METHOD: Between 1995 and 2000, a standardized 24-h dietary recall was conducted among 36,018 men and women from 27 European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study centres. Adjusted arithmetic means of intakes were estimated in grams (=volume) per day by sex and centre. Means of intake across centres were compared by sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors.
RESULTS: In women, the mean daily intake of coffee ranged from 94 g/day (~0.6 cups) in Greece to 781 g/day (~4.4 cups) in Aarhus (Denmark), and tea from 14 g/day (~0.1 cups) in Navarra (Spain) to 788 g/day (~4.3 cups) in the UK general population. Similar geographical patterns for mean daily intakes of both coffee and tea were observed in men. Current smokers as compared with those who reported never smoking tended to drink on average up to 500 g/day more coffee and tea combined, but with substantial variation across centres. Other individuals' characteristics such as educational attainment or age were less predictive. In all centres, coffee and tea contributed to less than 10% of the energy intake. The greatest contribution to total sugar intakes was observed in Southern European centres (up to ~20%).
CONCLUSION: Coffee and tea intake and their contribution to energy and sugar intake differed greatly among European adults. Variation in consumption was mostly driven by geographical region.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 392 schoolchildren aged 9-11 years, cluster sampled from five randomly selected schools in Kuala Lumpur. Whole-grain and fatty acids intakes were assessed by 3-day, 24-h diet recalls. All whole-grain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained.
RESULTS: In total, 55.6% (n = 218) were whole-grain consumers. Mean (SD) daily intake of whole grain in the total sample was 5.13 (9.75) g day-1 . In the whole-grain consumer's only sample, mean (SD) intakes reached 9.23 (11.55) g day-1 . Significant inverse associations were found between whole-grain intake and saturated fatty acid (SAFA) intake (r = -0.357; P