METHODS: VE-TPGS was added to RF-solution, at RF/VE-TPGS (w/w) ratios of 0.125/0.250 and 0.125/0.500. Demineralized dentine beams were used (10wt.% phosphoric acid), rinsed using deionized-water and analysed using ELISA (Human MMP2 ELISA; Human CTSK/Cathepsin-K for MMP2 and Cathepsin K analysis). AFM of dentine collagen-fibrils structure was done before and after dentine specimens' placement in mineralization solution and tested after 14days in artificial saliva/collagenase (AS/Co) solution. The specimens were tested after 24h in mineralization solution for surface/bulk elastic modulus. Nano-indentation was carried out for each specimen on intertubular-dentine with lateral spacing of 400nm. Reduced elastic-modulus and nano-hardness were calculated and collagen content was determined using hydroxyproline-assay. Micro-Raman were performed. TEM was carried out to study structural variations of dentine-collagen in artificial-saliva (collagenase). Data were presented as mean±standard deviation and analyzed by SPSS v.15, by analysis of variance.
RESULTS: Synergetic effect of VE-TPGS was observed with RF through higher structural integrity of dentine collagen-fibrils shown by TEM/AFM. Superior surface/bulk mechanical stability was shown by nano-indentation/mechanical testing. Improvement in collagenase degradation resistance for hydroxyproline release was observed and lower endogenous-protease release of MMP-2/Cathepsin-K. Raman-analysis analysed chemical interactions between RF and collagen confirming structural-integrity of collagen fibrils after crosslinking. After 24h mineralization, AFM showed mineral depositions in close association with dentine-collagen fibrils with RF/VE-TPGS formulations.
SIGNIFICANCE: Potential synergetic effect of RF/VE-TPGS was observed by reflection of higher structural integrity and conformational-stability of dentine-collagen fibrils.
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the biomarker status of riboflavin and its association with hemoglobin concentration and anemia in women living in Vancouver, Canada, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
METHODS: Healthy nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding women (19-45 y) were recruited from Canada ( n = 206) and Malaysia (n = 210) via convenience sampling. Fasting blood was collected to assess riboflavin status [erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRac)], hematological indicators, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), ferritin, vitamin A, folate, and vitamin B-12 concentrations. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association of riboflavin status with hemoglobin concentration and anemia.
RESULTS: EGRac (mean ± SD) values were higher, indicating poorer riboflavin status, in Malaysian compared with Canadian women (1.49 ± 0.17 compared with 1.38 ± 0.11). Likewise, riboflavin biomarker deficiency (EGRac ≥1.40) was significantly more prevalent among Malaysians than Canadians (71% compared with 40%). More Malaysian than Canadian women were anemic (hemoglobin <120 g/L; 18% compared with 7%). With use of linear regression (pooled sample; n = 416), EGRac values were negatively associated with hemoglobin concentration (r = -0.18; P riboflavin deficiency (EGRac ≥1.40) were twice as likely to present with anemia (adjusted OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.08, 5.27) compared with women with EGRac <1.40.
CONCLUSIONS: Biochemical riboflavin deficiency was observed in Canadian and Malaysian women, with higher rates of deficiency among Malaysian women. Deficient biomarker status of riboflavin was a weak but significant predictor of hemoglobin and anemia, suggesting that the correction of riboflavin deficiency may potentially play a small protective role in anemia, but this requires further investigation.
METHODS: Dentin slabs were treated with 0.1% riboflavin-5-phosphate modified (powder added slowly while shaking and then sonicated to enhance the dispersion process) Universal Adhesive Scotch Bond and Zipbond™ along with control (non-modified) and experimental adhesives, photoactivated with blue light for 20s. Hydroxyproline (HYP) release was assessed after 1-week storage. Elastic-modulus testing was evaluated using universal testing machine at 24 h. Resin-dentin interfacial morphology was assessed with scanning electron-microscope, after 6-month storage. 0.1% rhodamine dye was added into each adhesive and analyzed using CLSM. Detection of free amino groups was carried out using ninhydrin and considered directly proportional to optical absorbance. Collagen molecular confirmation was determined using spectropolarimeter to evaluate and assess CD spectra. For molecular docking studies with riboflavin (PDB ID file), the binding pocket was selected with larger SiteScore and DScore using Schrodinger PB software. After curing, Raman shifts in Amide regions were obtained at 8 μm levels. Data were analyzed using Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05) and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post hoc tests.
RESULTS: At baseline, bond strength reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in control specimens. However, at 6 months' storage, UVA Zipbond™ had significantly higher μTBS. Resin was able to diffuse through the porous demineralized dentin creating adequate hybrid layers in both 0.1%RF modified adhesives in CLSM images. In riboflavin groups, hybrid layer and resin tags were more pronounced. The circular dichroism spectrum showed negative peaks for riboflavin adhesive specimens. Best fitted poses adopted by riboflavin compound are docked with MMP-2 and -9 proteases. Amide bands and CH2 peaks followed the trend of being lowest for control UA Scotch bond adhesive specimens and increasing in Amides, proline, and CH2 intensities in 0.1%RF modified adhesive specimens. All 0.1%RF application groups showed statistically significant (p riboflavin application was significantly (p riboflavin modified adhesives improved the biochemical and biomechanical properties of demineralized dentin as well as the long-term resin-dentin interfacial integrity and bond strength of universal adhesive to dentin.
RESULTS: In the genomic analysis, 33 homozygous and 1377 heterozygous mutations in the coding sequences of the genome of MT strain were detected. Among these heterozygous mutations, the proportion of mutated reads in each gene was different, ranging from 21 to 75%. These results suggest that the MT strain may contain multiple nuclei containing different mutations. We tried to isolate haploid spores from the MT strain to prove its ploidy, but this strain did not sporulate under the conditions tested. Heterozygous mutations detected in genes which are important for sporulation likely contribute to the sporulation deficiency of the MT strain. Homozygous and heterozygous mutations were found in genes encoding enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, purine and pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism and the DNA mismatch repair system. One homozygous mutation in AgILV2 gene encoding acetohydroxyacid synthase, which is also a flavoprotein in mitochondria, was found. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed heterozygous mutations in all 22 DNA helicase genes and genes involved in oxidation-reduction process.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that oxidative stress and the aging of cells were involved in the riboflavin over-production in A. gossypii riboflavin over-producing mutant and provides new insights into riboflavin production in A. gossypii and the usefulness of disparity mutagenesis for the creation of new types of mutants for metabolic engineering.
METHODS: This study includes 235,880 participants, 25-70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires using the harmonized EPIC Nutrient DataBase. Four nutrient patterns, explaining 67 % of the total variance of nutrient intakes, were previously identified from principal component analysis. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The relationship between nutrient patterns and annual weight change was examined separately for men and women using linear mixed models with random effect according to center controlling for confounders.
RESULTS: Mean weight gain was 460 g/year (SD 950) and 420 g/year (SD 940) for men and women, respectively. The annual differences in weight gain per one SD increase in the pattern scores were as follows: principal component (PC) 1, characterized by nutrients from plant food sources, was inversely associated with weight gain in men (-22 g/year; 95 % CI -33 to -10) and women (-18 g/year; 95 % CI -26 to -11). In contrast, PC4, characterized by protein, vitamin B2, phosphorus, and calcium, was associated with a weight gain of +41 g/year (95 % CI +2 to +80) and +88 g/year (95 % CI +36 to +140) in men and women, respectively. Associations with PC2, a pattern driven by many micro-nutrients, and with PC3, a pattern driven by vitamin D, were less consistent and/or non-significant.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified two main nutrient patterns that are associated with moderate but significant long-term differences in weight gain in adults.
Methods: The study was completed in 2016 and the baseline data were gathered from four groups in a school-based randomized community trial among Year Five students from primary schools in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Participants completed anthropometry assessment, three-day dietary record, and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C).
Results: The prevalence of obesity was higher among the boys (52.5%). Mean energy intake was significantly higher among boys as compared to the girls (P=0.003). Twenty-five percent of the participants had exceeded the recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) of energy recommended. The calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin were also significantly higher among boys as compared to the girls (P<0.05). Boys also exhibited a significantly higher score on performance of physical activity (mean=2.68; SD=0.60) as compared to the girls (mean=2.38; SD=0.51) however it is still in the category of moderately active. Approximately 14.4% of children had a very low physical activity level.
Conclusion: Overweight and obese boys had higher energy and fat intakes but were more physically active as compared to the girls. These findings might be useful in planning appropriate intervention strategies to be designed and delivered especially for this cohort.