Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 50 in total

  1. Wong JJM, Lee SW, Lee JH
    Pediatr Crit Care Med, 2020 09;21(9):855-856.
    PMID: 32890097 DOI: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002446
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult*
  2. Chan JCN, Lim LL, Shaw JE, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Gregg EW, Lancet Commission on diabetes
    Lancet, 2021 06 05;397(10290):2150.
    PMID: 34090602 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00664-4
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult*
  3. Lim MX, Fong KK, Yeap TB
    BMJ Case Rep, 2021 Oct 13;14(10).
    PMID: 34645636 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2021-245639
    COVID-19 presents with a spectrum of severity, ranging from asymptomatic or mild symptoms to those with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Corticosteroids are widely used for their efficacy in reducing inflammatory responses. However, its use may be limited to patients with immunosuppression. An adjunct therapy for cytokine storm in COVID-19 is extracorporeal blood purification therapies using high adsorptive filters, such as oXiris, to remove cytokines. We share our experience in using continuous renal replacement therapy with oXiris haemofilter as a temporising measure to high-dose corticosteroids in managing cytokine storm in a deteriorating COVID-19 patient with concomitant bacterial infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult*
  4. Chua EX, Wong ZZ, Hasan MS, Atan R, Yunos NM, Yip HW, et al.
    Braz J Anesthesiol, 2022;72(6):780-789.
    PMID: 35809681 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjane.2022.06.007
    BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety profiles of prone ventilation among intubated Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients remain unclear. The primary objective was to examine the effect of prone ventilation on the ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) in intubated COVID-19 patients.

    METHODS: Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were systematically searched from inception until March 2021. Case reports and case series were excluded.

    RESULTS: Eleven studies (n = 606 patients) were eligible. Prone ventilation significantly improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio (studies: 8, n = 579, mean difference 46.75, 95% CI 33.35‒60.15, p < 0.00001; evidence: very low) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) (studies: 3, n = 432, mean difference 1.67, 95% CI 1.08‒2.26, p < 0.00001; evidence: ow), but not the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) (studies: 5, n = 396, mean difference 2.45, 95% CI 2.39‒7.30, p = 0.32; evidence: very low), mortality rate (studies: 1, n = 215, Odds Ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.32‒1.33, p = 0.24; evidence: very low), or number of patients discharged alive (studies: 1, n = 43, Odds Ratio 1.49, 95% CI 0.72‒3.08, p = 0.28; evidence: very low).

    CONCLUSION: Prone ventilation improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio and SpO2 in intubated COVID-19 patients. Given the substantial heterogeneity and low level of evidence, more randomized- controlled trials are warranted to improve the certainty of evidence, and to examine the adverse events of prone ventilation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult*
  5. Langdon R, Docherty PD, Chiew YS, Chase JG
    Math Biosci, 2017 02;284:32-39.
    PMID: 27513728 DOI: 10.1016/j.mbs.2016.08.001
    For patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mechanical ventilation (MV) is an essential therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU). Suboptimal PEEP levels in MV can cause ventilator induced lung injury, which is associated with increased mortality, extended ICU stay, and high cost. The ability to predict the outcome of respiratory mechanics in response to changes in PEEP would thus provide a critical advantage in personalising and improving care. Testing the potentially dangerous high pressures would not be required to assess their impact. A nonlinear autoregressive (NARX) model was used to predict airway pressure in 19 data sets from 10 mechanically ventilated ARDS patients. Patient-specific NARX models were identified from pressure and flow data over one, two, three, or four adjacent PEEP levels in a recruitment manoeuvre. Extrapolation of NARX model elastance functions allowed prediction of patient responses to PEEP changes to higher or lower pressures. NARX model predictions were more successful than those using a well validated first order model (FOM). The most clinically important results were for extrapolation up one PEEP step of 2cmH2O from the highest PEEP in the training data. When the NARX model was trained on one PEEP level, the mean RMS residual for the extrapolation PEEP level was 0.52 (90% CI: 0.47-0.57) cmH2O, compared to 1.50 (90% CI: 1.38-1.62) cmH2O for the FOM. When trained on four PEEP levels, the NARX result was 0.50 (90% CI: 0.42-0.58) cmH2O, and was 1.95 (90% CI: 1.71-2.19) cmH2O for the FOM. The results suggest that a full recruitment manoeuvre may not be required for the NARX model to obtain a useful estimate of the pressure waveform at higher PEEP levels. The methodology could thus allow clinicians to make informed decisions about ventilator PEEP settings while reducing the risk associated with high PEEP, and subsequent high peak airway pressures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult*
  6. Chew MT, Daar E, Khandaker MU, Jones B, Nisbet A, Bradley DA
    Br J Radiol, 2021 Aug 01;94(1124):20201265.
    PMID: 34192471 DOI: 10.1259/bjr.20201265
    Infection, the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, causes reactive inflammation mediated by endogenous signals, with influx of leucocytes with distinct properties and capable of mounting a cellular or antibody response. Different forms of inflammation may also occur in response to tumours, in allergy and autoimmune disorders. Pneumonia, respiratory tract infection and septic shock for instance can arise as serious complications of the Covid-19 virus. While radiotherapy has been most widely used to control malignant tumours, it has also been used for treatment of non-malignant diseases, including acute and chronic inflammation in situations where anti-inflammatory drugs may be ineffective or contraindicated. The present review examines the history and prospects for low-dose anti-inflammatory radiation treatments, the present interest largely being motivated by the increased incidence of pulmonary disease associated Covid-19 infections. Evidence in support of the suggested efficacy are covered, together with an appraisal of one of the number of potential convenient sources that could complement external beam arrangements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/radiotherapy*
  7. Rahman AK, Sulaiman FN
    Trop Doct, 2013 Apr;43(2):83-5.
    PMID: 23796679 DOI: 10.1177/0049475513485733
    Severe pulmonary involvement in malaria has been frequently reported in cases of Plasmodium falciparum infection but rarely in vivax malaria. We look at a case of a 38-year-old man living in a malaria endemic area who presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by P. vivax. DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that it was not a mixed infection. After specific antimalarial therapy and intensive supportive care, the patient was discharged from the hospital. This case illustrates that P. vivax-induced ARDS is not uncommon and should be readily recognized by the treating physicians. A confirmatory test with PCR is required in order to exclude P. falciparum co-infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/diagnosis*; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/etiology; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/therapy
  8. Atas B, Caksen H, Tuncer O, Oner AF, Kirimi E, Akbayram S
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Mar;60(1):91-3.
    PMID: 16250288
    In this article, we present an 18-month-old girl with acute iron poisoning who died from acute respiratory distress syndrome due to overdose of desferrioxamine. Our purpose is to emphasize the importance of close follow-up children with acute iron poisoning for desferrioxamine toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/chemically induced*
  9. Goh KL, Bosco J, Wong CS
    Med J Malaysia, 1983 Sep;38(3):194-6.
    PMID: 6584709
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/etiology*
  10. Kow CS, Hasan SS
    J Intern Med, 2021 01;289(1):125-128.
    PMID: 33078881 DOI: 10.1111/joim.13183
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult*
  11. Hasan SS, Capstick T, Ahmed R, Kow CS, Mazhar F, Merchant HA, et al.
    Expert Rev Respir Med, 2020 Nov;14(11):1149-1163.
    PMID: 32734777 DOI: 10.1080/17476348.2020.1804365
    OBJECTIVES: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to viral pneumonitis is one of the main causes of high mortality in patients with COVID-19 (novel coronavirus disease 2019). We systematically reviewed mortality in COVID-19 patients with ARDS and the potential role of systemic corticosteroids in COVID-19 patients.

    METHODS: Electronic databases and country-specific healthcare databases were searched to identify relevant studies/reports. The quality assessment of individual studies was conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Country-specific proportion of individuals with COVID-19 who developed ARDS and reported death were combined in a random-effect meta-analysis to give a pooled mortality estimate of ARDS.

    RESULTS: The overall pooled mortality estimate among 10,815 ARDS cases in COVID-19 patients was 39% (95% CI: 23-56%). The pooled mortality estimate for China was 69% (95% CI: 67-72%). In Europe, the highest mortality estimate among COVID-19 patients with ARDS was reported in Poland (73%; 95% CI: 58-86%) while Germany had the lowest mortality estimate (13%; 95% CI: 2-29%) among COVID-19 patients with ARDS. The median crude mortality rate of COVID-19 patients with reported corticosteroid use was 28.0% (lower quartile: 13.9%; upper quartile: 53.6%).

    CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality in COVID-19 associated ARDS necessitates a prompt and aggressive treatment strategy which includes corticosteroids. Most of the studies included no information on the dosing regimen of corticosteroid therapy, however, low-dose corticosteroid therapy or pulse corticosteroid therapy appears to have a beneficial role in the management of severely ill COVID-19 patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/mortality*; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/therapy; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/virology*
  12. Goh AY, Sekaran D, Roziah M
    Respirology, 1999 Sep;4(3):295-7.
    PMID: 10489678
    Late acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with a mortality of more than 80%. Recent reports in adults have shown improved survival in late ARDS treated with prolonged course of steroids, however little data are available in children concerning its safety and efficacy. We report the successful treatment of a child dying from refractory late ARDS using a prolonged course of high-dose methylprednisolone instituted after 12 days of advanced mechanical ventilation. Progressive improvement was seen from days 3, 7, 10 and 14 after treatment with improvement in PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratios, lung injury score and chest radiographical score. Treatment was complicated by a fungal urinary tract infection that was easily controlled. There were no major metabolic side effects. Steroid therapy can be considered in the treatment of children with refractory late ARDS but larger prospective studies are needed to define indications, timing, dosing and safety of this mode of treatment in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/drug therapy*; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/etiology
  13. Norrashidah AW, Azizi BH, Zulfiqar MA
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Jun;54(2):225-9.
    PMID: 10972033
    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the final outcome of a common pathway of a variety of unrelated but massive insults to the lung. It is commonly seen in adults but also occurs in the paediatric age group. A prospective study was carried out to determine the incidence, predisposing conditions, clinical course and outcome of children with ARDS admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Six patients (aged 0.8 to 11 years) who fulfilled the strict criteria for ARDS were identified prospectively during a one year study period. The incidence was 1.7% of all PICU admission. The most common underlying conditions were septicemia and pneumonia. The mortality rate was 83%. Death most often occurred during the early phase of the disease. Treatment of ARDS included elimination of the cause of ARDS, early institution of mechanical ventilation with PEEP, prompt recognition and treatment of superimposed infection and careful management of additional organ failure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/epidemiology; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/therapy*
  14. Reddy VG
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Mar;54(1):132-45.
    PMID: 10972019
    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been associated with high mortality. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology, recognition of precipitating events and improved management has decreased the mortality over the years. Mechanical ventilation is still the corner stone of the management of the disease. It is well recognised that high tidal volumes and airway pressures increase the morbidity, hence the need to use alternative modes of ventilation like pressure control with or without inverse ratio ventilation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is still experimental and not easily available, whereas prone position to improve oxygenation is simple and inexpensive. The concept of pathological oxygen dependency and therapy aimed at supranormal values has failed to improve survival. Restricting the fluids to prevent further oedema formation in an already wet lung has improved the survival rate. Nitric oxide and surfactant have failed to produce desirable effect in large studies. Pharmacological support to inhibit inflammation with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antifungal agents, prostaglandin and corticosteroids have all failed. Interestingly corticosteroid rescue treatment in the late phase of ARDS has shown promise. Antiendotoxin and anticytokine studies which began with much enthusiasm is yet to produce desirable results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/drug therapy; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/therapy*
  15. Lum LC, Thong MK, Cheah YK, Lam SK
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1995 Dec;15(4):335-9.
    PMID: 8687212 DOI: 10.1080/02724936.1995.11747794
    In dengue shock syndrome, an acute increase in capillary permeability results in leakage of plasma into the interstitial space. Pleural effusion is commonly seen in dengue shock syndrome. We report three cases of dengue-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children, in all of whom dengue haemorrhagic fever, presenting with grade 3 or grade 4 dengue shock syndrome with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, was confirmed. The criteria for the diagnosis of ARDS were based on the expanded definition of ARDS by Murray et al. Treatment consisted of fluid resuscitation, correction of coagulopathy and mechanical ventilation. All three children had multi-organ impairment, but it was more severe in the two who died. The one survivor was well at discharge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/etiology*; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/physiopathology
  16. Kim KT, Morton S, Howe S, Chiew YS, Knopp JL, Docherty P, et al.
    Trials, 2020 Feb 01;21(1):130.
    PMID: 32007099 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-019-4035-7
    BACKGROUND: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at minimum respiratory elastance during mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may improve patient care and outcome. The Clinical utilisation of respiratory elastance (CURE) trial is a two-arm, randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the performance of PEEP selected at an objective, model-based minimal respiratory system elastance in patients with ARDS.

    METHODS AND DESIGN: The CURE RCT compares two groups of patients requiring invasive MV with a partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio ≤ 200; one criterion of the Berlin consensus definition of moderate (≤ 200) or severe (≤ 100) ARDS. All patients are ventilated using pressure controlled (bi-level) ventilation with tidal volume = 6-8 ml/kg. Patients randomised to the control group will have PEEP selected per standard practice (SPV). Patients randomised to the intervention will have PEEP selected based on a minimal elastance using a model-based computerised method. The CURE RCT is a single-centre trial in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Christchurch hospital, New Zealand, with a target sample size of 320 patients over a maximum of 3 years. The primary outcome is the area under the curve (AUC) ratio of arterial blood oxygenation to the fraction of inspired oxygen over time. Secondary outcomes include length of time of MV, ventilator-free days (VFD) up to 28 days, ICU and hospital length of stay, AUC of oxygen saturation (SpO2)/FiO2 during MV, number of desaturation events (SpO2 

    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/blood; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/diagnosis; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/physiopathology; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/therapy*
  17. Chong JL, Sapari S, Kuan YC
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2011 Aug;44(4):319-22.
    PMID: 21524955 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2010.07.001
    Influenza A "novel H1N1" with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious illness that poses a challenge to clinicians managing such cases. This case report reveals a patient with ARDS secondary to influenza A with deteriorating clinical status, who improved tremendously after intravenous immunoglobulin G (IV IgG). Patients with H1N1 associated with ARDS may be given a trial of IV IgG. More case reports and trials are required to ascertain the efficacy of IV IgG and the best dosage and timing of starting IV IgG in relation to antiviral therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/therapy*; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/virology*
  18. Pisani L, Algera AG, Serpa Neto A, Ahsan A, Beane A, Chittawatanarat K, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2021 01 11;104(3):1022-1033.
    PMID: 33432906 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1177
    Epidemiology, ventilator management, and outcome in patients receiving invasive ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs) in middle-income countries are largely unknown. PRactice of VENTilation in Middle-income Countries is an international multicenter 4-week observational study of invasively ventilated adult patients in 54 ICUs from 10 Asian countries conducted in 2017/18. Study outcomes included major ventilator settings (including tidal volume [V T ] and positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]); the proportion of patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), according to the lung injury prediction score (LIPS), or with ARDS; the incidence of pulmonary complications; and ICU mortality. In 1,315 patients included, median V T was similar in patients with LIPS < 4 and patients with LIPS ≥ 4, but lower in patients with ARDS (7.90 [6.8-8.9], 8.0 [6.8-9.2], and 7.0 [5.8-8.4] mL/kg Predicted body weight; P = 0.0001). Median PEEP was similar in patients with LIPS < 4 and LIPS ≥ 4, but higher in patients with ARDS (five [5-7], five [5-8], and 10 [5-12] cmH2O; P < 0.0001). The proportions of patients with LIPS ≥ 4 or with ARDS were 68% (95% CI: 66-71) and 7% (95% CI: 6-8), respectively. Pulmonary complications increased stepwise from patients with LIPS < 4 to patients with LIPS ≥ 4 and patients with ARDS (19%, 21%, and 38% respectively; P = 0.0002), with a similar trend in ICU mortality (17%, 34%, and 45% respectively; P < 0.0001). The capacity of the LIPS to predict development of ARDS was poor (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] area under the curve [AUC] of 0.62, 95% CI: 0.54-0.70). In Asian middle-income countries, where two-thirds of ventilated patients are at risk for ARDS according to the LIPS and pulmonary complications are frequent, setting of V T is globally in line with current recommendations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/epidemiology; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/therapy*
  19. Writing Group for the Alveolar Recruitment for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Trial (ART) Investigators, Cavalcanti AB, Suzumura ÉA, Laranjeira LN, Paisani DM, Damiani LP, et al.
    JAMA, 2017 10 10;318(14):1335-1345.
    PMID: 28973363 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2017.14171
    Importance: The effects of recruitment maneuvers and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration on clinical outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain uncertain.

    Objective: To determine if lung recruitment associated with PEEP titration according to the best respiratory-system compliance decreases 28-day mortality of patients with moderate to severe ARDS compared with a conventional low-PEEP strategy.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, randomized trial conducted at 120 intensive care units (ICUs) from 9 countries from November 17, 2011, through April 25, 2017, enrolling adults with moderate to severe ARDS.

    Interventions: An experimental strategy with a lung recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration according to the best respiratory-system compliance (n = 501; experimental group) or a control strategy of low PEEP (n = 509). All patients received volume-assist control mode until weaning.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality until 28 days. Secondary outcomes were length of ICU and hospital stay; ventilator-free days through day 28; pneumothorax requiring drainage within 7 days; barotrauma within 7 days; and ICU, in-hospital, and 6-month mortality.

    Results: A total of 1010 patients (37.5% female; mean [SD] age, 50.9 [17.4] years) were enrolled and followed up. At 28 days, 277 of 501 patients (55.3%) in the experimental group and 251 of 509 patients (49.3%) in the control group had died (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.42; P = .041). Compared with the control group, the experimental group strategy increased 6-month mortality (65.3% vs 59.9%; HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.38; P = .04), decreased the number of mean ventilator-free days (5.3 vs 6.4; difference, -1.1; 95% CI, -2.1 to -0.1; P = .03), increased the risk of pneumothorax requiring drainage (3.2% vs 1.2%; difference, 2.0%; 95% CI, 0.0% to 4.0%; P = .03), and the risk of barotrauma (5.6% vs 1.6%; difference, 4.0%; 95% CI, 1.5% to 6.5%; P = .001). There were no significant differences in the length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ICU mortality, and in-hospital mortality.

    Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe ARDS, a strategy with lung recruitment and titrated PEEP compared with low PEEP increased 28-day all-cause mortality. These findings do not support the routine use of lung recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration in these patients.

    Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01374022.

    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/mortality; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/therapy*
  20. Delilkan AE, Namazie M, Ong G
    Med J Malaysia, 1984 Sep;39(3):229-33.
    PMID: 6544925
    From 1970 to 1984, 100 patients suffering from organophosphate poisoning were treated in the Intensive Care Unit at the University Hospital. These patients developed signs and symptoms of cholinergic over-activity and were treated with continuous intravenous atropine. Many of the patients also developed acute respiratory failure, which necessitated ventilatory support in the form of intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Other measures included the use of inotropes and nutritional support. Daily estimation of serum cholinesterase levels were useful in assessing degree of recovery of the patients from the effects of the organophosphates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/etiology; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/prevention & control; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/therapy
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