriers to trade in the food industry. A science-based consensus or expert opinion on WG recommendations is needed, with a global reach to guide public health decision making and increase WG consumption globally.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances*
  3. Rasdi FL, Bakar NK, Mohamad S
    Int J Mol Sci, 2013 Feb 01;14(2):3078-93.
    PMID: 23377017 DOI: 10.3390/ijms14023078
    A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%-98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  4. Shahar S, Earland J, Rahman SA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2000 Jun;9(2):122-9.
    PMID: 24394398
    A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out on 350 elderly Malays aged 60 and above from 11 randomly selected villages in a rural area on the east coast of Malaysia. The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and of all of the nutrients investigated were below the Malaysian Recommended Dietary Allowances, except for protein and vitamin C. With respect to dietary habits, almost all of the subjects reported that they had breakfast (99.3%), lunch (97.9%) and dinner (90.4%) daily or almost daily (5-6 times/week). However, approximately half of the subjects, especially women, had particular beliefs and prohibitions about specific foods. Most of the subjects usually ate their meals at home, particularly dinner, with 99.3% always having dinner in their own home. Thus, although the rural elderly Malays studied had regular meal intakes, the dietary intake was inadequate. There is a need to plan community-based intervention programmes in order to prevent the subsequent consequences of malnutrition that lead to increased morbidity and mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  5. Gopinath VK
    Malays J Med Sci, 2013 Oct;20(5):61-6.
    PMID: 24643339 MyJurnal
    This research aimed to compare the nutrient intake of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) with that of normal children (without CLP) in the same age groups. The study was conducted at the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 139 children, of both sexes, from two to six years of age, either with CLP (40 children) or without CLP (99 children), were selected. The CLP and non-CLP children were grouped according to age, which is a key determinant of nutrient intake. Children in subgroup I were between the ages of 2 and 4 years, the group comprising 48 normal children of mean age 39.85 months (SD 7.1), and 20 CLP children of mean age 37.05 months (SD 5.9). Children in subgroup II were those over 4 years and up to 6 years old, and the group comprised 51 normal children, of mean age 64.16 months (SD 7.9), and 20 CLP children of mean age 56.75 months (SD 9.9). A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate nutrient intake in subgroups I and II, using a 24 hours diet recall method. The nutrient intake of CLP children was shown to have no significant differences from that of normal children. A comparison of intake per day with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Malaysian children showed that the consumption of nutrients was inadequate in both the normal and CLP children, in both age sub-groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  6. de Bruyn J, Wesana J, Bunting SW, Thilsted SH, Cohen PJ
    Nutrients, 2021 Jul 14;13(7).
    PMID: 34371918 DOI: 10.3390/nu13072408
    Effective actions for the fishery and aquaculture sectors to contribute toward improving nutrition rely on an understanding of the factors influencing fish intake, particularly amongst vulnerable populations. This scoping review synthesises evidence from 33 studies in the African Great Lakes Region to examine the influence of food environments on fish acquisition and consumption. We identified only two studies that explicitly applied a food environment framework and none that linked policy conditions with the contribution of fish to diets. Economic access to fish was represented in the largest number of included studies (21 studies), followed by preferences, acceptability and desirability of fish (17 studies) and availability and physical access (14 studies). Positive perceptions of taste and low cost, relative to other animal-source foods, were drivers of fish purchases in many settings; however, limited physical and economic access were frequently identified as preventing optimal intake. In lakeside communities, fish were increasingly directed toward external markets which reduced the availability and affordability of fish for local households. Few studies considered intra-household variations in fish access according to age, gender or physiological status, which represents an important knowledge gap. There is also scope for future research on seasonal influences on fish access and the design and rigorous evaluation of programmes and policies that address one or more constraints of availability, cost, convenience and preferences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  7. Grinang J, Tyan PS, Tuen AA, Das I
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jul;28(2):75-87.
    PMID: 28890762 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.2.6
    Data on nutrient contents of freshwater crabs are important for ecological studies and species conservation assessments, especially when the species concerned is threatened among others by habitat destruction and uncontrolled resources utilisation. Indeed comprehensive biological information is required to reconcile the needs between sustainable resources utilisation and conservation of the species. This study documents the nutrient contents of a freshwater crab, Isolapotamon bauense which is listed as 'Vulnerable' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and also being harvested by local community for dietary supplement. Results show that muscles of the freshwater crab contain a substantial amount of nutrients in particular water content (male = 79.31 ± 2.30 %, female = 77.63 ± 0.56 %), protein (male = 77.47 ± 6.11 %, female = 63.28 ± 3.62 %), magnesium (male = 51.48 ± 16.10 mg/g, female = 39.73 ± 6.99 mg/g) and calcium (male = 25.50 ± 6.98 mg/g, female = 39.73 ± 6.99 mg/g). Means of nutrient contents between male and female crabs are not significantly different. It is estimated that an individual of I. bauense with weight range of 56-139 g contained on average of 0.35 ± 0.15 g of protein. Our estimation also shows that the number of individuals of the freshwater crab required to meet the recommended daily protein intakes of the community concerned is in the range 35-96 individuals for children, 130-188 individuals for adolescents, 171-179 individuals for men and 149-159 individuals for women. The results imply that harvesting of wild I. bauense as a source of protein supplement naturally may not be practical because of its relatively low population abundance, and conservation of the species for its ecological roles may thus be preferred.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  8. Landais E, Moskal A, Mullee A, Nicolas G, Gunter MJ, Huybrechts I, et al.
    Nutrients, 2018 Jun 05;10(6).
    PMID: 29874819 DOI: 10.3390/nu10060725
    BACKGROUND: Coffee and tea are among the most commonly consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide, but methodological differences in assessing intake often hamper comparisons across populations. We aimed to (i) describe coffee and tea intakes and (ii) assess their contribution to intakes of selected nutrients in adults across 10 European countries.

    METHOD: Between 1995 and 2000, a standardized 24-h dietary recall was conducted among 36,018 men and women from 27 European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study centres. Adjusted arithmetic means of intakes were estimated in grams (=volume) per day by sex and centre. Means of intake across centres were compared by sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors.

    RESULTS: In women, the mean daily intake of coffee ranged from 94 g/day (~0.6 cups) in Greece to 781 g/day (~4.4 cups) in Aarhus (Denmark), and tea from 14 g/day (~0.1 cups) in Navarra (Spain) to 788 g/day (~4.3 cups) in the UK general population. Similar geographical patterns for mean daily intakes of both coffee and tea were observed in men. Current smokers as compared with those who reported never smoking tended to drink on average up to 500 g/day more coffee and tea combined, but with substantial variation across centres. Other individuals' characteristics such as educational attainment or age were less predictive. In all centres, coffee and tea contributed to less than 10% of the energy intake. The greatest contribution to total sugar intakes was observed in Southern European centres (up to ~20%).

    CONCLUSION: Coffee and tea intake and their contribution to energy and sugar intake differed greatly among European adults. Variation in consumption was mostly driven by geographical region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances*
  9. Bao Khanh le N, Burgers MR, Huu Chinh N, Tuoc BV, Dinh Dung N, Deurenberg P, et al.
    Food Nutr Bull, 2016 Mar;37(1):100-11.
    PMID: 27004970 DOI: 10.1177/0379572116631642
    The traditional Vietnamese diet carries the risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and a substantial part of children <11 years do not meet the Vietnamese recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for a range of nutrients. Dairy products are known for their high nutrient density and milk in particular for its provision of high-quality protein and relevant concentrations of calcium, magnesium, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, and pantothenic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  10. Sulaiman SH, Jamaluddin R, Sabran MR
    Nutrients, 2018 Apr 07;10(4).
    PMID: 29642443 DOI: 10.3390/nu10040460
    Aflatoxin is a food contaminant and its exposure through the diet is frequent and ubiquitous. A long-term dietary aflatoxin exposure has been linked to the development of liver cancer in populations with high prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the association between urinary aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁), a biomarker of aflatoxin exposure, with the dietary intake among adults in Hulu Langat district, Selangor, Malaysia. Certain food products have higher potential for aflatoxin contamination and these were listed in a Food Frequency Questionnaire, which was given to all study participants. This allowed us to record consumption rates for each food product listed. Concomitantly, urine samples were collected, from adults in selected areas in Hulu Langat district, for the measurement of AFM₁ levels using an ELISA kit. Of the 444 urine samples collected and tested, 199 were positive for AFM₁, with 37 of them exceeding the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.64 ng/mL. Cereal products showed the highest consumption level among all food groups, with an average intake of 512.54 g per day. Chi-square analysis showed that consumption of eggs (X² = 4.77, p = 0.03) and dairy products (X² = 19.36, p < 0.01) had significant associations with urinary AFM₁ but both food groups were having a phi and Cramer's V value that less than 0.3, which indicated that the association between these food groups' consumption and AFM₁ level in urine was weak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  11. Selamat R, Raib J, Abdul Aziz NA, Zulkafly N, Ismail AN, W Mohamad WNA, et al.
    Ecol Food Nutr, 2019 11 22;59(3):263-278.
    PMID: 31755310 DOI: 10.1080/03670244.2019.1694922
    This study aimed to determine dietary practices and meal patterns among Malaysian overweight and obese school children at baseline. This study was part of a school-based obesity intervention study, My Body is Fit and Fabulous at School (MyBFF@school). It involved 1045 primary and 1041 secondary overweight and obese school children from a randomly selected 23 out of 1196 primary and 15 out of 416 secondary government schools in central Peninsular Malaysia. The results showed a significantly higher of adequate intake (4-8 servings/day) of cereals and grains among primary (54.7%) than secondary school children (48.2%). About 28.2% of primary and 32.6% of secondary school children had consumed adequate fruit (2 servings/day), while a very low percentage of both primary (5.0%) and secondary (3.6%) school children consumed adequate vegetables (3 servings/day). As for the meal patterns, school children in both primary and secondary were not taking breakfast regularly (mean±SD for primary: 3.16 ± 2.61 days/week vs secondary: 2.97 ± 2.52 days/week). There was also a significantly higher mean frequency of primary school children brought plain water to school than the secondary school children. In conclusion, urgent actions to address improper dietary practices and meal patterns of overweight and obese school children in Malaysia are warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  12. Soon SD, Khor GL
    Malays J Nutr, 1995;1(2):115-28.
    MyJurnal
    The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children in FELDA Sungai Koyan, Pahang. Anthropometric measurements were taken from 105 children comprising of 62 boys and 43 girls aged 12 to 72 months. Food intake records from 84 of these children aged 4-6.9 years were obtained. Socio-economic factors which may influence nutritional status were also studied. The anthropometric assessment showed that 14.3% (n=15) of the children were underweight, 10.5% (n=11) stunted and 2.9% (n=3) wasted when compared with the NCHS Reference. It was also found that 28.6% (n=30) of the children had low mid arm circumference for age according to the Frisancho reference, indicating a low protein calorie reserve. The result of the dietary study showed that the intake of calories, calcium, niacin and thiamine were below the recommended daily allowances (RDA) for Malaysia. However, the intake of protein, iron, vitamin A, riboflavin and vitamin C were above the RDA levels. Foods most frequently taken were rice, fish, milk and meat. Vegetables and fruits were also often consumed by the children. Based on the Pearson correlation test, a significant relationship was shown between the nutritional status of the children (weight for age and height for age) with the mother’s educational level, and the number of children in the family. There was also a significant relationship between mother’s nutrition knowledge and the nutritional status of the children (weight for age). Inadequate calorie intake is one of the important factors involved in the causation of protein energy malnutrition. This problem is influenced by socio-economic factor such as low educational level and nutrition knowledge of mothers and large family size. Parents should be encouraged to participate in activities that enhance nutrition knowledge and promote good nutritional practices. FELDA is encouraged to organize more such activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  13. Loo KW, Griffiths LR, Gan SH
    J Diabetes, 2014 Sep;6(5):447.
    PMID: 24645716 DOI: 10.1111/1753-0407.12151
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  14. Batcagan-Abueg AP, Lee JJ, Chan P, Rebello SA, Amarra MS
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(4):490-504.
    PMID: 24231008 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.4.04
    Increased dietary sodium intake is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The monitoring of population sodium intake is a key part of any salt reduction intervention. However, the extent and methods used for as-sessment of sodium intake in Southeast Asia is currently unclear. This paper provides a narrative synthesis of the best available evidence regarding levels of sodium intake in six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and describes salt reduction measures being undertaken in these countries. Electronic databases were screened to identify relevant articles for inclusion up to 29 February 2012. Reference lists of included studies and conference proceedings were also examined. Local experts and researchers in nutrition and public health were consulted. Quality of studies was assessed using a modified version of the Downs and Black Checklist. Twenty-five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Full texts of 19 studies including government reports were retrieved, with most studies being of good quality. In-sufficient evidence exists regarding salt intakes in Southeast Asia. Dietary data suggest that sodium intake in most SEA countries exceeded the WHO recommendation of 2 g/day. Studies are needed that estimate sodium intake using the gold standard 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The greatest proportion of dietary sodium came from added salt and sauces. Data on children were limited. The six countries had salt reduction initiatives that differed in specificity and extent, with greater emphasis on consumer education.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  15. Lim YJ, Jamaluddin R, Er YT
    Nutrients, 2018 Jun 25;10(7).
    PMID: 29941848 DOI: 10.3390/nu10070819
    A microscale built environment was the focus in this cross-sectional study which aimed to investigate the associations between platescapes, foodscapes, and meal energy intake among subjects. A total of 133 subjects (54 male, 79 female) with mean age 36.8 ± 7.3 years completed a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, platescapes, and foodscape preferences. For platescapes, a plate mapping method was used, where subjects were required to place various sizes of food models on two different sized plates (23 cm and 28 cm) based on their preferences. For foodscape preferences, subjects were given a 23-cm plate and various food models differentiated by shapes and colours. Then, 24-h daily recalls (for one weekday and one weekend day) were obtained using interviews. Significant differences were observed in meal energy intake (p < 0.05) between males (1741 ± 339 kcal) and females (1625 ± 247 kcal) and also between age groups (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference (p < 0.0001) in terms of subjects’ meal energy intake when comparing 23-cm plates (419 ± 124 kcal) and 28-cm plates (561 ± 143 kcal). The bigger plate (28 cm) (p < 0.01) was significantly associated with subjects’ meal energy intakes, but this was not so for the 23-cm plate. There were significant differences in subjects’ meal energy when comparing white rice and multicoloured rice (p < 0.0001), unicoloured and multicoloured proteins (p < 0.0001), and unicoloured and multicoloured vegetables (p < 0.0001). There was a significant difference found between round- and cube-shaped proteins (p < 0.05). The colours of rice (p < 0.01), protein (p < 0.05), and vegetables (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with subjects’ meal energy. Only the shape of carrots in vegetables (p = 0.01) was significantly associated with subjects’ meal energy. Subconsciously, platescapes and foodscapes affect an individual’s energy intake, and thus these elements should be considered in assessing one’s dietary consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  16. Loganathan R, Subramaniam KM, Radhakrishnan AK, Choo YM, Teng KT
    Nutr Rev, 2017 Feb 01;75(2):98-113.
    PMID: 28158744 DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuw054
    The fruit of the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineesis) is the source of antioxidant-rich red palm oil. Red palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherols, carotenoids, phytosterols, squalene, and coenzyme Q10, all of which exhibit nutritional properties and oxidative stability. Mutagenic, nutritional, and toxicological studies have shown that red palm oil contains highly bioavailable β-carotene and vitamin A and is reasonably stable to heat without any adverse effects. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the nutritional properties of red palm oil. The possible antiatherogenic, antihemorrhagic, antihypertensive, anticancer, and anti-infective properties of red palm oil are examined. Moreover, evidence supporting the potential effectiveness of red palm oil to overcome vitamin A deficiency in children and pregnant women, to improve ocular complications of vitamin A deficiency, to protect against ischemic heart disease, to promote normal reproduction in males and females, to aid in the management of diabetes, to ameliorate the adverse effects of chemotherapy, and to aid in managing hypobaric conditions is presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  17. Koo HC, Kaur S, Chan KQ, Soh WH, Ang YL, Chow WS, et al.
    J Hum Nutr Diet, 2020 10;33(5):670-677.
    PMID: 32250007 DOI: 10.1111/jhn.12753
    INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the relationship of whole-grain intake with dietary fatty acids intake. The present study aimed to assess the whole-grain intake and its relationships with dietary fatty acids intake among multiethnic schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 392 schoolchildren aged 9-11 years, cluster sampled from five randomly selected schools in Kuala Lumpur. Whole-grain and fatty acids intakes were assessed by 3-day, 24-h diet recalls. All whole-grain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained.

    RESULTS: In total, 55.6% (n = 218) were whole-grain consumers. Mean (SD) daily intake of whole grain in the total sample was 5.13 (9.75) g day-1 . In the whole-grain consumer's only sample, mean (SD) intakes reached 9.23 (11.55) g day-1 . Significant inverse associations were found between whole-grain intake and saturated fatty acid (SAFA) intake (r = -0.357; P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
  18. Nguyen Bao KL, Sandjaja S, Poh BK, Rojroongwasinkul N, Huu CN, Sumedi E, et al.
    Nutrients, 2018 Jun 13;10(6).
    PMID: 29899251 DOI: 10.3390/nu10060759
    Despite a major decrease in undernutrition worldwide over the last 25 years, underweight and stunting in children still persist as public health issues especially in Africa and Asia. Adequate nutrition is one of the key factors for healthy growth and development of children. In this study, the associations between dairy consumption and nutritional status in the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) were investigated. National representative data of 12,376 children in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam aged between 1 and 12 years were pooled, representing nearly 88 million children in this age category. It was found that the prevalence of stunting and underweight was lower in children who consumed dairy on a daily basis (10.0% and 12.0%, respectively) compared to children who did not use dairy (21.4% and 18.0%, respectively) (p < 0.05). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency was lower in the group of dairy users (3.9% and 39.4%, respectively) compared to non-dairy consumers (7.5% and 53.8%, respectively) (p < 0.05). This study suggests that dairy as part of a daily diet plays an important role in growth and supports a healthy vitamin A and vitamin D status.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recommended Dietary Allowances
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