For most natural or naturally-derived liquid products, their color reflects on their quality and occasionally affects customer preferences. To date, there are a few subjective and objective methods for color measurement which are currently utilized by various industries. Researchers are also improving these methods and inventing new methods, as color is proven to have the ability to provide various information on the condition and quality of the liquid. However, a review on the methods, especially for amber-colored liquid, has not been conducted yet. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the subjective and objective methods for color measurement of amber-colored liquids. The pros and cons of the measurement methods, the effects of the color on customer preferences, and the international industry standards on color measurements are reviewed and discussed. In addition, this study elaborates on the issues and challenges related to the color measurement techniques as well as recommendations for future research. This review demonstrates that the existing color measurement technique can determine the color according to the standards and color scales. However, the efforts toward minimizing the complexity of the hardware while maximizing the signal processing through advanced computation are still lacking. Therefore, through this critical review, this review can hopefully intensify the efforts toward finding an optimized method or technique for color measurement of liquids and thus expedite the development of a portable device that can measure color accurately.
Kertas konsep ini bertujuan untuk membincangkan mengenai kepimpinan instruktional dalam kalangan Penyelia Pendidikan awal kanak-kanak dan kepuasan kerja guru Tabika/Taska KEMAS. Dalam era globlalisasi yang pesat dengan pembangunan teknologi alam maya, pemimpin dan peneraju pendidikan awal kanak-kanak perlu mempunyai kompetensi seiring dengan tranformasi pendidikan yang telah dirancang. Kepimpinan instruktional dalam kalangan Penyelia Operasi Pendidikan Awal Kanak-kanak Jabatan Kemajuan Masyarakat KEMAS perlu di implementasikan untuk mencapai tahap kepimpinan optimum yang selaras dengan Standard Kualiti Prasekolah Kebangsaan. Kajian tinjauan ini dilaksanakan bagi tujuan untuk mengenalpasti tahap kepimpinan instruksional Penyelia Operasi Pendidikan Awal Kanak-kanak dan hubunganya dengan kepuasan kerja, Pemaju Masyarakat Tabika/Taska (guru) KEMAS. Seramai 24 orang Penyelia Operasi Pendidikan awal Kanak-kanak dari 24 Parlimen dan 240 Pemaju Masyarakat Tabika/Taska KEMAS di Sabah akan dipilih dalam kajian ini. Seterusnya kajian ini memberi implikasi bahawa pengaruh tahap kepimpinan Penyelia Operasi Pendidikan Awal Kanak-Kanak dan kepuasan kerja Pemaju Masyarakat Tabika/Taska amat penting untuk memastikan halatuju pendidikan awal kanak-kanak di Jabatan KEMAS.
In direct age-adjustment, a common age-structured population is used as standard. This population may actually exist (e.g., United States population, 1999) or may be fictitious (e.g., two populations may be combined to create a standard). In indirect age-adjustment, a common set of age-specific rates is applied to the populations whose rates are to be standardized. The simplest and most useful form of indirect adjustment is the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) (5).
The present paper deals with the novel approach for clustering using the image feature of stabilization diagram for automated operational modal analysis in parametric model which is stochastic subspace identification (SSI)-COV. The evolution of automated operational modal analysis (OMA) is not an easy task, since traditional methods of modal analysis require a large amount of intervention by an expert user. The stabilization diagram and clustering tools are introduced to autonomously distinguish physical poles from noise (spurious) poles which can neglect any user interaction. However, the existing clustering algorithms require at least one user-defined parameter, the maximum within-cluster distance between representations of the same physical mode from different system orders and the supplementary adaptive approaches have to be employed to optimize the selection of cluster validation criteria which will lead to high demanding computational effort. The developed image clustering process is based on the input image of the stabilization diagram that has been generated and displayed separately into a certain interval frequency. and standardized image features in MATLAB was applied to extract the image features of each generated image of stabilisation diagrams. Then, the generated image feature extraction of stabilization diagrams was used to plot image clustering diagram and fixed defined threshold was set for the physical modes classification. The application of image clustering has proven to provide a reliable output results which can effectively identify physical modes in stabilization diagrams using image feature extraction even for closely spaced modes without the need of any calibration or user-defined parameter at start up and any supplementary adaptive approach for cluster validation criteria.
This paper presents parameters analysis for the estimated modal damping ratio using a new version of the automated enhanced frequency domain decomposition (AEFDD). The purpose of this study is to provide a better choice of a maximum number of points of time segments and modal assurance criterion (MAC) index number regarding to the variable level of system damping (low and high damped structure) and degree of freedom of the system. According current literature, frequency domain (FD) methods seem to have the problem with providing a correct identification of the modal damping ratio, since the correct estimate of modal damping is still an open problem and often leads to biased estimates. This technique is capable of providing consistent modal parameters estimation, particularly for modal frequencies and mode shapes. As a necessary fundamental condition, the algorithm has been assessed first from computed numerical responses according to random white noise, acting on different shear-type frame structures and corrupted with noise. Results indicate that reducing the value of natural frequencies and modal damping ratios of the modes under analysis demands longer time segments and a high value of the maximum number of points for adequate information on the decaying correlation functions when computing a modal damping ratio. In addition, the results also prove that the MAC index does not significantly affect the results for the low damped system. However, the use of a high MAC index value for the high damped system significantly introduces large error bound and it becomes worse, particularly for the higher modes, as the standard deviation of percentage error increases gradually. Furthermore, the use of a MAC index for a high number of points of time segments significantly increases the standard deviation of the percentage error.
A reliable database on the causes and contributing factors of medication errors can inform strategies for their prevention. To form a single database from multiple databases requires a process of integration that both maximizes the utility of the new data and minimizes the loss of information. Unfortunately, the terminologies used by different studies and databases may limit integration; therefore, terminologies must be standardized prior to integration.
Microdialysis is a sampling technique first introduced in the late 1950s. Although this technique was originally designed to study endogenous compounds in animal brain, it is later modified to be used in other organs. Additionally, microdialysis is not only able to collect unbound concentration of compounds from tissue sites; this technique can also be used to deliver exogenous compounds to a designated area. Due to its versatility, microdialysis technique is widely employed in a number of areas, including biomedical research. However, for most in vivo studies, the concentration of substance obtained directly from the microdialysis technique does not accurately describe the concentration of the substance on-site. In order to relate the results collected from microdialysis to the actual in vivo condition, a calibration method is required. To date, various microdialysis calibration methods have been reported, with each method being capable to provide valuable insights of the technique itself and its applications. This paper aims to provide a critical review on various calibration methods used in microdialysis applications, inclusive of a detailed description of the microdialysis technique itself to start with. It is expected that this article shall review in detail, the various calibration methods employed, present examples of work related to each calibration method including clinical efforts, plus the advantages and disadvantages of each of the methods.
Saliva collection is non-invasive and less stressful when compared with blood collection. Extensive studies on saliva has been carried out and the use of saliva as a biological sample in clinical diagnosis and for monitoring hormones, drugs and pollutants and viruses has been recommended. The complexities associated with saliva such as proper collection device and strict standardisation of a number of factors which include time of collection, types of saliva and storage made it less favourable to blood.
One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyse a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no tedious sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels. Comparison of the results obtained from this analysis with certified reference standards show very small differences between them.
Accurate inspection of welded materials is important in relation to achieve acceptable standards. Radiography, a non-destructive test method, is commonly used to evaluate the internal condition of a material with respect to defect detection. The presence of noise in low resolution of radiographic images significantly complicates analysis; therefore attaining higher quality radiographic images makes defect detection more readily achievable. This paper presents a study pertaining to the quality enhancement of radiographic images with respect to different types of defects. A series of digital radiographic weld flaw images were smoothed using multiple smoothing techniques to remove inherent noise followed by top and bottom hat morphological transformations. Image quality was evaluated quantitatively with respect to SNR, PSNR and MAE. The results indicate that smoothing enhances the quality of radiographic images, thereby promoting defect detection with the respect to original radiographic images.
Precast concrete technology forms an important part in the drive towards a full implementation of the Industrialized Building System (IBS). The IBS requires building components and their dimensions to be standardized, and preferably cast off site. Slabs are major structural elements in buildings, other than beams and columns. Standardized and optimized slabs can significantly enhance the building industries in achieving the full implementation of the IBS. Nevertheless, this requires computer techniques to achieve standardized and optimized slabs which can satisfy all building design requirements, including the standards of architectural and structural design standards. This study proposed a computer technique which analysed and designed five different types of slabs which will satisfy all the requirements in design. The most commonly used slabs included in this study were the solid one way, solid two way, ribbed, voided and composite slabs. The computer techniques enable the design of the most optimized sections for any of the slab types under any loading and span conditions. The computer technique also provides details for the reinforcements required for the slabs.
The paper relates a study on the development of an analysis procedure for measuring the gold coating thickness using EDXRF technique. Gold coating thickness was measured by relating the counts under the Au Lα peak its thickness value. In order to get a reasonably accurate result, a calibration graph was plotted using five gold-coated reference standards of different thicknesses. The calibration graph shows a straight line for thin coating measurement until 0.9μm. Beyond this the relationship was not linear and this may be resulted from the selfabsorption effect. Quantitative analysis was also performed on two different samples of goldcoated jewelry and a phone connector. Result from the phone connector analysis seems to agree with the manufacturer’s gold coating value. From the analysis of gold-coated jewelry it had been able to differentiate the two articles as gold wash and gold electroplated.
The ozonesonde is a small balloon-borne instrument that is attached to a standard radiosonde to measure profiles of ozone from the surface to 35 km with ~100-m vertical resolution. Ozonesonde data constitute a mainstay of satellite calibration and are used for climatologies and analysis of trends, especially in the lower stratosphere where satellites are most uncertain. The electrochemical-concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde has been deployed at ~100 stations worldwide since the 1960s, with changes over time in manufacture and procedures, including details of the cell chemical solution and data processing. As a consequence, there are biases among different stations and discontinuities in profile time-series from individual site records. For 22 years the Jülich [Germany] Ozone Sonde Intercomparison Experiment (JOSIE) has periodically tested ozonesondes in a simulation chamber designated the World Calibration Centre for Ozonesondes (WCCOS) by WMO. In October-November 2017 a JOSIE campaign evaluated the sondes and procedures used in SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes), a 14-station sonde network operating in the tropics and subtropics. A distinctive feature of the 2017 JOSIE was that the tests were conducted by operators from eight SHADOZ stations. Experimental protocols for the SHADOZ sonde configurations, which represent most of those in use today, are described, along with preliminary results. SHADOZ stations that follow WMO-recommended protocols record total ozone within 3% of the JOSIE reference instrument. These results and prior JOSIEs demonstrate that regular testing is essential to maintain best practices in ozonesonde operations and to ensure high-quality data for the satellite and ozone assessment communities.
Case reports are used to communicate interesting, new or rare condition/s, innovative treatment approaches or novel techniques. Apart from informing readers, such information has the potential to contribute towards further scientific studies and the development of newer management modalities. In that context, it is important that case reports are presented accurately and deliver all the necessary and pertinent information to the reader. Reporting guidelines are used to inform authors of the quality standards required to ensure their manuscripts are accurate, complete and transparent. The aim of this project is to develop and disseminate new guidelines - Preferred Reporting Items for Case reports in Endodontics (PRICE). The primary aim is to aid authors when constructing case reports in the field of Endodontics to ensure the highest possible reporting standards are adopted. The project leaders (PD and VN) formed a steering committee comprising six additional members. Subsequently, a five-phase consensus process will be used. The steering committee will develop the PRICE guidelines (PRICE checklist and flow chart) by identifying relevant items (quality standards) derived from the CAse REport guidelines and Clinical and Laboratory Images in Publications principles, focussing on the content of case reports. Following this, the steering committee will identify a PRICE Delphi Group (PDG) consisting of 30 members including academicians, practitioners, and members of the public. The individual items (components) of the PRICE checklist will be evaluated by the PDG based on a 9-point Likert scale. Only items scored between 7 and 9 by 70% or more members will be included in the draft checklist. The Delphi process will be continued until a consensus is reached and a final set of items agreed by the PDG members. Following this, a PRICE Face-to-Face meeting group (PFMG) will be formed with 20 members to achieve a final consensus. The final consensus-based checklist and flow chart will be evaluated and approved by selected members of the PDG and PFMG. The approved PRICE guidelines will be published in relevant journals and disseminated via contacts in academic institutions and national endodontic societies, as well as being presented at scientific/clinical meetings.
Oral mucosal lesions (OML) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) have been identified as having the potential to transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This research focuses on the human-in-the-loop-system named Healthcare Professionals in the Loop (HPIL) to support diagnosis through an advanced machine learning procedure. HPIL is a novel system approach based on the textural pattern of OML and OPMDs (anomalous regions) to differentiate them from standard regions of the oral cavity by using autofluorescence imaging. An innovative method based on pre-processing, e.g., the Deriche-Canny edge detector and circular Hough transform (CHT); a post-processing textural analysis approach using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM); and a feature selection algorithm (linear discriminant analysis (LDA)), followed by k-nearest neighbor (KNN) to classify OPMDs and the standard region, is proposed in this paper. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in differentiating between standard and anomalous regions of the oral cavity are 83%, 85%, and 84%, respectively. The performance evaluation was plotted through the receiver operating characteristics of periodontist diagnosis with the HPIL system and without the system. This method of classifying OML and OPMD areas may help the dental specialist to identify anomalous regions for performing their biopsies more efficiently to predict the histological diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia.
This study presents pre-processing methods for detecting lane detection using camera and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor technologies. Standard image processing methods are not suitable for complicated roads with various sign on the ground. Thus, determining the right techniques for pre-processing such data would be a challenge. The objectives of this study are to pre-process the scanned images and apply the image recognition algorithm for lane detection. The study employed Canny Edge Detection and Hough Transform algorithms on several sets of images. A different region of interest was experimented to find the optimal one. The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithms could be practical in terms of effectively detecting road lines and generate lane detection.
Industrial Training Course (IMC690) is a mandatory course to be taken by seventh (7th) semester students of Information Systems Management programme (IM245). This course carries a high credit hour which weigh 12 credit hours. There are four (4) parts evaluated and the largest contributor is the industrial training report which consists of 40% marks. The problem occurs when students do not complete the report according to the date specified by the Faculty. Hence, late submission and marking of reports as well as low report scores have affected the students and lecturers. This study aims to reduce the percentage of industrial training report late submission by introducing two (2) creative innovation projects namely the Industrial Training Report Repository (ITR2) System and Industrial Training Kit (IT Kit) as the solution. Based on research findings, the percentage of late submission in the preparation of the industrial training report has successfully reduced from 60% to 0% and indirectly led to an increase in percentage of final report scores; which exceeded 30%. The results from both innovations have proven to be a comprehensive reference sources that have helped the students in producing a high quality report that complies with standards.
Despite the reported limitations of the qualitative research in comparison to other methodologies, we contend that the common criticisms against it are too often using criteria explicitly analogous to quantitative reasoning. We critically analysed the reported limitations of qualitative research in the literature to deconstruct the conflicting discourses that enable an understanding of their subjectivity. Also, we provide a philosophical justification that both qualitative and quantitative methodologies are appropriate for studying a different form of reality. Lincoln and Guba’s four principles for determining the quality of qualitative research rigour along with confirmability, transferability, credibility and dependability are deemed appropriate rather than the commonly employed internal and external validity, reliability and objectivity. Finally, we argued that a widespread use of a different standard for judging the quality of qualitative research consequential to its philosophical stance is the panacea for the unfair criticisms in the future.
Clonal selection algorithm and discrete Hopfield neural network are extensively employed for solving higher-order optimization problems ranging from the constraint satisfaction problem to complex pattern recognition. The modified clonal selection algorithm is a comprehensive and less iterative immune-inspired searching algorithm, utilized to search for the correct combination of instances for Very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit structure. In this research, the VLSI circuit framework consists of Boolean 3-Satisfiability instances with the different complexities and number of transistors are considered. Hence, a hybrid modified clonal selection algorithm with discrete Hopfield neural network is well developed to optimize the configuration of VLSI circuits with different number of electronic components such as transistors as the instances. Therefore, the performance of the developed hybrid model was assessed experimentally with the standard models, HNNVLSI-3SATES and HNNVLSI-3SATGA in term of circuit accuracy, sensitivity, robustness and runtime to complete the verification process. The results have demonstrated the developed model, HNNVLSI-3SATCSA produced a minimum error (consistently approaching 0), better accuracy (more than 80%) and faster computational time (less than 125 seconds) against changes in the complexity in term of the number of transistors. Furthermore, the developed hybrid model is able to minimize the computational burden and configurational noises for the variant of VLSI circuits.