Kertas konsep ini bertujuan untuk membincangkan mengenai kepimpinan instruktional dalam kalangan Penyelia Pendidikan awal kanak-kanak dan kepuasan kerja guru Tabika/Taska KEMAS. Dalam era globlalisasi yang pesat dengan pembangunan teknologi alam maya, pemimpin dan peneraju pendidikan awal kanak-kanak perlu mempunyai kompetensi seiring dengan tranformasi pendidikan yang telah dirancang. Kepimpinan instruktional dalam kalangan Penyelia Operasi Pendidikan Awal Kanak-kanak Jabatan Kemajuan Masyarakat KEMAS perlu di implementasikan untuk mencapai tahap kepimpinan optimum yang selaras dengan Standard Kualiti Prasekolah Kebangsaan. Kajian tinjauan ini dilaksanakan bagi tujuan untuk mengenalpasti tahap kepimpinan instruksional Penyelia Operasi Pendidikan Awal Kanak-kanak dan hubunganya dengan kepuasan kerja, Pemaju Masyarakat Tabika/Taska (guru) KEMAS. Seramai 24 orang Penyelia Operasi Pendidikan awal Kanak-kanak dari 24 Parlimen dan 240 Pemaju Masyarakat Tabika/Taska KEMAS di Sabah akan dipilih dalam kajian ini. Seterusnya kajian ini memberi implikasi bahawa pengaruh tahap kepimpinan Penyelia Operasi Pendidikan Awal Kanak-Kanak dan kepuasan kerja Pemaju Masyarakat Tabika/Taska amat penting untuk memastikan halatuju pendidikan awal kanak-kanak di Jabatan KEMAS.
In direct age-adjustment, a common age-structured population is used as standard. This population may actually exist (e.g., United States population, 1999) or may be fictitious (e.g., two populations may be combined to create a standard). In indirect age-adjustment, a common set of age-specific rates is applied to the populations whose rates are to be standardized. The simplest and most useful form of indirect adjustment is the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) (5).
The present paper deals with the novel approach for clustering using the image feature of stabilization diagram for automated operational modal analysis in parametric model which is stochastic subspace identification (SSI)-COV. The evolution of automated operational modal analysis (OMA) is not an easy task, since traditional methods of modal analysis require a large amount of intervention by an expert user. The stabilization diagram and clustering tools are introduced to autonomously distinguish physical poles from noise (spurious) poles which can neglect any user interaction. However, the existing clustering algorithms require at least one user-defined parameter, the maximum within-cluster distance between representations of the same physical mode from different system orders and the supplementary adaptive approaches have to be employed to optimize the selection of cluster validation criteria which will lead to high demanding computational effort. The developed image clustering process is based on the input image of the stabilization diagram that has been generated and displayed separately into a certain interval frequency. and standardized image features in MATLAB was applied to extract the image features of each generated image of stabilisation diagrams. Then, the generated image feature extraction of stabilization diagrams was used to plot image clustering diagram and fixed defined threshold was set for the physical modes classification. The application of image clustering has proven to provide a reliable output results which can effectively identify physical modes in stabilization diagrams using image feature extraction even for closely spaced modes without the need of any calibration or user-defined parameter at start up and any supplementary adaptive approach for cluster validation criteria.
Common spatial pattern (CSP) is shown to be an effective pre-processing algorithm in order to discriminate different classes of motor-based EEG signals by obtaining suitable spatial filters. The performance of these filters can be improved by regularized CSP, in which available prior information is added in terms of regularization terms into the objective function of conventional CSP. Variety of prior information can be used in this way. In this paper, we used time correlation between different classes of EEG signal as the prior information, which is clarified similarity between different classes of signal for regularizing CSP. Furthermore, the proposed objective function can be easily extended to more than two-class problems. We used three different standard datasets to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Correlation-based CSP (CCSP) outperformed original CSP as well as the existing regularized CSP, Principle Component Cnalysis (PCA) and Fisher Discriminate Analysis (FDA) in both two-class and multi-class scenarios. The simulation results showed that the proposed method outperformed conventional CSP by 6.9% in 2-class and 2.23% in multi-class problem in term of mean classification accuracy.
This paper presents parameters analysis for the estimated modal damping ratio using a new version of the automated enhanced frequency domain decomposition (AEFDD). The purpose of this study is to provide a better choice of a maximum number of points of time segments and modal assurance criterion (MAC) index number regarding to the variable level of system damping (low and high damped structure) and degree of freedom of the system. According current literature, frequency domain (FD) methods seem to have the problem with providing a correct identification of the modal damping ratio, since the correct estimate of modal damping is still an open problem and often leads to biased estimates. This technique is capable of providing consistent modal parameters estimation, particularly for modal frequencies and mode shapes. As a necessary fundamental condition, the algorithm has been assessed first from computed numerical responses according to random white noise, acting on different shear-type frame structures and corrupted with noise. Results indicate that reducing the value of natural frequencies and modal damping ratios of the modes under analysis demands longer time segments and a high value of the maximum number of points for adequate information on the decaying correlation functions when computing a modal damping ratio. In addition, the results also prove that the MAC index does not significantly affect the results for the low damped system. However, the use of a high MAC index value for the high damped system significantly introduces large error bound and it becomes worse, particularly for the higher modes, as the standard deviation of percentage error increases gradually. Furthermore, the use of a MAC index for a high number of points of time segments significantly increases the standard deviation of the percentage error.
A reliable database on the causes and contributing factors of medication errors can inform strategies for their prevention. To form a single database from multiple databases requires a process of integration that both maximizes the utility of the new data and minimizes the loss of information. Unfortunately, the terminologies used by different studies and databases may limit integration; therefore, terminologies must be standardized prior to integration.
Microdialysis is a sampling technique first introduced in the late 1950s. Although this technique was originally designed to study endogenous compounds in animal brain, it is later modified to be used in other organs. Additionally, microdialysis is not only able to collect unbound concentration of compounds from tissue sites; this technique can also be used to deliver exogenous compounds to a designated area. Due to its versatility, microdialysis technique is widely employed in a number of areas, including biomedical research. However, for most in vivo studies, the concentration of substance obtained directly from the microdialysis technique does not accurately describe the concentration of the substance on-site. In order to relate the results collected from microdialysis to the actual in vivo condition, a calibration method is required. To date, various microdialysis calibration methods have been reported, with each method being capable to provide valuable insights of the technique itself and its applications. This paper aims to provide a critical review on various calibration methods used in microdialysis applications, inclusive of a detailed description of the microdialysis technique itself to start with. It is expected that this article shall review in detail, the various calibration methods employed, present examples of work related to each calibration method including clinical efforts, plus the advantages and disadvantages of each of the methods.
Saliva collection is non-invasive and less stressful when compared with blood collection. Extensive studies on saliva has been carried out and the use of saliva as a biological sample in clinical diagnosis and for monitoring hormones, drugs and pollutants and viruses has been recommended. The complexities associated with saliva such as proper collection device and strict standardisation of a number of factors which include time of collection, types of saliva and storage made it less favourable to blood.
One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyse a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no tedious sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels. Comparison of the results obtained from this analysis with certified reference standards show very small differences between them.
Accurate inspection of welded materials is important in relation to achieve acceptable standards. Radiography, a non-destructive test method, is commonly used to evaluate the internal condition of a material with respect to defect detection. The presence of noise in low resolution of radiographic images significantly complicates analysis; therefore attaining higher quality radiographic images makes defect detection more readily achievable. This paper presents a study pertaining to the quality enhancement of radiographic images with respect to different types of defects. A series of digital radiographic weld flaw images were smoothed using multiple smoothing techniques to remove inherent noise followed by top and bottom hat morphological transformations. Image quality was evaluated quantitatively with respect to SNR, PSNR and MAE. The results indicate that smoothing enhances the quality of radiographic images, thereby promoting defect detection with the respect to original radiographic images.
Precast concrete technology forms an important part in the drive towards a full implementation of the Industrialized Building System (IBS). The IBS requires building components and their dimensions to be standardized, and preferably cast off site. Slabs are major structural elements in buildings, other than beams and columns. Standardized and optimized slabs can significantly enhance the building industries in achieving the full implementation of the IBS. Nevertheless, this requires computer techniques to achieve standardized and optimized slabs which can satisfy all building design requirements, including the standards of architectural and structural design standards. This study proposed a computer technique which analysed and designed five different types of slabs which will satisfy all the requirements in design. The most commonly used slabs included in this study were the solid one way, solid two way, ribbed, voided and composite slabs. The computer techniques enable the design of the most optimized sections for any of the slab types under any loading and span conditions. The computer technique also provides details for the reinforcements required for the slabs.
The paper relates a study on the development of an analysis procedure for measuring the gold coating thickness using EDXRF technique. Gold coating thickness was measured by relating the counts under the Au Lα peak its thickness value. In order to get a reasonably accurate result, a calibration graph was plotted using five gold-coated reference standards of different thicknesses. The calibration graph shows a straight line for thin coating measurement until 0.9μm. Beyond this the relationship was not linear and this may be resulted from the selfabsorption effect. Quantitative analysis was also performed on two different samples of goldcoated jewelry and a phone connector. Result from the phone connector analysis seems to agree with the manufacturer’s gold coating value. From the analysis of gold-coated jewelry it had been able to differentiate the two articles as gold wash and gold electroplated.
Case reports are used to communicate interesting, new or rare condition/s, innovative treatment approaches or novel techniques. Apart from informing readers, such information has the potential to contribute towards further scientific studies and the development of newer management modalities. In that context, it is important that case reports are presented accurately and deliver all the necessary and pertinent information to the reader. Reporting guidelines are used to inform authors of the quality standards required to ensure their manuscripts are accurate, complete and transparent. The aim of this project is to develop and disseminate new guidelines - Preferred Reporting Items for Case reports in Endodontics (PRICE). The primary aim is to aid authors when constructing case reports in the field of Endodontics to ensure the highest possible reporting standards are adopted. The project leaders (PD and VN) formed a steering committee comprising six additional members. Subsequently, a five-phase consensus process will be used. The steering committee will develop the PRICE guidelines (PRICE checklist and flow chart) by identifying relevant items (quality standards) derived from the CAse REport guidelines and Clinical and Laboratory Images in Publications principles, focussing on the content of case reports. Following this, the steering committee will identify a PRICE Delphi Group (PDG) consisting of 30 members including academicians, practitioners, and members of the public. The individual items (components) of the PRICE checklist will be evaluated by the PDG based on a 9-point Likert scale. Only items scored between 7 and 9 by 70% or more members will be included in the draft checklist. The Delphi process will be continued until a consensus is reached and a final set of items agreed by the PDG members. Following this, a PRICE Face-to-Face meeting group (PFMG) will be formed with 20 members to achieve a final consensus. The final consensus-based checklist and flow chart will be evaluated and approved by selected members of the PDG and PFMG. The approved PRICE guidelines will be published in relevant journals and disseminated via contacts in academic institutions and national endodontic societies, as well as being presented at scientific/clinical meetings.
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kekuatan pengaruh kepimpinan pengajaran guru besar, kompetensi profesionalisme guru dan kompetensi peribadi guru terhadap efikasi pengajaran guru bagi guru-guru sekolah rendah di zon Pedalaman, Sabah. Kajian ini melibatkan 361 responden yang terdiri daripada guru-guru sekolah rendah di zon Pedalaman, Sabah. Pemboleh ubah kajian telah diuji dengan menggunakan statistik deskriptif dan inferensi yang melibatkan skor min, sisihan piawai dan regresi berganda. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam kajian adalah soal selidik yang diadaptasi daripada Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS), Standard Guru Malaysia (SGM) dan Teacher Efficacy Scale (TES) bagi mengumpul data daripada 361 responden yang telah melengkapkan borang soal selidik, daripada 54 buah sekolah rendah yang melibatkan tujuh daerah di zon Pedalaman, Sabah. Persampelan secara rawak digunakan dalam pemilihan responden dalam kalangan guru manakala persampelan bertujuan digunakan bagi menentukan bilangan sekolah yang mewakili setiap daerah seperti yang telah ditetapkan. Statistik deskriptif dan inferensi telah digunakan bagi menghuraikan dapatan kajian. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa tahap kepimpinan pengajaran guru besar (Min = 4.52; SP = 0.313) pada tahap sangat tinggi, kompetensi profesionalisme guru (Min = 4.41; SP = 0.295) juga pada tahap sangat tinggi dan kompetensi peribadi guru (Min = 4.47; SP = 0.366) juga berada pada tahap sangat tinggi manakala efikasi pengajaran guru (Min = 3.96; SP = 0.358) berada pada tahap tinggi. Data inferensi dianalisis menggunakan regresi berganda. Analisis regrasi menunjukkan pengaruh kepimpinan pengajaran guru besar menyumbang 65 peratus, kompetensi profesionalisme guru menyumbang 65.9 peratus dan kompetensi peribadi guru menyumbang 66.5 peratus terhadap efikasi pengajaran guru dan merupakan peramal yang signifikan kepada tahap efikasi pengajaran guru.
Randomized clinical trials are positioned at the highest level of primary clinical evidence, as they are designed to be unbiased with a reduced risk of systematic error. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement was first developed in 1996 to improve the reporting quality of randomized clinical trials with updates being published subsequently. Recently, the Preferred Reporting Items for RAndomized Trials in Endodontics (PRIRATE) 2020 guidelines were developed exclusively for the field of Endodontics to address the suboptimal quality of randomized clinical trials submitted to Endodontic journals, which result in many being rejected. A principal flaw in submissions is the fact that many authors are unclear on the keys terms that should be used when developing manuscripts for publication. Clearly, authors should be aware of the most common terms used when conducting and reporting randomized clinical trials. Hence, the aim of the current paper is to present a comprehensive glossary of the terminology used in randomized clinical trials in order to assist authors when designing, executing and writing-up randomized clinical trials.
Malaysia merupakan sebuah negara yang berkembang pesat seiring dengan ledakan globalisasi pada masa kini. Dalam menuju ke arah pendidikan bertaraf dunia, Malaysia perlu membawa suatu perubahan yang akan memberi kesan kepada dunia pendidikan. Dalam era globalisasi yang mencabar, kebanyakan negara semakin memandang berat terhadap bidang pendidikan kerana pendidikan telah memainkan peranan yang penting. Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (KPM) telah melaksanakan kajian semula terhadap sistem pendidikan negara dalam konteks standard pendidikan antarabangsa. Hasil daripada kajian tersebut, Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (PPPM) 2013-2025 telah dilancarkan (KPM,2013). Melalui PPPM 2013-2025 salah satu perancangan adalah kemahiran abad ke21 dalam kalangan pelajar. Oleh hal yang demikian, kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti pengaruh tahap akauntabiliti guru, peranan pentadbir dan efikasi kendiri guru terhadap pelaksanaan pengajaran abad ke-21 sekolah rendah di Negeri Sabah. Kajian ini juga bertujuan untuk melihat serta menganalisis pengaruh yang wujud antara tahap akauntabiliti guru, peranan pentadbir dan efikasi kendiri guru dalam isu ini. Seterusnya kajian ini juga menganalisis efikasi kendiri guru sebagai pengantara dalam hubungan tahap akauntabiliti guru dan peranan pentadbir terhadap pelaksanaan pengajaran abad ke-21. Implikasi daripada kajian ini juga diharapkan agar guru dan pihak pentadbir dapat menjalin kerjasama yang erat terhadap pelaksanaan pengajaran abad ke-21 di sekolah agar mampu menyediakan generasi muda untuk menghadapi sebarang kemungkinan.
A search for dark matter particles is performed using events with a Z boson candidate and large missing transverse momentum. The analysis is based on proton-proton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 13
, collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016-2018, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137
. The search uses the decay channels
Z → e e
. No significant excess of events is observed over the background expected from the standard model. Limits are set on dark matter particle production in the context of simplified models with vector, axial-vector, scalar, and pseudoscalar mediators, as well as on a two-Higgs-doublet model with an additional pseudoscalar mediator. In addition, limits are provided for spin-dependent and spin-independent scattering cross sections and are compared to those from direct-detection experiments. The results are also interpreted in the context of models of invisible Higgs boson decays, unparticles, and large extra dimensions.
With the rapid advancement in digital technologies, video rises to become one of the most effective communication tools that continues to gain popularity and importance. As a result, various proposals are put forward to manage videos, and one of them is data embedding. Essentially, data embedding inserts data into the video to serve a specific purpose, including proof of ownership via watermark, covert communication in steganography, and authentication via fragile watermark. However, most conventional methods embed data by using only one type of syntax element defined in the video coding standard, which may suffer from large bit rate overhead, quality degradation, or low payload. Therefore, this work aims to explore the combined use of multiple prediction syntax elements in SHVC for the purpose of data embedding. Specifically, the intra prediction mode, motion vector predictor, motion vector difference, merge mode and coding block structure are collectively manipulated to embed data. The experimental results demonstrate that, in comparison to the conventional single-venue data embedding methods, the combined use of prediction syntax elements can achieve higher payload while preserving the perceptual quality with minimal bit rate variation. In the best case scenario, a total of 556.1 kbps is embedded into the video sequence PartyScene with a drop of 0.15 dB in PSNR while experiencing a bit rate overhead of 7.4% when all prediction syntax elements are utilized altogether. A recommendation is then put forward to choose specific types of syntax element for data embedding based on the characteristics of the video.
DC distribution of PV systems has spread back especially in the residential sector as a variety of electronic appliances became locally available in the market. The compatibility of household appliances with the best voltage-level in a DC environment is the field that still in the research phase and has not yet made a practically extensive appearance. This paper mainly discusses this issue by providing a review of the concerning research efforts, identifying the gaps in the existing knowledge. The work explains the electrical diagrams of the recently produced appliances, classifying them to get an understanding of how each one consumes energy. It includes exploiting the recent dependence of the commercial appliances on power electronics to improve the efficiency of the existing DC distribution systems by extrapolating new architectures. The proposed topology has a DC distribution environment with two levels of voltage for all appliances. Appliances performances have been evaluated by calculating the energy transfer efficiency. The outcomes of this work can help in designing more efficient DC power distribution networks with minimal energy converters and establishing standardizations for DC microgrids.