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  1. Landor JV
    Lancet, 1939;233:1368-70.
    DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)77394-6
    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin
  2. Kato T, Azegami J, Kano M, El Enshasy HA, Park EY
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2021 Oct;105(20):7813-7823.
    PMID: 34559286 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-021-11595-2
    This study focuses on sirtuins, which catalyze the reaction of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, for riboflavin production in A. gossypii. Nicotinamide, a known inhibitor of sirtuin, made the color of A. gossypii colonies appear a deeper yellow at 5 mM. A. gossypii has 4 sirtuin genes (AgHST1, AgHST2, AgHST3, AgHST4) and these were disrupted to investigate the role of sirtuins in riboflavin production in A. gossypii. AgHST1∆, AgHST3∆, and AgHST4∆ strains were obtained, but AgHST2∆ was not. The AgHST1∆ and AgHST3∆ strains produced approximately 4.3- and 2.9-fold higher amounts of riboflavin than the WT strain. The AgHST3∆ strain showed a lower human sirtuin 6 (SIRT6)-like activity than the WT strain and only in the AgHST3∆ strain was a higher amount of acetylation of histone H3 K9 and K56 (H3K9ac and H3K56ac) observed compared to the WT strain. These results indicate that AgHst3 is SIRT6-like sirtuin in A. gossypii and the activity has an influence on the riboflavin production in A. gossypii. In the presence of 5 mM hydroxyurea and 50 µM camptothecin, which causes DNA damage, especially double-strand DNA breaks, the color of the WT strain colonies turned a deeper yellow. Additionally, hydroxyurea significantly led to the production of approximately 1.5 higher amounts of riboflavin and camptothecin also enhanced the riboflavin production even through the significant difference was not detected. Camptothecin tended to increase the amount of H3K56ac, but the amount of H3K56ac was not increased by hydroxyurea treatment. This study revealed that AgHst1 and AgHst3 are involved in the riboflavin production in A. gossypii through NAD metabolism and the acetylation of H3, respectively. This new finding is a step toward clarifying the role of sirtuins in riboflavin over-production by A. gossypii.Key points• Nicotinamide enhanced the riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii.• Disruption of AgHST1 or AgHST3 gene also enhanced the riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii.• Acetylation of H3K56 led to the enhancement of the riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin/biosynthesis*
  3. Daood U, Matinlinna JP, Fawzy AS
    Dent Mater, 2019 02;35(2):356-367.
    PMID: 30528297 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.11.031
    OBJECTIVE: Effect of d-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethyleneglycol)-1000-succinate (VE-TPGS) with riboflavin-5'-phosphate solution on crosslinking of dentine collagen was investigated to analyze collagen's structural integrity.

    METHODS: VE-TPGS was added to RF-solution, at RF/VE-TPGS (w/w) ratios of 0.125/0.250 and 0.125/0.500. Demineralized dentine beams were used (10wt.% phosphoric acid), rinsed using deionized-water and analysed using ELISA (Human MMP2 ELISA; Human CTSK/Cathepsin-K for MMP2 and Cathepsin K analysis). AFM of dentine collagen-fibrils structure was done before and after dentine specimens' placement in mineralization solution and tested after 14days in artificial saliva/collagenase (AS/Co) solution. The specimens were tested after 24h in mineralization solution for surface/bulk elastic modulus. Nano-indentation was carried out for each specimen on intertubular-dentine with lateral spacing of 400nm. Reduced elastic-modulus and nano-hardness were calculated and collagen content was determined using hydroxyproline-assay. Micro-Raman were performed. TEM was carried out to study structural variations of dentine-collagen in artificial-saliva (collagenase). Data were presented as mean±standard deviation and analyzed by SPSS v.15, by analysis of variance.

    RESULTS: Synergetic effect of VE-TPGS was observed with RF through higher structural integrity of dentine collagen-fibrils shown by TEM/AFM. Superior surface/bulk mechanical stability was shown by nano-indentation/mechanical testing. Improvement in collagenase degradation resistance for hydroxyproline release was observed and lower endogenous-protease release of MMP-2/Cathepsin-K. Raman-analysis analysed chemical interactions between RF and collagen confirming structural-integrity of collagen fibrils after crosslinking. After 24h mineralization, AFM showed mineral depositions in close association with dentine-collagen fibrils with RF/VE-TPGS formulations.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Potential synergetic effect of RF/VE-TPGS was observed by reflection of higher structural integrity and conformational-stability of dentine-collagen fibrils.

    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin*
  4. Al-Shara B, Taha RM, Mohamad J, Elias H, Khan A
    Plants (Basel), 2020 Mar 12;9(3).
    PMID: 32178429 DOI: 10.3390/plants9030360
    A highly efficient protocol for regeneration of Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika somatic embryos from immature zygotic embryos was developed. This study was designed to overcome the obstacles in regeneration of somatic embryos from immature zygotic embryos of "Eksotika", especially problems associated with formation of better root quality and callus formation at the base of somatic embryos. Somatic embryos were generated by incubation of immature zygotic embryos in half-strength salt Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with full-strength vitamins supplemented with 7.5 mg L-1 2,4-D, 100 mg L-1 L-glutamine, 50 mg L-1myo-inositol, 45 mg L-1 adenine sulphate, 0.33% gelrite, and 6% sucrose, followed by transfer to maturation medium consisting of ½ MS medium supplemented with 5 mg L-1 phloroglucinol, 100 mg L-1 L-glutamine, 100 mg L-1myo-inositol, 68 mg L-1 adenine sulphate, 0.38% gelrite, and 3% sucrose. After that, well-formed somatic embryos were transferred to MS medium containing 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar for shoot production. The embryos were elongated in MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 gibberellic acid, 0.5 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid, 100 mg L-1myo-inositol, and 3.76 mg L-1 riboflavin. Root regeneration was achieved on MS medium containing 7.9 mg L-1 phloroglucinol and supported with vermiculite after 4 days of cultivation on ½ MS medium with 2 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid. After the rooting phase, in vitro plantlets were acclimatized in peat moss soil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin
  5. Ooi CP, Yassin Z, Hamid TA
    PMID: 20166099 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007845.pub2
    Background: Momordica charantia is not only a nutritious vegetable, but is also used in traditional medical practices to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental studies with animals and humans suggested that the vegetable has a possible role in glycaemic control.

    Objectives: To assess the effects of mormodica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Search strategy: Several electronic databases were searched, among these The Cochrane Library (issue 4, 2009), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to November 2009), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used.

    Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials that compared momordica charantia with a placebo or a control intervention with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions were included.

    Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently extracted the data. Risk of bias of trials was evaluated using the parameters of randomization, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. A meta-analysis was not performed given the quality of data and the variability of preparations of momordica charantia used in interventions (no similar preparation was tested twice).

    Main results: Three randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 350 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only one study was published as a full peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effect of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plants and placebo on the glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference compared to placebo. The effects of preparation from the leaves of the plant and glibenclamide were comparable in the third trial. No serious adverse effects were reported in all the trials. There were no documentations of death from any cause, morbidity, (health-related) quality of life and costs.

    Authors' conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to recommend momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are therefore required to address the issues of standardization and the quality control of preparations. For medical nutritional therapy, further observational trials evaluating the effects of momordica charantia are needed before RCTs are established to guide any recommendations in clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin/therapeutic use
  6. Aljaadi AM, How RE, Loh SP, Hunt SE, Karakochuk CD, Barr SI, et al.
    J Nutr, 2019 11 01;149(11):1952-1959.
    PMID: 31318024 DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxz151
    BACKGROUND: Riboflavin is required for several redox reactions. Clinical riboflavin deficiency occurs mainly in low-income countries, where it is associated with anemia. The functional significance of suboptimal riboflavin status in different populations and its role in anemia is not well understood.

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed the biomarker status of riboflavin and its association with hemoglobin concentration and anemia in women living in Vancouver, Canada, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHODS: Healthy nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding women (19-45 y) were recruited from Canada ( n = 206) and Malaysia (n = 210) via convenience sampling. Fasting blood was collected to assess riboflavin status [erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRac)], hematological indicators, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), ferritin, vitamin A, folate, and vitamin B-12 concentrations. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association of riboflavin status with hemoglobin concentration and anemia.

    RESULTS: EGRac (mean ± SD) values were higher, indicating poorer riboflavin status, in Malaysian compared with Canadian women (1.49 ± 0.17 compared with 1.38 ± 0.11). Likewise, riboflavin biomarker deficiency (EGRac ≥1.40) was significantly more prevalent among Malaysians than Canadians (71% compared with 40%). More Malaysian than Canadian women were anemic (hemoglobin <120 g/L; 18% compared with 7%). With use of linear regression (pooled sample; n = 416), EGRac values were negatively associated with hemoglobin concentration (r = -0.18; P riboflavin deficiency (EGRac ≥1.40) were twice as likely to present with anemia (adjusted OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.08, 5.27) compared with women with EGRac <1.40.

    CONCLUSIONS: Biochemical riboflavin deficiency was observed in Canadian and Malaysian women, with higher rates of deficiency among Malaysian women. Deficient biomarker status of riboflavin was a weak but significant predictor of hemoglobin and anemia, suggesting that the correction of riboflavin deficiency may potentially play a small protective role in anemia, but this requires further investigation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin; Riboflavin Deficiency
  7. Luan Eng LI, Ng T, Wan WP, Ganesan J
    Br J Haematol, 1975 Nov;31(3):337-42.
    PMID: 1201246
    A study of glutathione reductase (GR) activity and its stimulation by flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in erythrocytes of Malaysian newborns and adults of different racial groups showed that GR stimulation by FAD was greater than 20% in 50% of 866 newborns (57% of Malays, 55% of Indians and 41% of Chinese) and 54% of 274 adults (46% of Malays, 65% of Indians and 45% of Chinese). There was a significant negative correlation between GR activity and percentage FAD stimulation in both newborns and adults in all racial groups. Low GR activity and a high percentage FAD stimulation were more prevalent among parents of newborns with low GR activity than among parents of newborns with higher GR activity. Administration of riboflavin to mothers with low GR activity resulted in increased GR activity and a decreased percentage of FAD stimulation. None of the individuals examined had clear clinical manifestations of riboflavin deficiency. It is concluded that subclinical riboflavin deficiency leading to low GR activity is prevalent in Malaysia among adults and newborns, especially among Malays and Indians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin/therapeutic use
  8. Norazlina Hamzah, Faraizah Abd. Karim, Ahzad Hadi Ahmad, Narazah Mohd Yusoff
    MyJurnal
    Photochemical treatment is one of the pathogen inactivation method to treat plasma, part of a proactive approach used for blood and blood component safety. Three photochemical treatments that have been used were methylene blue, riboflavin and psoralen treatment. This study was done on Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) to evaluate the treatment effects of psoralen, methylene blue and riboflavin on coagulation factors level. Methods: FFP was collected from apheresis plasma units and kept at 22oC to 24oC. A sum of 90 apheresis plasma units and segments were used, separated from each bag and a part used as controls, placed in a -30oC freezer for storage, thawed, and coagulation proteins function was evaluated before and after treatment, at immediate, 30 days and 270 days storage. Results: Significant differences in fibrinogen and coagulation factor levels between before and after treatment with methylene blue, psoralen and riboflavin. However, most of the mean values in treated plasma were within reference ranges. Methylene blue treated FFP showed the lowest changes in fibrinogen and other coagulation factors level whilst riboflavin treated FFP demonstrated the highest changes in coagulation proteins concentrations especially for fibrinogen, FV, FVIII, FIX and FXII. However, FXIII showed the best recovery for all three photochemical methods with reduction level of 3% to 8% compared to pre-treatment. Storage time comparison of immediate, 30 days and 270 days was inconclusive. Conclusion: The coagulation proteins in psoralen treated FFP and MB-FFP were adequately preserved, where MB-FFP showed better preservation than other two photochemical treatments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin
  9. Fu C, Deng S, Koneski I, Awad MM, Akram Z, Matinlinna J, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2020 12;112:104082.
    PMID: 32979607 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.104082
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of blue light photoactivated riboflavin modified universal adhesives on dentin collagen biodegradation resistance, dentin apparent elastic modulus, and resin-dentin bond strength with interfacial morphology.

    METHODS: Dentin slabs were treated with 0.1% riboflavin-5-phosphate modified (powder added slowly while shaking and then sonicated to enhance the dispersion process) Universal Adhesive Scotch Bond and Zipbond™ along with control (non-modified) and experimental adhesives, photoactivated with blue light for 20s. Hydroxyproline (HYP) release was assessed after 1-week storage. Elastic-modulus testing was evaluated using universal testing machine at 24 h. Resin-dentin interfacial morphology was assessed with scanning electron-microscope, after 6-month storage. 0.1% rhodamine dye was added into each adhesive and analyzed using CLSM. Detection of free amino groups was carried out using ninhydrin and considered directly proportional to optical absorbance. Collagen molecular confirmation was determined using spectropolarimeter to evaluate and assess CD spectra. For molecular docking studies with riboflavin (PDB ID file), the binding pocket was selected with larger SiteScore and DScore using Schrodinger PB software. After curing, Raman shifts in Amide regions were obtained at 8 μm levels. Data were analyzed using Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05) and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post hoc tests.

    RESULTS: At baseline, bond strength reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in control specimens. However, at 6 months' storage, UVA Zipbond™ had significantly higher μTBS. Resin was able to diffuse through the porous demineralized dentin creating adequate hybrid layers in both 0.1%RF modified adhesives in CLSM images. In riboflavin groups, hybrid layer and resin tags were more pronounced. The circular dichroism spectrum showed negative peaks for riboflavin adhesive specimens. Best fitted poses adopted by riboflavin compound are docked with MMP-2 and -9 proteases. Amide bands and CH2 peaks followed the trend of being lowest for control UA Scotch bond adhesive specimens and increasing in Amides, proline, and CH2 intensities in 0.1%RF modified adhesive specimens. All 0.1%RF application groups showed statistically significant (p riboflavin application was significantly (p riboflavin modified adhesives improved the biochemical and biomechanical properties of demineralized dentin as well as the long-term resin-dentin interfacial integrity and bond strength of universal adhesive to dentin.

    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin
  10. Malays J Nutr, 1997;3(2):-.
    MyJurnal
    An assessment of the daily intake of major nutrients among 409 adults (males and females aged between 18-60 years, normal body mass index) residing in four regions in Malaysia was carried out as part of a major study on energy requirement. Subjects from both urban and rural areas completed a 3-day food record during the study. Mean energy intake among the men and women were 9.05 ± 2.21 MJ/day (2163 kcal/day) and 7.19 ± 1.60 MJ/day (1718 kcal/day) respectively, corresponding to 90% of the Malaysian RDA. A mean of 14% of the total energy was derived from protein, 23% from fat and 63% from carbohydrate. Energy intake amongst male subjects in the rural area (8.47 MJ/day, 2024 kcal) was significantly lower than their urban counterparts (9.52 MJ/day, 2275 kcal). There was no difference in mean energy intake in both the urban (7. 19 MJ/day, 1718 kcal) as well as rural women (7.16 MJ/day, 1711 kcal) corresponding to 86% of the RDA. The distribution of nutrients to the total energy intake amongst rural subjects were 13% for protein in both males and females, 65% for carbohydrate in males and 66% in females and 19% for fat in males and 21% for females. In the urban male and female subjects, the distribution of protein, carbohydrate and fat to the total energy intake were 14%, 55% and 29% and 30% respectively. The rural subjects showed a poorer mean intake of vitamins and minerals compared to the urban subjects. The diets of the male subjects in the rural area were deficient, less than two-third RDA in calcium, riboflavin and niacin. Calcium and iron intakes were less than two-third RDA in both the rural as well as the urban women. The rural women also had a poor intake of vitamin A and niacin. Overall, only protein and vitamin C intake met the RDA in most subjects from rural and urban areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin
  11. Kandiah N, Boo LJ
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Jun;31(4):270-6.
    PMID: 412038
    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin Deficiency/epidemiology
  12. Kato T, Azegami J, Yokomori A, Dohra H, El Enshasy HA, Park EY
    BMC Genomics, 2020 Apr 23;21(1):319.
    PMID: 32326906 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-020-6709-7
    BACKGROUND: Ashbya gossypii naturally overproduces riboflavin and has been utilized for industrial riboflavin production. To improve riboflavin production, various approaches have been developed. In this study, to investigate the change in metabolism of a riboflavin-overproducing mutant, namely, the W122032 strain (MT strain) that was isolated by disparity mutagenesis, genomic analysis was carried out.

    RESULTS: In the genomic analysis, 33 homozygous and 1377 heterozygous mutations in the coding sequences of the genome of MT strain were detected. Among these heterozygous mutations, the proportion of mutated reads in each gene was different, ranging from 21 to 75%. These results suggest that the MT strain may contain multiple nuclei containing different mutations. We tried to isolate haploid spores from the MT strain to prove its ploidy, but this strain did not sporulate under the conditions tested. Heterozygous mutations detected in genes which are important for sporulation likely contribute to the sporulation deficiency of the MT strain. Homozygous and heterozygous mutations were found in genes encoding enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, purine and pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism and the DNA mismatch repair system. One homozygous mutation in AgILV2 gene encoding acetohydroxyacid synthase, which is also a flavoprotein in mitochondria, was found. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed heterozygous mutations in all 22 DNA helicase genes and genes involved in oxidation-reduction process.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that oxidative stress and the aging of cells were involved in the riboflavin over-production in A. gossypii riboflavin over-producing mutant and provides new insights into riboflavin production in A. gossypii and the usefulness of disparity mutagenesis for the creation of new types of mutants for metabolic engineering.

    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin/metabolism*
  13. Noman AE, Al-Barha NS, Sharaf AM, Al-Maqtari QA, Mohedein A, Mohammed HHH, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 08 11;10(1):13527.
    PMID: 32782276 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-70404-4
    A novel bacterial strain of acetic acid bacteria capable of producing riboflavin was isolated from the soil sample collected in Wuhan, China. The isolated strain was identified as Gluconobacter oxydans FBFS97 based on several phenotype characteristics, biochemicals tests, and 16S rRNA gene sequence conducted. Furthermore, the complete genome sequencing of the isolated strain has showed that it contains a complete operon for the biosynthesis of riboflavin. In order to obtain the maximum concentration of riboflavin production, Gluconobacter oxydans FBFS97 was optimized in shake flask cultures through response surface methodology employing Plackett-Burman design (PBD), and Central composite design (CCD). The results of the pre-experiments displayed that fructose and tryptone were found to be the most suitable sources of carbon and nitrogen for riboflavin production. Then, PBD was conducted for initial screening of eleven minerals (FeSO4, FeCl3, KH2PO4, K2HPO4, MgSO4, ZnSO4, NaCl, CaCl2, KCl, ZnCl2, and AlCl3.6H2O) for their significances on riboflavin production by Gluconobacter oxydans strain FBFS97. The most significant variables affecting on riboflavin production are K2HPO4 and CaCl2, the interaction affects and levels of these variables were optimized by CCD. After optimization of the medium compositions for riboflavin production were determined as follows: fructose 25 g/L, tryptone 12.5 g/L, K2HPO4 9 g/L, and CaCl2 0.06 g/L with maximum riboflavin production 23.24 mg/L.
    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin/metabolism*
  14. Freisling H, Pisa PT, Ferrari P, Byrnes G, Moskal A, Dahm CC, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Sep;55(6):2093-104.
    PMID: 26303194 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-1023-x
    PURPOSE: Various food patterns have been associated with weight change in adults, but it is unknown which combinations of nutrients may account for such observations. We investigated associations between main nutrient patterns and prospective weight change in adults.

    METHODS: This study includes 235,880 participants, 25-70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires using the harmonized EPIC Nutrient DataBase. Four nutrient patterns, explaining 67 % of the total variance of nutrient intakes, were previously identified from principal component analysis. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The relationship between nutrient patterns and annual weight change was examined separately for men and women using linear mixed models with random effect according to center controlling for confounders.

    RESULTS: Mean weight gain was 460 g/year (SD 950) and 420 g/year (SD 940) for men and women, respectively. The annual differences in weight gain per one SD increase in the pattern scores were as follows: principal component (PC) 1, characterized by nutrients from plant food sources, was inversely associated with weight gain in men (-22 g/year; 95 % CI -33 to -10) and women (-18 g/year; 95 % CI -26 to -11). In contrast, PC4, characterized by protein, vitamin B2, phosphorus, and calcium, was associated with a weight gain of +41 g/year (95 % CI +2 to +80) and +88 g/year (95 % CI +36 to +140) in men and women, respectively. Associations with PC2, a pattern driven by many micro-nutrients, and with PC3, a pattern driven by vitamin D, were less consistent and/or non-significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: We identified two main nutrient patterns that are associated with moderate but significant long-term differences in weight gain in adults.

    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin/administration & dosage
  15. Aroyehun AQ, Palaniveloo K, Ghazali F, Rizman-Idid M, Abdul Razak S
    Molecules, 2019 Sep 10;24(18).
    PMID: 31510066 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24183298
    This study evaluated the effect of seasonal variation on the physicochemical, biochemical, and nutritional composition of Gracilaria manilaensis. Sampling was designed during the main monsoon seasons in Malaysia-the Southwest monsoon (SWM) and Northeast monsoon (NEM)-to understand the intraspecific variation (p < 0.05). Carbohydrates, protein, and dietary fiber were found to be higher in NEM-G. manilaensis, whereas a higher ash content was quantified in SWM-G. manilaensis. No significant differences were found in crude lipid and moisture content (p > 0.05). Vitamin B2 was calculated as (0.29 ± 0.06 mg 100 g-1) and (0.38 ± 0.06 mg 100 g-1) for the NEM and SWM samples, respectively (p < 0.05). The fatty acid profile showed the dominance of saturated fatty acids (SFAs)-palmitic acids, stearic acid, and myristic acid-while the mineral contents were found to be good sources of calcium (1750.97-4047.74 mg 100 g-1) and iron (1512.55-1346.05 mg 100 g-1). Tryptophan and lysine were recorded as the limiting essential amino acids (EAAs) in NEM G. manilaensis, while leucine and phenylalanine were found to be the limiting EAAs in the SWM samples. None of the extracts exhibited antibacterial properties against the screened strains. The study concluded that seasonal changes have a great effect on the biochemical composition of G. manilaensis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin
  16. Nik Nur Izzati Nik Mohd Fakhruddin, Suzana Shahar, Nurul Atiqah Abd Aziz, Roslee Rajikan, Hanis Mastura Yahya
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1381-1391.
    Older adults quite often had an inadequate diet leading to micronutrient deficiencies and impaired immune response with subsequent development of degenerative diseases. This study aimed to determine the adequacy of energy and nutrient intake and its distribution among three aging groups i.e. successful aging (SA), usual aging (UA) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This is a cross-sectional study involving a large sample size (n = 2322) of older adults recruited through multistage random sampling from four states of Malaysia. An interview was conducted to measure dietary intake, neurocognitive status and functional status by using the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Rey Auditory Learning Test (RAVLT), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) and Quality of Life Questionnaire. For comparison of dietary intake, a sub-sample of 173 respondents from each aging groups were matched and selected using a comparative cross-sectional approach. Women in SA group had the highest mean intake of vitamin A, calcium (p <0.05), vitamin C, riboflavin and iron (p<0.001). The same aging group also achieved the highest RNI percentage for the same nutrients. More than 80% of respondents for all aging groups did not met the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, folate, calcium and zinc. In women, MCI respondents were more likely to have an inadequate intake of vitamin A, C, riboflavin and iron followed by UA and SA. Inadequate vitamin E, niacin, folate and calcium were prevalent among all gender and aging groups. There is a need to further distinguish specific dietary patterns associated with these three aging groups to promote optimal nutrient intake for cognitive health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin
  17. Wan Dali WPE, Jan Mohamed HJ, Yusoff H
    Iran J Public Health, 2018 Aug;47(8):1098-1107.
    PMID: 30186781
    Background: The study examined the baseline findings of a controlled intervention study comprising anthropometric measurements, nutrient intakes, and physical activity among overweight or obese children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Methods: The study was completed in 2016 and the baseline data were gathered from four groups in a school-based randomized community trial among Year Five students from primary schools in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Participants completed anthropometry assessment, three-day dietary record, and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C).

    Results: The prevalence of obesity was higher among the boys (52.5%). Mean energy intake was significantly higher among boys as compared to the girls (P=0.003). Twenty-five percent of the participants had exceeded the recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) of energy recommended. The calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin were also significantly higher among boys as compared to the girls (P<0.05). Boys also exhibited a significantly higher score on performance of physical activity (mean=2.68; SD=0.60) as compared to the girls (mean=2.38; SD=0.51) however it is still in the category of moderately active. Approximately 14.4% of children had a very low physical activity level.

    Conclusion: Overweight and obese boys had higher energy and fat intakes but were more physically active as compared to the girls. These findings might be useful in planning appropriate intervention strategies to be designed and delivered especially for this cohort.

    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin
  18. Koo HC, Abdul Jalil SN, Ruzita AT
    Malays J Med Sci, 2015;22(1):32-9.
    PMID: 25892948
    BACKGROUND: Studies from the West have demonstrated that ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) are a common form of breakfast and more likely to be consumed by children. This study aimed to investigate the breakfast eating pattern and RTECs consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur.
    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 382 schoolchildren, aged 10 and 11 years old, were recruited from seven randomly selected primary schools in Kuala Lumpur. Information on socio-demographics, breakfast eating patterns, and perceptions of RTECs and dietary intake (24-hour dietary recalls) were obtained.
    RESULTS: Among the respondents, only 22% of them consumed breakfast on a regular basis. The most commonly eaten food by children at breakfast was bread (27.2%), followed by biscuits (22.2%) and RTECs (20.5%). The majority of them (93%) reported that they consumed RTECs sometimes during the week. Chocolate RTECs (34.1%), corn flake RTECs (30.3%), and RTECs coated with honey (25.1%) were the most popular RTECs chosen by children. Respondents who consumed RTECs showed a significantly higher intake in calories, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, folate, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and fibre (P < 0.05), compared to those who skipped breakfast and those who had breakfast foods other than RTECs.
    CONCLUSION: The lower levels of breakfast consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur need serious attention. RTEC is a nutritious food which is well accepted by a majority of the schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur. Nutrition intervention should be conducted in the future to include a well-balanced breakfast with the utilisation of RTECs for schoolchildren.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; breakfast; calorie; cereals; children
    Matched MeSH terms: Riboflavin
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