Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 140 in total

  1. Brooke GE
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  2. Naing NN
    PMID: 22844209
    In direct age-adjustment, a common age-structured population is used as standard. This population may actually exist (e.g., United States population, 1999) or may be fictitious (e.g., two populations may be combined to create a standard). In indirect age-adjustment, a common set of age-specific rates is applied to the populations whose rates are to be standardized. The simplest and most useful form of indirect adjustment is the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) (5).
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  3. Kho CM, Enche Ab Rahim SK, Ahmad ZA, Abdullah NS
    Mol Neurobiol, 2017 07;54(5):3506-3527.
    PMID: 27189617 DOI: 10.1007/s12035-016-9929-8
    Microdialysis is a sampling technique first introduced in the late 1950s. Although this technique was originally designed to study endogenous compounds in animal brain, it is later modified to be used in other organs. Additionally, microdialysis is not only able to collect unbound concentration of compounds from tissue sites; this technique can also be used to deliver exogenous compounds to a designated area. Due to its versatility, microdialysis technique is widely employed in a number of areas, including biomedical research. However, for most in vivo studies, the concentration of substance obtained directly from the microdialysis technique does not accurately describe the concentration of the substance on-site. In order to relate the results collected from microdialysis to the actual in vivo condition, a calibration method is required. To date, various microdialysis calibration methods have been reported, with each method being capable to provide valuable insights of the technique itself and its applications. This paper aims to provide a critical review on various calibration methods used in microdialysis applications, inclusive of a detailed description of the microdialysis technique itself to start with. It is expected that this article shall review in detail, the various calibration methods employed, present examples of work related to each calibration method including clinical efforts, plus the advantages and disadvantages of each of the methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  4. Rahim, Z.H.A.
    Ann Dent, 1998;5(1):-.
    Saliva collection is non-invasive and less stressful when compared with blood collection. Extensive studies on saliva has been carried out and the use of saliva as a biological sample in clinical diagnosis and for monitoring hormones, drugs and pollutants and viruses has been recommended. The complexities associated with saliva such as proper collection device and strict standardisation of a number of factors which include time of collection, types of saliva and storage made it less favourable to blood.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  5. Nagendrababu V, Chong BS, McCabe P, Shah PK, Priya E, Jayaraman J, et al.
    Int Endod J, 2019 Jun;52(6):775-778.
    PMID: 30586165 DOI: 10.1111/iej.13067
    Case reports are used to communicate interesting, new or rare condition/s, innovative treatment approaches or novel techniques. Apart from informing readers, such information has the potential to contribute towards further scientific studies and the development of newer management modalities. In that context, it is important that case reports are presented accurately and deliver all the necessary and pertinent information to the reader. Reporting guidelines are used to inform authors of the quality standards required to ensure their manuscripts are accurate, complete and transparent. The aim of this project is to develop and disseminate new guidelines - Preferred Reporting Items for Case reports in Endodontics (PRICE). The primary aim is to aid authors when constructing case reports in the field of Endodontics to ensure the highest possible reporting standards are adopted. The project leaders (PD and VN) formed a steering committee comprising six additional members. Subsequently, a five-phase consensus process will be used. The steering committee will develop the PRICE guidelines (PRICE checklist and flow chart) by identifying relevant items (quality standards) derived from the CAse REport guidelines and Clinical and Laboratory Images in Publications principles, focussing on the content of case reports. Following this, the steering committee will identify a PRICE Delphi Group (PDG) consisting of 30 members including academicians, practitioners, and members of the public. The individual items (components) of the PRICE checklist will be evaluated by the PDG based on a 9-point Likert scale. Only items scored between 7 and 9 by 70% or more members will be included in the draft checklist. The Delphi process will be continued until a consensus is reached and a final set of items agreed by the PDG members. Following this, a PRICE Face-to-Face meeting group (PFMG) will be formed with 20 members to achieve a final consensus. The final consensus-based checklist and flow chart will be evaluated and approved by selected members of the PDG and PFMG. The approved PRICE guidelines will be published in relevant journals and disseminated via contacts in academic institutions and national endodontic societies, as well as being presented at scientific/clinical meetings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  6. Taib IA, McIntosh AS
    Ther Adv Drug Saf, 2010 Dec;1(2):53-63.
    PMID: 25083195 DOI: 10.1177/2042098610389850
    A reliable database on the causes and contributing factors of medication errors can inform strategies for their prevention. To form a single database from multiple databases requires a process of integration that both maximizes the utility of the new data and minimizes the loss of information. Unfortunately, the terminologies used by different studies and databases may limit integration; therefore, terminologies must be standardized prior to integration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  7. Suhaila Abdul Halim, Arsmah Ibrahim, Yupiter Harangan Prasada Manurung
    Scientific Research Journal, 2012;9(1):15-27.
    Accurate inspection of welded materials is important in relation to achieve acceptable standards. Radiography, a non-destructive test method, is commonly used to evaluate the internal condition of a material with respect to defect detection. The presence of noise in low resolution of radiographic images significantly complicates analysis; therefore attaining higher quality radiographic images makes defect detection more readily achievable. This paper presents a study pertaining to the quality enhancement of radiographic images with respect to different types of defects. A series of digital radiographic weld flaw images were smoothed using multiple smoothing techniques to remove inherent noise followed by top and bottom hat morphological transformations. Image quality was evaluated quantitatively with respect to SNR, PSNR and MAE. The results indicate that smoothing enhances the quality of radiographic images, thereby promoting defect detection with the respect to original radiographic images.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  8. Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman
    One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyse a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no tedious sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels. Comparison of the results obtained from this analysis with certified reference standards show very small differences between them.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  9. Noorzaei, J., Wong, J.N., Thanoon, W.A., Jaafar, M.S.
    Precast concrete technology forms an important part in the drive towards a full implementation of the Industrialized Building System (IBS). The IBS requires building components and their dimensions to be standardized, and preferably cast off site. Slabs are major structural elements in buildings, other than beams and columns. Standardized and optimized slabs can significantly enhance the building industries in achieving the full implementation of the IBS. Nevertheless, this requires computer techniques to achieve standardized and optimized slabs which can satisfy all building design requirements, including the standards of architectural and structural design standards. This study proposed a computer technique which analysed and designed five different types of slabs which will satisfy all the requirements in design. The most commonly used slabs included in this study were the solid one way, solid two way, ribbed, voided and composite slabs. The computer techniques enable the design of the most optimized sections for any of the slab types under any loading and span conditions. The computer technique also provides details for the reinforcements required for the slabs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  10. Meor Yusoff, M.S., Masliana Muslimin, Fadlullah Jili Fursani
    The paper relates a study on the development of an analysis procedure for measuring the gold coating thickness using EDXRF technique. Gold coating thickness was measured by relating the counts under the Au Lα peak its thickness value. In order to get a reasonably accurate result, a calibration graph was plotted using five gold-coated reference standards of different thicknesses. The calibration graph shows a straight line for thin coating measurement until 0.9μm. Beyond this the relationship was not linear and this may be resulted from the selfabsorption effect. Quantitative analysis was also performed on two different samples of goldcoated jewelry and a phone connector. Result from the phone connector analysis seems to agree with the manufacturer’s gold coating value. From the analysis of gold-coated jewelry it had been able to differentiate the two articles as gold wash and gold electroplated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  11. Rahman NH, Tanaka H, Shin SD, Ng YY, Piyasuwankul T, Lin CH, et al.
    Int J Emerg Med, 2015;8:12.
    PMID: 25932052 DOI: 10.1186/s12245-015-0062-7
    One of the key principles in the recommended standards is that emergency medical service (EMS) providers should continuously monitor the quality and safety of their services. This requires service providers to implement performance monitoring using appropriate and relevant measures including key performance indicators. In Asia, EMS systems are at different developmental phases and maturity. This will create difficultly in benchmarking or assessing the quality of EMS performance across the region. An attempt was made to compare the EMS performance index based on the structure, process, and outcome analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  12. Shudipta Choudhury
    Background: Technological diversity management in the manufacturing of advanced medical devices is
    essential. The manufacturing industries of medical devices should act in accordance with the technical
    guidelines and regulations in order to ensure best practices with the use of devices in hospitals
    Aim: To explore safety hazards, cost implications, and social and ethical standards to be considered during
    the manufacturing of advanced medical devices
    Subject and Methods: Aqualitative descriptive study was used. There was no targeted sample in the current
    study whereby secondary data were used to explore the research topic. Secondary sources were obtained
    from databases including EBSCOHOST, PubMed, ProQuest, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Peerreviewed
    articles, journals, books, conference proceedings, and other web publications were used to gather
    relevant data.
    Results: The current study indicated that the technological diversity management of advanced medical
    devices is associated with safety hazards like security threats, integrity problems, and medical errors. The
    study also showed that high cost of standardizations, supply, and purchase of advanced medical devices is a
    huge burden faced by the manufacturers andusers. The study showed that the regulation of the medical
    devices, certification, and post-market surveillanceare essential social and ethical considerations during the
    manufacturing process of the new medical devices.
    Conclusion: The current study explored the technological diversity of advanced medical devices. It is
    evident in the current study that technology diversity of medical devices is associated with safety hazards
    and cost implications. The study disclosed that taking into account social and ethical issues aid in
    manufacturing safe and high quality medical devices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  13. Shaharudin S, Rahim MFA, Muhamad AS
    Int J Prev Med, 2018;9:90.
    PMID: 30450173 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_42_17
    Background: The study investigated the effects of isokinetic versus isotonic training among adolescent state-level weightlifters in terms of total leukocytes, total lymphocytes, and its subsets following 24 sessions of training program and a month following training program cessation.

    Methods: Nineteen adolescent state-level weightlifters were assigned into isokinetic or isotonic groups. All participants were recruited from a pool of weightlifters with standardized training program provided by their coach. Series of immunological tests were carried out before the commencement, immediately upon the completion, and a month after the cessation of the additional training program to evaluate total leukocytes and lymphocytes count.

    Results: The results revealed a significant time and group interaction and main effects of time on mean total leukocytes (P < 0.05). Mean total leukocytes count at posttest decreased in both groups. In isotonic group, it was further decreased following 1 month of training cessation (P < 0.05) but not in the isokinetic group. However, the decrement was not high and the values were in the normal range. No significant time and group interaction was observed in total lymphocytes and its subsets count.

    Conclusions: Eight weeks of isokinetic and isotonic additional training with emphasis on shoulder joint only affect mean total leukocytes count in state-level adolescent weightlifters.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  14. Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha H, Tabatabaei M, Aghbashlo M, Sulaiman A, Ghassemi A
    Methods Mol Biol, 2020;1980:121-151.
    PMID: 30838603 DOI: 10.1007/7651_2018_204
    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is one of the most attractive tools employed nowadays by environmental policy-makers as well as business decision-makers to ensure environmentally sustainable production/consumption of various goods/services. LCA is a systematic, rigorous, and standardized approach aimed at quantifying resources consumed/depleted, pollutants released, and the related environmental and health impacts through the course of consumption and production of goods/service. Algal fuels are no exception and their environmental sustainability could be well scrutinized using the LCA methodology. In line with that, this chapter is devoted to present guidelines on the technical aspects of LCA application in algal fuels while elaborating on major standards used, i.e., ISO 14040 and 14044 standards. Overall, LCA practitioners as well as technical experts dealing with algal fuels in both the public and private sectors could be the main target audience for these guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  15. Sasidharan S, Darah I, Jain K
    The effect of season on yield and quality of organic solvent extracts from Gracilaria changii was determined. The sustainability of the bioactive compound of G. changii from Malaysia was investigated by using the TLC and FTIR standards methods. Studies was carried out to examine the sustainability of the bioactive compound in the various extract obtained from G. changii collected from Pantai Morib, Beach Selangor Malaysia on bimonthly for a period of one year in 2003. This study revealed that the bioactive compounds was present all over the year but with different quantities. In general the variation in yield or quantities of bioactive compound was related to environment. G. changii can be considered a candidate for drug development since it retained the number of bioactive compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  16. Siti Nor Radhiah Muhammad Y, Nor Ba’yah Abdul K
    Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 2016;30:133-141.
    This study examines the relationship between loneliness, life events and depression among 178 adults in the disadvantage community of Malaysia and to determine predictors of depression. A set of standardized questionnaires was used to measure depression, loneliness and stressful life events. The results showed that loneliness and stressful life events were related to depression. Results also showed that loneliness was a predictor of depression. Implications of the study in terms of theory and practice are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  17. Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff, Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim
    Education in Medicine Journal, 2012;4(2):100-104.
    Introduction: Ratings are known to have a generosity error, provide limited discrimination and distorted interpretation, and often fail to document serious deficits. A potential source of these problems is rater judgement. These problems compromise the capability of raters to maintain the standards of rating. The authors propose a simple grading system to improve this situation including providing feedback to raters. Method: The authors developed a grading system named the Discrepancy-Agreement Grade (DAG) to provide feedback on rater judgments. Dependent-t and intraclass correlation tests were applied to determine discrepancy and agreement levels of raters. Rater judgments were then classified into grades A, B, C or D. This grading system was tested in an examination and a student selection interview to assess rating judgments of examiners and interviewers. The purpose was to evaluate the practicability of the grading system to provide feedback on examiners’ and interviewers’ rating judgements. Results: in the examination, five short essays were rated by five pairs of senior lecturers. Out of 5 pairs, 2 (40%) obtained grade A and 3 (60%) obtained grade B. In the student selection interview, a total of 48 pairs of interviewers interviewed ten applicants. Out of 48 pairs, 20 (41.7%) obtained grade A, 1 (2.1%) obtained grade B, 23 (47.9%) obtained grade C and 4 (8.3%) obtained grade D. Conclusion: The grading system showed variability of rater judgments on medical students’ and applicants’ performance in an examination and interview session respectively. It provided feedback on the examiners’ and interviewers’ judgments on candidate performances. This exercise demonstrated practicability of the grading system to provide feedback on rater judgements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  18. Meor Yusoff, M.S., Masliana, M., Wilfred, P.
    Even though EDXRF analysis has major advantages in the analysis of stainless steel samples such as simultaneous determination of the minor elements, analysis can be done without sample preparation and non-destructive analysis, the matrix issue arised from the inter element interaction can make the the final quantitative result to be in accurate. The paper relates a comparative quantitative analysis using standard and standardless methods in the determination of these elements. Standard method was done by plotting regression calibration graphs of the interested elements using BCS certified stainless steel standards. Different calibration plots were developed based on the available certified standards and these stainless steel grades include low alloy steel, austentic, ferritic and high speed. The standardless method on the other hand uses a mathematical modelling with matrix effect correction derived from Lucas-Tooth and Price model. Further
    improvement on the accuracy of the standardless method was done by inclusion of pure elements into the development of the model. Discrepancy tests were then carried out for these quantitative methods on different certified samples and the results show that the high speed method is most reliable for determining of Ni and the standardless method for Mn.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  19. Sha HL, Roslani AC, Poh KS
    Colorectal Dis, 2020 Oct;22(10):1379-1387.
    PMID: 32337794 DOI: 10.1111/codi.15091
    AIM: The Sodergren score was developed to objectively measure the severity of haemorrhoidal symptoms. This study aimed to determine if there was a difference in the Sodergren score between patients who were offered surgery and patients who underwent successful rubber band ligation of internal haemorrhoidal disease and to assess its performance in guiding management.

    METHOD: This is a prospective, observational study. The preintervention Sodergren scores of subjects with internal haemorrhoidal disease were recorded and blinded to the surgeon in charge. Sodergren scores of subjects in the two arms were unblinded and compared at the end of the study.

    RESULTS: The results for 290 patients were available for final analysis. The median scores of those offered surgery and those who underwent successful rubber band ligation differed significantly [4 (interquartile range 3-10) vs 0 (interquartile range 0-4), P = 0.001]. In predicting treatment, the Sodergren score had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.735 (95% CI 0.675-0.795).

    CONCLUSION: There is a significant difference in scores between patients who were offered surgery and patients with successful rubber band ligation. Our study suggests that the Sodergren score has an acceptable discrimination in predicting the need for surgery in internal haemorrhoidal disease. We propose that patients with a Sodergren score of 6 or more be considered for upfront surgery. This score could potentially be used to standardize outcomes of future haemorrhoid trials.

    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
  20. Ping NPT, Shoesmith WD, James S, Nor Hadi NM, Yau EKB, Lin LJ
    PMID: 32788841 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.2.6
    The ultra-brief psychological interventions (UBPI) was created in 2018 to empower healthcare providers with psychological skills that can be delivered within a short period. Techniques used within UBPI were adopted from a variety of well established psychotherapies and distilled into its core essentials. This enabled practitioners of UBPI to deliver specific psychological skills in the appropriate context to the client within a period of 15-20 min. UBPI was also manualised to standardised training of practitioners. During the novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, UBPI was modified to suit the unique psychological demands of the pandemic. This article presents how UBPI was adapted and used with healthcare providers dealing with COVID-19 and also with the public who required psychological first aid (PFA).
    Matched MeSH terms: Reference Standards
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