Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 151 in total

  1. Bidin MZ, Shah AM, Stanslas J, Seong CLT
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2019 Aug;495:239-250.
    PMID: 31009602 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2019.04.069
    INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a silent disease. Most CKD patients are unaware of their condition during the early stages of the disease which poses a challenge for healthcare professionals to institute treatment or start prevention. The trouble with the diagnosis of CKD is that in most parts of the world, it is still diagnosed based on measurements of serum creatinine and corresponding calculations of eGFR. There are controversies with the current staging system, especially in the methodology to diagnose and prognosticate CKD.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to examine studies that focused on the different types of samples which may serve as a good and promising biomarker for early diagnosis of CKD or to detect rapidly declining renal function among CKD patient.

    METHOD: The review of international literature was made on paper and electronic databases Nature, PubMed, Springer Link and Science Direct. The Scopus index was used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Publications were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

    RESULT: 63 publications were found to be compatible with the study objectives. Several biomarkers of interest with different sample types were taken for comparison.

    CONCLUSION: Biomarkers from urine samples yield more significant outcome as compare to biomarkers from blood samples. But, validation and confirmation with a different type of study designed on a larger population is needed. More comparison studies on different types of samples are needed to further illuminate which biomarker is the better tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of CKD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood*; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/urine*
  2. Nor Hanipah Z, Punchai S, Augustin T, Brethauer SA, Schauer PR, Aminian A
    Obes Surg, 2018 11;28(11):3580-3585.
    PMID: 30043143 DOI: 10.1007/s11695-018-3398-2
    BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery can improve renal dysfunction associated with obesity and diabetes. However, acute kidney injury (AKI) can complicate the early postoperative course after bariatric surgery. The long-term consequences of early postoperative AKI on renal function are unknown.

    METHODS: Patient undergoing bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2015 who developed AKI within 60 days after surgery were studied. Patients on dialysis before surgery were excluded.

    RESULTS: Out of 4722 patients, 42 patients (0.9%) developed early postoperative AKI after bariatric surgery of whom five had chronic kidney disease (CKD) preoperatively including CKD stage 3 (n = 2), stage 4 (n = 2), and stage 5 (n = 1). Etiologies of AKI included prerenal in 37 and renal in 5 patients. Nine patients (21%) underwent hemodialysis in early postoperative period for AKI. The median duration of follow-up was 28 months (interquartile range, 4-59). Of the 40 patients eligible for follow-up, 36 patients (90%) returned to their baseline renal function. However, four patients (10%) had worsening of renal function at follow-up.

    CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of early postoperative AKI after bariatric surgery is about 1%. The most common causes of AKI after bariatric surgery are dehydration and infectious complications. In our series, 10% of patients who developed AKI in early postoperative period had worsening of renal function in long-term follow-up. In the absence of severe sepsis and severe underlying kidney dysfunction (CKD stages 4 and 5), full recovery is expected after postoperative AKI.

    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology
  3. Liyanage T, Ninomiya T, Perkovic V, Woodward M, Stirnadel-Farrant H, Matsushita K, et al.
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2017 Jun;22(6):456-462.
    PMID: 27187157 DOI: 10.1111/nep.12821
    AIM: The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is growing rapidly around the world. However, there is limited information on the overall regional prevalence of CKD, as well as the prognostic implications and treatment patterns in Asian region. We have established the Asian Renal Collaboration (ARC) with the goal of consolidating region-wide data regarding CKD.

    METHODS: This collaborative project will synthesize data and perform meta-analyses of observational studies conducted in Asia. Studies will be identified through a systematic literature search including abstracts, proceedings of meetings, electronic databases such as MEDLINE and EMBASE. Personal enquiry among collaborators and experts in the region will identify additional studies, or other data sources such as registries. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that describe the prevalence of CKD and its complications will be included, as will longitudinal studies that describe important clinical outcomes for people with CKD. Individual participant data will be sought, where possible, from each of the studies included in the collaboration for baseline parameters and subsequent outcomes, in order to maximize flexibility and consistency of data analyses.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study is an initiative offering a unique opportunity to obtain information about the prevalence and manifestations of CKD in Asia, as well as its risk factors. The ARC will also provide insights into important outcomes including progression of CKD, CKD complications, cardiovascular disease and death. These findings will improve our understanding of kidney disease in Asia, and thus help inform service provision, preventive care and further research across the region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology*
  4. Khan YH, Mallhi TH, Sarriff A, Khan AH, Tanveer N
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2018 Dec;28(12):960-966.
    PMID: 30501836 DOI: 10.29271/jcpsp.2018.12.960
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an asymptomatic disease associated with high morbidity and life-threatening complications that lead to decreased life expectancy. Worldwide prevalence of CKD is escalating at an alarming rate. Large population-based representative surveys have been reported in Western countries to estimate the prevalence of the disease. However, there is paucity of data as far as developing nations are concerned. Asia is the world's largest continent accommodating maximum number of under-developed and developing countries with an unclear picture of prevalence of CKD. Current review attempts to give an insight to the prevalence of CKD in this region by combining population-based surveys. This review will assist in estimating the burden of CKD in Asia, so that appropriate control measures could be designed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology*
  5. Tallman DA, Sahathevan S, Karupaiah T, Khosla P
    Nutrients, 2018 Dec 07;10(12).
    PMID: 30544535 DOI: 10.3390/nu10121945
    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often instructed to adhere to a renal-specific diet depending on the severity and stage of their kidney disease. The prescribed diet may limit certain nutrients, such as phosphorus and potassium, or encourage the consumption of others, such as high biological value (HBV) proteins. Eggs are an inexpensive, easily available and high-quality source of protein, as well as a rich source of leucine, an essential amino acid that plays a role in muscle protein synthesis. However, egg yolk is a concentrated source of both phosphorus and the trimethylamine N-oxide precursor, choline, both of which may have potentially harmful effects in CKD. The yolk is also an abundant source of cholesterol which has been extensively studied for its effects on lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts to reduce dietary cholesterol to manage dyslipidemia in dialysis patients (already following a renal diet) have not been shown to offer additional benefit. There is a paucity of data regarding the impact of egg consumption on lipid profiles of CKD patients. Additionally, egg consumption has not been associated with the risk of developing CKD based on epidemiological studies. The egg yolk also contains bioactive compounds, including lutein, zeaxanthin, and vitamin D, which may confer health benefits in CKD patients. Here we review research on egg intake and CKD, discuss both potential contraindications and favorable effects of egg consumption, and describe the need for further research examining egg intake and outcomes in the CKD and end-stage renal disease population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diet therapy*; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology*
  6. Yong C, Teo YM, Kapur J
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2016 Aug;71(4):193-198.
    PMID: 27770118
    To evaluate the performance of contrastenhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the risk stratification of indeterminate renal lesions picked up incidentally on abdominal imaging, in patients with renal impairment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency*
  7. Mukri MNA, Kong WY, Mustafar R, Shaharir SS, Shah SA, Abdul Gafor AH, et al.
    EXCLI J, 2018;17:563-575.
    PMID: 30108461 DOI: 10.17179/excli2018-1256
    Introduction: Hyperuricemia is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We studied the effect of febuxostat on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria and monitored the safety profile of the medication.
    Material and Methods: This is a prospective open-label, randomized study in CKD stage 3 and 4 patients with diabetic nephropathy and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. Patients were randomized into febuxostat 40 mg daily and no treatment group using block randomization method and were followed up for 6 months. Their usual care for diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia were continued in the study. Blood and urine investigations were monitored at baseline, 3 months and 6 months.
    Results: The eGFR in febuxostat group was stabilized at 6 months with no significant reduction [26.2 (IQR 14.30) at baseline to 26.3 (IQR 15.2) ml/min/1.73 m2]. Whereas, there was a significant reduction of the eGFR in no treatment group from 28.2 (IQR 17.9) to 27.6 (IQR 19.3) ml/min/1.73 m2 (p value < 0.01). We found the HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) was significantly increased in febuxostat group from 7.2 ± 0.5 % at baseline to 7.6 ± 1.4 at 6 months (p value 0.04) but no significant change of HbA1c in the no treatment group. Proteinuria level was unchanged in both groups. The commonest adverse event was joint pain.
    Conclusions: Febuxostat was able to preserve eGFR in CKD patients with diabetic nephropathy and this effect was beyond glycemic control. Increment of HbA1c level in febuxostat group needs further larger trials.
    Study site: Chronic kidney disease clinic, Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency*
  8. Danial M, Hassali MA, Ong LM, Khan AH
    BMC Pharmacol Toxicol, 2018 Aug 29;19(1):52.
    PMID: 30157959 DOI: 10.1186/s40360-018-0243-0
    BACKGROUND: Accurate identification and routine preventive practices are crucial steps in lessening the incidence of medications and patients related adverse drug reactions (ADRs).

    METHODS: Three years retrospective study was conducted among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients at multi-wards in a tertiary healthcare center. Data collected included demographic characteristics, physical examination results, comorbid conditions, laboratory tests and medications taken. Only medication prescribed during the hospital stay were considered in this study.

    RESULTS: From this study only one ADR incident was definitely preventable and majority of other ADRs (88.3%) were possibly preventable. Type of renal replacement therapy (p = 0.023) and stages of renal function (p = 0.002) were significantly associated with survivability of the hospitalized CKD patients after ADRs. Highest percentage of mortality based on categories were 50-59 years (20.0%), male (16.3%), Indian ethnicity (23.7%), obese (15.0%), smoking (17.1%), consumes alcohol (17.4%), conservative management of renal disease (19.5%) and renal function of renal disease. The 18 days survival rate of patients undergoing hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and conservative management were 94.9%, 91.7% and 75.1% respectively. Eighteen days survival rate of patients with renal functions of 30-59 mL/min/1.73m2, 15-29 mL/min/1.73m2 and renal replacement therapy was the only factor significantly contributed to ADRs related mortality. CKD patients whom conservatively managed renal disease or/and with renal function of Renal replacement therapy and/or renal function were significant risk factors for mortality due to ADRs among hospitalized CKD patients stages 3 to 5. Clinician engagement, intensive resources and regular updates aided with online monitoring technology are needed for enhancing care and prevention of ADRs among CKD patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency*
  9. Almualm Y, Zaman Huri H
    Glob J Health Sci, 2015;7(4):96-109.
    PMID: 25946939 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v7n4p96
    Chronic Kidney Disease has become a public health problem, imposing heath, social and human cost on societies worldwide. Chronic Kidney Disease remains asymptomatic till late stage when intervention cannot stop the progression of the disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to detect the disease early. Despite the high prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia, screening is still lacking behind. This review discusses the strengths and limitations of current screening methods for Chronic Kidney Disease from a Malaysian point of view. Diabetic Kidney Disease was chosen as focal point as Diabetes is the leading cause of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia includes a urine test for albuminuria and a blood test for serum creatinine. Recent literature indicates that albuminuria is not always present in Diabetic Kidney Disease patients and serum creatinine is only raised after substantial kidney damage has occurred.  Recently, cystatin C was proposed as a potential marker for kidney disease but this has not been studied thoroughly in Malaysia.  Glomerular Filtration Rate is the best method for measuring kidney function and is widely estimated using the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation. Another equation, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Creatinine equation was introduced in 2009. The new equation retained the precision and accuracy of the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation at GFR < 60ml/min/1.73m2, showed less bias and improved precision at GFR>60ml/min/1.73m2. In Asian countries, adding an ethnic coefficient to the equation enhanced its performance. In Malaysia, a multi-ethnic Asian population, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation should be validated and the Glomerular Filtration Rate should be reported whenever serum creatinine is ordered. Reporting estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate will help diagnose patients who would have been otherwise missed if only albuminuria and serum creatinine are measured.
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis*; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/urine
  10. McCormick A, Sultan J
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:17-21.
    PMID: 16108168
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency/diagnosis; Renal Insufficiency/drug therapy; Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology*
  11. Teo BW, Zhang L, Guh JY, Tang SCW, Jha V, Kang DH, et al.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis, 2018 01;25(1):41-48.
    PMID: 29499886 DOI: 10.1053/j.ackd.2017.10.005
    The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines recommended the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for the classification of CKD, but its accuracy was limited to North American patients with estimated GFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 body surface area of European (White) or African (Black) descent. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) developed another equation for estimating GFR, derived from a population that included both participants without kidney disease and with CKD. But many ethnicities were inadequately represented. The International Society of Nephrology, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes committee promulgated clinical practice guidelines, which recommended the CKD-EPI equation. Investigators in Asia subsequently assessed the performance of these GFR estimating equations-the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation, the CKD-EPI equation (creatinine only), and the CKD-EPI equations (creatinine and cystatin C). In this review, we summarize the studies performed in Asia on validating or establishing new Asian ethnicity GFR estimating equations. We included both prospective and retrospective studies which used serum markers traceable to reference materials and focused the review of the performance of GFR estimation by comparisons with the GFR estimations obtained from the CKD-EPI equations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis*; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/ethnology*; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology
  12. Khor BH, Narayanan SS, Chinna K, Gafor AHA, Daud ZAM, Khosla P, et al.
    Nutrients, 2018 Sep 21;10(10).
    PMID: 30248953 DOI: 10.3390/nu10101353
    Blood fatty acids (FAs) are derived from endogenous and dietary routes. Metabolic abnormalities from kidney dysfunction, as well as cross-cultural dietary habits, may alter the FA profile of dialysis patients (DP), leading to detrimental clinical outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to (i) summarize FA status of DP from different countries, (ii) compare blood FA composition between healthy controls and DP, and (iii) evaluate FA profile and clinical endpoints in DP. Fifty-three articles from 1980 onwards, reporting FA profile in hemodialysis and peritoneal DP, were identified from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library. Studies on pediatric, predialysis chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, and transplant patients were excluded. Moderate to high levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were reported in Japan, Korea, Denmark, and Sweden. Compared to healthy adults, DP had lower proportions of n-3 and n-6 PUFA, but higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids. Two studies reported inverse associations between n-3 PUFAs and risks of sudden cardiac death, while one reported eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid)/arachidonic acid ratio was inversely associated with cardiovascular events. The relationship between all-cause mortality and blood FA composition in DP remained inconclusive. The current evidence highlights a critical role for essential FA in nutritional management of DP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood*; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/ethnology; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
  13. Tajunisah I, Patel DK
    N. Engl. J. Med., 2009 Aug 27;361(9):899.
    PMID: 19710488 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMicm0802683
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency/etiology
  14. Begum R, Khan TM, Ming LC
    J Epidemiol Glob Health, 2016 12;6(4):325-326.
    PMID: 27095074 DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2016.03.004
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology*
  15. Mun PS, Ting HN, Ong TA, Wong CM, Ng KH, Chong YB
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(6):e0130011.
    PMID: 26066351 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130011
    This paper investigates the dielectric properties of urine in normal subjects and subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at microwave frequency of between 0.2 GHz and 50 GHz. The measurements were conducted using an open-ended coaxial probe at room temperature (25°C), at 30°C and at human body temperature (37°C). There were statistically significant differences in the dielectric properties of the CKD subjects compared to those of the normal subjects. Statistically significant differences in dielectric properties were observed across the temperatures for normal subjects and CKD subjects. Pearson correlation test showed the significant correlation between proteinuria and dielectric properties. The experimental data closely matched the single-pole Debye model. The relaxation dispersion and relaxation time increased with the proteinuria level, while decreasing with the temperature. As for static conductivity, it increased with proteinuria level and temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/urine*
  16. Chidambaram R
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2014 Dec;24(12):955.
    PMID: 25523738 DOI: 12.2014/JCPSP.955955
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications*
  17. Carrero JJ, Thomas F, Nagy K, Arogundade F, Avesani CM, Chan M, et al.
    J Ren Nutr, 2018 11;28(6):380-392.
    PMID: 30348259 DOI: 10.1053/j.jrn.2018.08.006
    OBJECTIVE: To better define the prevalence of protein-energy wasting (PEW) in kidney disease is poorly defined.

    METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of PEW prevalence from contemporary studies including more than 50 subjects with kidney disease, published during 2000-2014 and reporting on PEW prevalence by subjective global assessment or malnutrition-inflammation score. Data were reviewed throughout different strata: (1) acute kidney injury (AKI), (2) pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD), (3) nondialyzed CKD 3-5, (4) maintenance dialysis, and (5) subjects undergoing kidney transplantation (Tx). Sample size, period of publication, reporting quality, methods, dialysis technique, country, geographical region, and gross national income were a priori considered factors influencing between-study variability.

    RESULTS: Two studies including 189 AKI patients reported a PEW prevalence of 60% and 82%. Five studies including 1776 patients with CKD stages 3-5 reported PEW prevalence ranging from 11% to 54%. Finally, 90 studies from 34 countries including 16,434 patients on maintenance dialysis were identified. The 25th-75th percentiles range in PEW prevalence among dialysis studies was 28-54%. Large variation in PEW prevalence across studies remained even when accounting for moderators. Mixed-effects meta-regression identified geographical region as the only significant moderator explaining 23% of the observed data heterogeneity. Finally, two studies including 1067 Tx patients reported a PEW prevalence of 28% and 52%, and no studies recruiting pediatric CKD patients were identified.

    CONCLUSION: By providing evidence-based ranges of PEW prevalence, we conclude that PEW is a common phenomenon across the spectrum of AKI and CKD. This, together with the well-documented impact of PEW on patient outcomes, justifies the need for increased medical attention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology*
  18. Idris I, Tohid H, Muhammad NA, A Rashid MR, Mohd Ahad A, Ali N, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2018 12 22;8(12):e025125.
    PMID: 30580276 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025125
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) at primary care settings and its associated factors.
    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study involved 808 adult patients with T2DM and CKD who were recruited via systematic sampling from 20 public primary care clinics in Peninsular Malaysia. Their sociodemographic, clinical and biomedical profiles were collected through interviews, examination of medical records and blood testing.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of anaemia was 31.7% (256/808). The anaemia was mainly mild (61.5%) and normocytic normochromic (58.7%). About 88.7% of the patients with anaemia were not known to have anaemia prior to the study. Among 36 patients with documented history of anaemia, 80.6% were still anaemic, and only a half received iron therapy. Multivariate regression analysis showed that women (adjusted odd ratio (AOR): 1.57, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.21, p=0.009) and those with older age (AOR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.06, p<0.001), CKD stage 3a (AOR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.25 to 4.87, p=0.009), CKD stage 3b (AOR: 4.36; 95% CI: 2.14 to 8.85, p<0.001), CKD stage 4 (AOR: 10.12; 95% CI: 4.36 to 23.47, p<0.001), CKD stage 5 (AOR: 10.80; 95% CI: 3.32 to 35.11, p<0.001) and foot complication (AOR 3.12, 95% CI: 1.51 to 6.46, p=0.002) were more likely to have anaemia. Having higher body mass index (AOR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 to 0.99, p=0.012) and higher diastolic blood pressure (AOR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99, p<0.001) were associated with lower odds to have anaemia.
    CONCLUSION: Anaemia among patients with T2DM and CKD in primary care was common, and the majority was unrecognised. Inadequate treatment of anaemia was also prevalent. Therefore, screening of anaemia should be incorporated into the routine assessment of diabetic complications particularly for those with significant associated factors. It is hoped that such strategy could lead to early treatment and hence improve their overall care.

    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency*
  19. Topchii II, Kirienko AN, Kirienko DA, Yakovtsova II, Gavriluk AA, Danyliuk SV, et al.
    Wiad. Lek., 2019;72(7):1269-1273.
    PMID: 31398154
    OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Vascular endothelium function interruption has the main role among mechanisms of development and progression of chronic kidney disease. In numerous experimental and clinical studies, it was proved that activated vascular endothelium is a structural and functional unit that matches processes of inflammation with intravascular coagulation, fibrinolysis and haemorheological disorders. The aim: To identify special features of endothelium morphological structure in kidney vessels, coronary arteries and aorta during chronic kidney disease.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Based on autopsy materials, we conducted a morphological study of patients (n = 20) aged 45 to 55 years who were observed in cardiac and neurological hospitals for 5-7 years. We removed kidney, heart and aorta samples from patients. For the study, a histological and immunohistochemical methods were used.

    RESULTS: Results and conclusions: Morphological study of vessels endothelium of kidneys, heart and aorta demonstrated that in the majority of observations intima underwentprofound pathological changes, manifested by different degrees of disorganization of endothelial lining and violations of structural and functional organization of the endotheliocytes, subendothelial layer, basal membrane. These pathological processes in all cases had similar features with the development of immune inflammation. Inflammatory infiltration was represented by macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells. Biological mediators of the presented cells can aggravate the damage to endothelial cells. Indirect signs of low ability to restore the structure of the vessel wall and endothelial lining may be a weak expression of the VEGF and bcl-2 vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic*
  20. Sabanayagam C, Teo BW, Tai ES, Jafar TH, Wong TY
    BMC Nephrol, 2013;14:86.
    PMID: 23590421 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-14-86
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging public health problem worldwide. Previous studies have shown an association between blood pressure (BP) and CKD. However, it is not clear if there are ethnic differences in this association. We examined the association between BP and CKD in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis*; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/ethnology*; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology
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