Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

  1. Adlina, S., Narimah, A.H.H., Mazlin, M.M., Nuraliza, A.S., Hakimi, Z.A., Soe, S.A., et al.
    This study was conducted to determine the patterns of disease and treatment at two disaster sites. Studies prior to this have shown that all natural disasters are unique in that each affected region of the world have different social, economic and health backgrounds. However, similarities exist among the health effects of different disasters which if recognized can ensure that health and emergency medical relief and limited resources are well managed. This study found that although Aceh and Balakot were two totally different areas with reference to locality and climate it was noticed that the patterns of disease two months post disaster are similar the commonest being respiratory conditions followed by musculoskeletal conditions and gastrointestinal conditions. For the treatment patterns it was observed that the two areas prescribed almost similar, types of medicine mainly for gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. However in Aceh, there were more skin treatment and in Balakot there was more usage of musculoskeletal drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases
  2. Omar AH
    Acta Paediatr Jpn, 1990 Apr;32(2):183-7.
    PMID: 2116069
    In a cross-sectional study of 7 to 12-year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, the prevalence of chronic cough and/or phlegm, persistent wheeze, and doctor-diagnosed asthma were 8.0%, 8.0% and 8.7%, respectively. The prevalence of asthma (defined as persistent wheeze and/or doctor-diagnosed asthma) was 13.8%. 4.3% experienced at least one episode of chest illness that resulted in inactivity for at least 3 days in the previous year. The mean age of commencement of symptoms in the doctor-diagnosed asthma group was 2.75 years. The prevalence of chronic cough and/or phlegm and persistent wheeze were highest among Indian children (p less than 0.05). More Malays had been diagnosed as having asthma than the other ethnic groups but the differences were not statistically significant. The patients' fathers' low levels of education were associated with chronic cough and/or phlegm (p less than 0.05) but not with other complaints. Asthma was significantly more common among boys than girls. No age differences were noted. Further analysis showed that persistent wheeze and doctor-diagnosed asthma were associated with increased likelihood of other respiratory illnesses or doctor-diagnosed allergy before the age of 2 years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
  3. Arokiasamy JT, Chen PCY
    Med J Malaysia, 1980 Jun;34(4):336-42.
    PMID: 7219259
    Disease patterns among outpatients seen at static and travelling dispensaries, as well as among hospital admissions and hospital deaths are compared between 1959 and 1974. While disease patterns of patients seen by travelling dispensaries show no change, patients seen by static dispensaries and hospital admissions in 1974 show a marked relative decline in infective and parasitic diseases and an increase in accidents, poisonings and violence. Causes of death in hospitals in 1974 were different, there being relative increases in diseases of early infancy, diseases of circulatory system, neoplasms, and accidents, poisonings, violence while infective and parasitic diseases, and diseases of the digestive system declined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
    Med J Malaya, 1961 Dec;16:125-35.
    PMID: 14469124
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases*
  5. Rudan I, Agrawal D, Hussein N, Cheong AT, Cunningham S, Dockerell D, et al.
    J Glob Health, 2018 Dec;8(2):0201314.
    PMID: 30603076 DOI: 10.7189/jogh.08.020314
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control*
  6. Mehta M, Deeksha, Sharma N, Vyas M, Khurana N, Maurya PK, et al.
    Chemico-biological interactions, 2019 May 01;304:10-19.
    PMID: 30849336 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.02.021
    Macrophages are considered as the most flexible cells of the hematopoietic system that are distributed in the tissues to act against pathogens and foreign particles. Macrophages are essential in maintaining homeostatic tissue processes, repair and immunity. Also, play important role in cytokine secretion and signal transduction of the infection so as to develop acquired immunity. Accounting to their involvement in pathogenesis, macrophages present a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory diseases. This review focuses on novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) including nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, microspheres etc that can target alveolar macrophage associated with inflammation, intracellular infection and lung cancer. The physiochemical properties and functional moieties of the NDDS attributes to enhanced macrophage targeting and uptake. The NDDS are promising for sustained drug delivery, reduced therapeutic dose, improved patient compliance and reduce drug toxicity. Further, the review also discuss about modified NDDS for specificity to the target and molecular targeting via anti-microbial peptides, kinases, NRF-2 and phosphodiesterase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy*
  7. Lim S, Lam DC, Muttalif AR, Yunus F, Wongtim S, Lan le TT, et al.
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2015;14(1):4.
    PMID: 25937817 DOI: 10.1186/s12930-015-0020-9
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a clinical syndrome encompassing a group of chronic, progressive, and debilitating respiratory conditions, that are characterized by incompletely reversible airflow limitation. Within the Asia-Pacific region, prevalence estimates have been derived using various protocols and study methods, and there is little data on the impact of COPD exacerbations. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive picture of the current prevalence and burden of COPD in this region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases
  8. Sreetharan SS, Prepageran N, Razak A, Valuyeetham KA
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Jun;58(2):290-3.
    PMID: 14569753
    Aerodigestive amyloidosis is a rare disorder characterized by fibrillar protein deposition in the aerodigestive tree. We present a case of a 19-year-old Chinese gentleman whose diagnosis was initially missed as he presented with features suggestive of severe bronchial asthma and was intubated and ventilated. He subsequently presented 2 years later with severe stridor and required emergency tracheostomy. Current literature is reviewed for the histopathology, common clinical features, radiological findings and treatment options for aerodigestive amyloidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications; Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis*; Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy
  9. Wang Y, Cho SH, Lin HC, Ghoshal AG, Bin Abdul Muttalif AR, Thanaviratananich S, et al.
    Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2018;177(1):69-79.
    PMID: 29874659 DOI: 10.1159/000489015
    BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are common and little studied in the Asia-Pacific region.

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate real-world practice patterns for these respiratory diseases in India, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study enrolled adults (age ≥18 years) presenting to general practitioners (GP) or specialists for physician-diagnosed AR, asthma, COPD, or rhinosinusitis. Physicians and patients completed study-specific surveys at one visit, recording patient characteristics, health-related quality of life (QoL), work impairment, and healthcare resource use. Findings by country and physician category (GP or specialist) were summarized.

    RESULTS: Of the 13,902 patients screened, 7,243 (52%) presented with AR (18%), asthma (18%), COPD (7%), or rhinosinusitis (9%); 5,250 of the 7,243 (72%) patients were eligible for this study. Most eligible patients (70-100%) in India, Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore attended GP, while most (83-85%) in Taiwan and Thailand attended specialists. From 42% (rhinosinusitis) to 67% (AR) of new diagnoses were made by GP. On average, patients with COPD reported the worst health-related QoL, particularly to GP. Median losses of work productivity for each condition and activity impairment, except for asthma, were numerically greater for patients presenting to GP vs. specialists. GP prescribed more antibiotics for AR and asthma, and fewer intranasal corticosteroids for AR, than specialists (p < 0.001 for all comparisons).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, albeit mostly descriptive and influenced by between-country differences, suggest that practice patterns differ between physician types, and the disease burden may be substantial for patients presenting in general practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis; Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology*; Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy
  10. Palaniappan R, Sundaraj K, Sundaraj S
    BMC Bioinformatics, 2014;15:223.
    PMID: 24970564 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-15-223
    Pulmonary acoustic parameters extracted from recorded respiratory sounds provide valuable information for the detection of respiratory pathologies. The automated analysis of pulmonary acoustic signals can serve as a differential diagnosis tool for medical professionals, a learning tool for medical students, and a self-management tool for patients. In this context, we intend to evaluate and compare the performance of the support vector machine (SVM) and K-nearest neighbour (K-nn) classifiers in diagnosis respiratory pathologies using respiratory sounds from R.A.L.E database.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis*; Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology
  11. Soyiri IN, Reidpath DD
    PLoS One, 2013;8(10):e78215.
    PMID: 24147122 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078215
    Forecasting higher than expected numbers of health events provides potentially valuable insights in its own right, and may contribute to health services management and syndromic surveillance. This study investigates the use of quantile regression to predict higher than expected respiratory deaths. Data taken from 70,830 deaths occurring in New York were used. Temporal, weather and air quality measures were fitted using quantile regression at the 90th-percentile with half the data (in-sample). Four QR models were fitted: an unconditional model predicting the 90th-percentile of deaths (Model 1), a seasonal/temporal (Model 2), a seasonal, temporal plus lags of weather and air quality (Model 3), and a seasonal, temporal model with 7-day moving averages of weather and air quality. Models were cross-validated with the out of sample data. Performance was measured as proportionate reduction in weighted sum of absolute deviations by a conditional, over unconditional models; i.e., the coefficient of determination (R1). The coefficient of determination showed an improvement over the unconditional model between 0.16 and 0.19. The greatest improvement in predictive and forecasting accuracy of daily mortality was associated with the inclusion of seasonal and temporal predictors (Model 2). No gains were made in the predictive models with the addition of weather and air quality predictors (Models 3 and 4). However, forecasting models that included weather and air quality predictors performed slightly better than the seasonal and temporal model alone (i.e., Model 3 > Model 4 > Model 2) This study provided a new approach to predict higher than expected numbers of respiratory related-deaths. The approach, while promising, has limitations and should be treated at this stage as a proof of concept.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality*; Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology*
  12. Lim HH, Rampal KG, Joginder S, Abu Bakar CM, Chan KH, Vivek TN
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Sep;57(3):340-7.
    PMID: 12440274 MyJurnal
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of respiratory conditions including asbestos-related diseases among Malaysian asbestos cement workers. The study population consisted of 1164 workers who had undergone medical surveillance from 1995 to 1997, including full history, physical examination, chest radiography and spirometry. More than half the male workers were smokers or ex-smokers, with smokers having more respiratory symptoms and signs, and reduced FEV1 compared with non smokers. The five most common respiratory conditions diagnosed were bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract infections and allergic rhinitis. On follow-up, there were also two cases of asbestosis and one case of bronchial carcinoma. The asbestosis cases were probably related to heavy occupational exposure to asbestos fibres in the past, before governmental regulations were gazetted in 1986. Further follow-up is essential for continued monitoring of the health status of asbestos workers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology*; Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology*
  13. Musa R, Naing L, Ahmad Z, Kamarul Y
    PMID: 11289024
    A cross sectional study was carried out to evaluate the effect of rice husk dust in rice millers in Malaysia. Altogether 69 workers participated in this study. They were interviewed using standardized questionnaires and lung function tests were performed. Chest tightness was among the common symptoms (34.9%) complained by workers. Age, duration of employment and smoking status were among the factors associated with respiratory symptoms (p < 0.01). Lung function tests revealed some degree of impairment compared to the healthy population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology*; Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology
  14. Norzila MZ, Norrashidah AW, Rusanida A, Sushila S, Azizi BHO
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Aug;58(3):350-5.
    PMID: 14750374
    All children who underwent flexible bronchoscopy in the respiratory unit at Paediatric Institute, Hospital Kuala Lumpur from June 1997 to June 2002 were reviewed. A hundred and ten children underwent the procedure under sedation or general anaesthesia. The median age of these children was eight months. (Q1 3, Q3 30) The commonest indication for performing flexible bronchoscopy was for chronic stridor (50 cases) followed by persistent or recurrent changes such as lung infiltrates, atelectasis and consolidation on the chest radiographs (22). Laryngomalacia was found to be the commonest cause of stridor in 29 children. Two patients were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. With regard to safety, three procedures were abandoned due to recurrent desaturation below 85%. One of these patients had severe laryngospasm that required ventilation for 48 hours but recovered fully. Two neonates developed pneumonia requiring antibiotics following bronchoscopy. No patients developed pneumothorax or bleeding following the procedure. Bronchoscopy is a safe procedure when performed by well-trained personnel. Since it is an invasive procedure the benefits must outweigh the risks before it is performed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology*; Respiratory Tract Diseases/surgery*
  15. Nadchatram M
    Trop Biomed, 2005 Jun;22(1):23-37.
    PMID: 16880751
    House dust mites have lived in human contact from time immemorial. Human dander or dead skin constitutes the major organic component of the house dust ecosystem. Because the mites feed on dander, dust mites and human association will continue to co-exist as part of our environment. Efficient house-keeping practice is the best form of control to reduce infestation. However, special precautions are important when individuals are susceptible or sensitive to dust mites. House dust mites are responsible for causing asthma, rhinitis and contact dermatitis. The respiratory allergies are caused by the inhalation of dead or live mites, their faecal matter or other byproducts. Immune factors are of paramount importance in the development of dust related or mite induced respiratory diseases. House dust mites were found in some 1,000 samples of dust taken from approximately 330 dwellings in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Mattresses, carpets, corners of a bedroom, and floor beneath the bed are favourable dust mite habitats. The incriminating species based on studies here and elsewhere, as well as many other species of dust mites of unknown etiological importance are widely distributed in Malaysian homes. Density of dust mites in Malaysia and Singapore is greater than in temperate countries. Prevention and control measures with reference to subjects sensitive to dust mite allergies, including chemical control described in studies conducted in Europe and America are discussed. However, a cost free and most practical way to remove mites, their faecal matter and other products is to resort to sunning the bedding and carpets to kill the living mites, and then beaten and brushed to remove the dust and other components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology; Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control*
  16. Sheikh A, Campbell H, Balharry D, Baqui AH, Bogaert D, Cresswell K, et al.
    J Glob Health, 2018 Dec;8(2):020101.
    PMID: 30603074 DOI: 10.7189/jogh.08.020101
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology; Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control*
  17. Hasan H, Deris ZZ, Sulaiman SA, Abdul Wahab MS, Naing NN, Ab Rahman Z, et al.
    J Immigr Minor Health, 2015 Aug;17(4):1114-9.
    PMID: 24946936 DOI: 10.1007/s10903-014-0059-y
    Respiratory illness were a major problem and caused high hospital admission during hajj seasons. One of the contributing cause to this illness is infection. Various measures had been implemented to reduce respiratory infections. The aim on the study is to determine the effect of influenza vaccination against acute respiratory illness among Malaysian Hajj pilgrims. This is an observational cohort study. Influenza vaccination was given to pilgrims at least 2 weeks prior to departure. The occurrence of symptoms for respiratory illness such as cough, fever, sore throat and runny nose was monitored daily for 6 weeks during pilgrimage using a health diary. A total of 65 vaccinated hajj pilgrims and 41 controls were analyzed. There was no significant difference in pattern of occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness by duration of pilgrimage as well as the number of symptoms between both groups. Hajj pilgrims have frequent respiratory symptoms. We were unable to document benefit from influenza vaccination, but our study was limited by a small sample size and lack of laboratory testing for influenza.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology*; Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control
  18. Deris ZZ, Hasan H, Ab Wahab MS, Sulaiman SA, Naing NN, Othman NH
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Aug;27(2):294-300.
    PMID: 20962728 MyJurnal
    In a very closed and overcrowding environment, influenza transmission during Hajj season is almost inevitable. The aim of this study was to determine the association between pre-morbid conditions and influenza-like illness (ILI) amongst Hajj pilgrims. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst Malaysian Hajj pilgrims in year 2007. Survey forms were distributed at Madinatul-Hujjaj, Jeddah and Tabung Haji Clinic, Medina, Saudi Arabia where pilgrims stay on transit before returning to Malaysia. Allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with sore throat (p=0.047), longer duration of cough (p=0.017) and runny nose (p=0.016). Pilgrims who suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) had significant association with longer duration of cough (p=0.041) and those with diabetes mellitus had significant association with longer duration of sore throat (p=0.048). Underlying asthma was significantly associated with severe influenza like illness requiring admission to hospital for further treatment of respiratory symptoms (p=0.016). Based on these findings, we suggest those with underlying asthma should be discouraged from participating in the hajj and they should seek early treatment if they develop respiratory symptoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology*; Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control*
  19. Bueno-de-Mesquita HB
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Nov;27(8 Suppl):110S-115S.
    PMID: 26155799 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515594445
    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs; mainly cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases) are now responsible for more than 35 million deaths per annum in the world; more than 80% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Dramatic worldwide changes in lifestyle and in the prevalence and incidence of major chronic diseases lends credence to the causative role of modifiable risk factors. For the elucidation of modifiable risk factors, large-scale prospective cohort studies with biobanks often combined in consortia are of paramount importance. Associations between selected risk factors and development of NCDs will be reviewed. In addition to the contribution of treatment, even larger proportions of NCDs can be prevented had risk factors been reduced to the optimum levels or eliminated. Individual-based approaches should be complemented by administrative regulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology*; Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control
  20. Pipanmekaporn T, Bunchungmongkol N, Punjasawadwong Y, Lapisatepun W, Tantraworasin A, Saokaew S
    Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann, 2019 May;27(4):278-287.
    PMID: 30857395 DOI: 10.1177/0218492319835994
    BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications are some of the most common complications following thoracic surgery and can lead to higher perioperative morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple clinical score for prediction of respiratory complications after thoracic surgery, and determine the internal validity.

    METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, all consecutive patients were aged 18 years and over and undergoing non-cardiac thoracic surgery at a tertiary-care university hospital. Respiratory complications included bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia, respiratory failure, and adult respiratory distress syndrome within 30 days of surgery or before discharge.

    RESULTS: A total of 1488 patients were included over a 7-year period, and 15.8% (235 of 1488 patients) developed respiratory complications. The significant predictors of respiratory complications were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status ≥ 3, right-sided surgery, duration of surgery longer than 180 min, preoperative arterial oxygen saturation on room air 

    Matched MeSH terms: Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis; Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology*
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