METHODS: This collaborative project will synthesize data and perform meta-analyses of observational studies conducted in Asia. Studies will be identified through a systematic literature search including abstracts, proceedings of meetings, electronic databases such as MEDLINE and EMBASE. Personal enquiry among collaborators and experts in the region will identify additional studies, or other data sources such as registries. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that describe the prevalence of CKD and its complications will be included, as will longitudinal studies that describe important clinical outcomes for people with CKD. Individual participant data will be sought, where possible, from each of the studies included in the collaboration for baseline parameters and subsequent outcomes, in order to maximize flexibility and consistency of data analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: This study is an initiative offering a unique opportunity to obtain information about the prevalence and manifestations of CKD in Asia, as well as its risk factors. The ARC will also provide insights into important outcomes including progression of CKD, CKD complications, cardiovascular disease and death. These findings will improve our understanding of kidney disease in Asia, and thus help inform service provision, preventive care and further research across the region.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed infants with ARM who received surgery and were followed at the Sabah Women and Children's Hospital, Malaysia, from 1986 to 2010.
RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-two children with anorectal malformations were studied, after excluding 24 children with incomplete data. Three factors were significant as predictors of the presence of a urological anomaly: high ARM lesion (OR 3.12, 95%CI 1.1-8.9), the presence of genital abnormality (OR 2.95, 95%CI 1.10-7.91) and cloacal anomaly in girls (OR 8.27, 95% CI 1.91-35.6). The most common anomalies were vesicoureteric reflux, single kidney and neurogenic bladder. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was noted in 5.7%, in children who had recurrent urinary tract infections, neurogenic bladder or complex renal tract pathology; end-stage renal failure was seen in only 0.8% of children with ARM.
CONCLUSION: Urological anomalies were seen in 23% of patients, but the overall incidence of CKD and end-stage renal disease is low. Early identification of infants with ARM at risk of renal failure may be important for renal survival.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report a successful elderly multigravid pregnancy, in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Her pregnancy was detected early and she was closely managed by the nephrologist and obstetrician. She tolerated the same PD prescription throughout 36 weeks of pregnancy with daily ultrafiltration of 500-1500mls. Her blood pressure remained well controlled without the need of any antihypertensive medication. Her total Kt/V ranged from 1.93 to 2.73. Her blood parameters remained stable and she was electively admitted at 36 weeks for a trans-peritoneal lower segment caesarian section and bilateral tubal ligation.
CONCLUSIONS: At the age of 42, our case is the oldest reported successful pregnancy in a patient on peritoneal dialysis. With careful counselling and meticulous follow up, we have shown that woman in the early stage of end stage renal failure can successfully deliver a full term baby without any complications. Therefore, these women should not be discourage from conceiving even if they are in advanced maternal age for pregnancy.
METHOD: The 5D itch scale was translated from English into Urdu following translation guidelines for translation. Face and content validity was determined by a panel of experts and piloted. For retest, the Urdu version of the 5D itch scale was administered at baseline and two weeks.
RESULTS: A total of 50 participants with end stage renal disease were recruited, and of these, 64% were males. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that the 5D-IS had 2-factor loadings: "Pattern and activity" and "Distribution" with Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin (KMO) = 0.802, Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant (df = 28, p chronic kidney disease in Pakistan.
METHODS: The study comprised 106 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and 203 control subjects. Conventional ultrasound was performed to measure the kidney length and cortical thickness. SWE imaging was performed to measure renal parenchymal stiffness. Diagnostic performance of SWE and conventional ultrasound were correlated with serum creatinine, urea levels and eGFR.
RESULTS: Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed a negative correlation between YM measurements and eGFR (r = -0.576, p < 0.0001). Positive correlations between YM measurements and age (r = 0.321, p < 0.05), serum creatinine (r = 0.375, p < 0.0001) and urea (r = 0.287, p < 0.0001) were also observed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for SWE (0.87) was superior to conventional ultrasound alone (0.35-0.37). The cut-off value of less or equal to 4.31 kPa suggested a non-diseased kidney (80.3% sensitivity, 79.5% specificity).
CONCLUSION: SWE was superior to renal length and cortical thickness in detecting CKD. A value of 4.31 kPa or less showed good accuracy in determining whether a kidney was diseased or not. Advances in knowledge: On SWE, CKD patients show greater renal parenchymal stiffness than non-CKD patients. Determining a cut-off value between normal and diseased renal parenchyma may help in early non-invasive detection and management of CKD.
METHODS: A total 621 patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15-59ml/min/1.73m(2) (CKD stage 3 & 4) were selected and followed up for 10 years or until ESRD or death, whichever occurred first. Subjects who did not meet inclusion criteria were excluded (n=1474).
RESULTS: Annual cumulative decline in eGFR was 3.01±0.40 ml/min/1.73m(2) . Overall disease progression was observed in 60% patients while 18% died. Among patients with CKD stage 3, 21% progressed to stage 4, 10% to stage 5ND (non-dialysis) and 31% to RRT while mortality was observed in 16% patients. On the other hand, 8% patients with CKD stage 4 progressed to stage 5ND, 31% to RRT and mortality was observed in 24% cases. Patients with CVD, higher systolic blood pressure, elevated phosphate levels, heavy proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and use of diuretics were more likely to develop ESRD. Advancing age, low eGFR, low systolic blood pressure, low hemoglobin and baseline diabetes were found to be significant predictors of mortality while being female reduced risk of mortality.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that, in this CKD cohort, patients were more likely to develop ESRD than death. Prime importance should be given to mild forms of CKD to retard and even reverse CKD progression.
METHODS: Utilizing the Malaysian National Cardiovascular Disease Database-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (NCVD-PCI) registry data from 2007 to 2014, STEMI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were stratified into presence (GFR chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patient's demographics, extent of coronary artery disease, procedural data, discharge medications, short (in-hospital) and long (1 year) term outcomes were critically assessed.
RESULTS: A total of 6563 patients were included in the final analysis. STEMI CKD cohort was predominantly male (80%) with mean age of 61.02 ± 9.95 years. They had higher cardiovascular risk factors namely diabetes mellitus (54.6%), hypertension (79.2%) and dyslipidemia (68.8%) in contrast to those without CKD. There were notably higher percentage of CKD patients presented with Killip class 3 and 4; 24.9 vs 8.7%. Thrombolytic therapy remained the most commonly instituted treatment regardless the status of kidney function. Furthermore, our STEMI CKD cohort also was more likely to receive less of evidence-based treatment upon discharge. In terms of outcomes, patients with CKD were more likely to develop in-hospital death (OR: 4.55, 95% CI 3.11-6.65), MACE (OR: 3.42, 95% CI 2.39-4.90) and vascular complications (OR: 1.88, 95% CI 0.95-3.7) compared to the non-CKD patients. The risk of death at 1-year post PCI in STEMI CKD patients was also reported to be high (HR: 3.79, 95% CI 2.84-5.07).
CONCLUSION: STEMI and CKD is a deadly combination, proven in our cohort, adding on to the current evidence in the literature. We noted that our STEMI CKD patients tend to be younger than the Caucasian with extremely high prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The poor outcome mainly driven by immediate or short term adverse events peri-procedural, therefore suggesting that more efficient treatment in this special group is imperative.