Methods: Nineteen adolescent state-level weightlifters were assigned into isokinetic or isotonic groups. All participants were recruited from a pool of weightlifters with standardized training program provided by their coach. Series of immunological tests were carried out before the commencement, immediately upon the completion, and a month after the cessation of the additional training program to evaluate total leukocytes and lymphocytes count.
Results: The results revealed a significant time and group interaction and main effects of time on mean total leukocytes (P < 0.05). Mean total leukocytes count at posttest decreased in both groups. In isotonic group, it was further decreased following 1 month of training cessation (P < 0.05) but not in the isokinetic group. However, the decrement was not high and the values were in the normal range. No significant time and group interaction was observed in total lymphocytes and its subsets count.
Conclusions: Eight weeks of isokinetic and isotonic additional training with emphasis on shoulder joint only affect mean total leukocytes count in state-level adolescent weightlifters.
METHOD: This is a prospective, observational study. The preintervention Sodergren scores of subjects with internal haemorrhoidal disease were recorded and blinded to the surgeon in charge. Sodergren scores of subjects in the two arms were unblinded and compared at the end of the study.
RESULTS: The results for 290 patients were available for final analysis. The median scores of those offered surgery and those who underwent successful rubber band ligation differed significantly [4 (interquartile range 3-10) vs 0 (interquartile range 0-4), P = 0.001]. In predicting treatment, the Sodergren score had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.735 (95% CI 0.675-0.795).
CONCLUSION: There is a significant difference in scores between patients who were offered surgery and patients with successful rubber band ligation. Our study suggests that the Sodergren score has an acceptable discrimination in predicting the need for surgery in internal haemorrhoidal disease. We propose that patients with a Sodergren score of 6 or more be considered for upfront surgery. This score could potentially be used to standardize outcomes of future haemorrhoid trials.