Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 757 in total

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  1. Roslina Mohammad, Zamree Amin, Norazli Othman
    MyJurnal
    The aim of this paper is to identify, review and carry out comparison to seven guidelines where the main focus is on its risk
    assessment elements related to confined space activities. This is due to lack of the specific approach of the Legislation for confined
    space such as entry procedure requirements, risk assessment method, existing practice of risk assessment is too general and additional
    references are required for conducting risk assessment which would lead to poor response from industries. The selected guidelines will
    be summarized on its requirements, followed by a review of each guideline and finally the comparison of Legislations will be carried
    out. The results from the study would be used as a contribution factor to promote an ideal method in developing an effective risk
    assessment tools for working safely in confined space. Furthermore, several literatures which have been referred could give additional
    input for developing the risk assessment tools.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  2. Hussein N, Henneman L, Kai J, Qureshi N
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2021 10 11;10:CD010849.
    PMID: 34634131 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010849.pub4
    BACKGROUND: Globally, about 6% of children are born with a serious birth defect of genetic or partially genetic origin. Carrier screening or testing is one way to identify couples at increased risk of having a child with an autosomal recessive condition. The most common autosomal recessive conditions are thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease, with higher carrier rates in high-risk populations of specific ancestral backgrounds. Identifying and counselling couples at genetic risk of the conditions before pregnancy enables them to make fully informed reproductive decisions, with some of these choices not being available if testing is only offered in an antenatal setting. This is an update of a previously published review.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment to enable autonomous reproductive choice and to improve reproductive outcomes  in women and their partners who are both identified as carriers of thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease in healthcare settings when compared to usual care.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Registers. Date of latest search of the registers: 04 August 2021. In addition, we searched for all relevant trials from 1970 (or the date at which the database was first available if after 1970) to date using electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO), clinical trial databases (National Institutes of Health, Clinical Trials Search portal of the World Health Organization, metaRegister of controlled clinical trials), and hand searching of key journals and conference abstract books from 1998 to date (European Journal of Human Genetics, Genetics in Medicine, Journal of Community Genetics). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, reviews and guidelines and also contacted subject experts in the field to request any unpublished or other published trials. Date of latest search of all these sources: 25 June 2021.  SELECTION CRITERIA: Any randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs (published or unpublished) comparing reproductive outcomes of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease when compared to usual care.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We identified 37 papers, describing 22 unique trials which were potentially eligible for inclusion in the review. However, after assessment, we found no RCTs of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease.

    MAIN RESULTS: No RCTs of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease are included. A trial identified earlier has published its results and has subsequently been listed as excluded in this review.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: As there are no RCTs of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, or Tay-Sachs disease included in either the earlier or current versions of this review, we recommend considering potential non-RCTs studies (for example prospective cohorts or before-and-after studies) for future reviews. While RCTs are desirable to inform evidence-based practice and robust recommendations, the ethical, legal and social implications associated with using this trial design to evaluate the implementation of preconception genetic risk assessment involving carrier testing and reproductive autonomy must also be considered.  In addition, rather than focusing on single gene-by-gene carrier testing for specific autosomal-recessive conditions as the intervention being evaluated, preconception expanded genetic screening should also be included in future searches as this has received much attention in recent years as a more pragmatic strategy. The research evidence for current international policy recommendations is limited to non-randomised studies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  3. Karupaiah T, Tan HK, Ong WW, Tan CH, Sundram K
    PMID: 24872121 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2014.929183
    The extent of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply is unknown in Malaysia, whilst TFA disclosure on food labels is not mandatory by Malaysian food standards. Supermarket foods such as dairy products, fats and oils, meat products, snack foods, soups, and confectionery are commonly cited to be major contributors of TFA in the diet. A consumer survey (n = 622) was used to develop a food listing of these 'high risk' foods. TFA content of high-risk foods were analysed by gas chromatography. Food samples (n = 158) were analysed and their total TFA content were compared with Malaysian Food Standards. A wide variation in TFA content within food categories was indicated. Of the foods containing TFA, many food labels did not cite TFA content or the use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) as an ingredient. Hypothesised estimates of TFA intake from these supermarket foods in a sample day's menu providing 2000 kcal projected a minimum intake of 0.5 g and a maximum intake of 5.2 g TFA. This study found there was no voluntary disclosure of TFA content on food labels or identifying PHVO as an ingredient. It appears that health education targeting consumers to minimise TFA consumption is required supported by mandatory PHVO disclosure on the food label.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment*
  4. Sany SB, Hashim R, Rezayi M, Rahman MA, Razavizadeh BB, Abouzari-lotf E, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Aug;22(15):11193-208.
    PMID: 25953606 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-4511-x
    Current ecological risk assessment (ERA) schemes focus mainly on bioaccumulation and toxicity of pollutants in individual organisms. Ecological models are tools mainly used to assess ecological risks of pollutants to ecosystems, communities, and populations. Their main advantage is the relatively direct integration of the species sensitivity to organic pollutants, the fate and mechanism of action in the environment of toxicants, and life-history features of the individual organism of concern. To promote scientific consensus on ERA schemes, this review is intended to provide a guideline on short-term ERA involving dioxin chemicals and to identify key findings for exposure assessment based on policies of different agencies. It also presents possible adverse effects of dioxins on ecosystems, toxicity equivalence methodology, environmental fate and transport modeling, and development of stressor-response profiles for dioxin-like chemicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment/methods*
  5. Buurman J, Zhang S, Babovic V
    Risk Anal., 2009 Mar;29(3):366-79.
    PMID: 19076327 DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2008.01160.x
    Complex engineering systems are usually designed to last for many years. Such systems will face many uncertainties in the future. Hence the design and deployment of these systems should not be based on a single scenario, but should incorporate flexibility. Flexibility can be incorporated in system architectures in the form of options that can be exercised in the future when new information is available. Incorporating flexibility comes, however, at a cost. To evaluate if this cost is worth the investment a real options analysis can be carried out. This approach is demonstrated through analysis of a case study of a previously developed static system-of-systems for maritime domain protection in the Straits of Malacca. This article presents a framework for dynamic strategic planning of engineering systems using real options analysis and demonstrates that flexibility adds considerable value over a static design. In addition to this it is shown that Monte Carlo analysis and genetic algorithms can be successfully combined to find solutions in a case with a very large number of possible futures and system designs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  6. Abdelhaq M, Alsaqour R, Abdelhaq S
    PLoS One, 2015;10(5):e0120715.
    PMID: 25946001 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120715
    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  7. Norhidayah Mat Sout, Muhamad Arifpin Mansor, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail
    MyJurnal
    Ergonomics can be viewed as an approach to reduce injury and illness rates to improve the overall working
    conditions for employees by addressing risk factor exposure that may occur during manual tasks. The objective
    of this research was to analyze ergonomics risk factors by associating the perception of employer and employees
    towards their workplace condition in quarry and mining industry. A Questionnaire on Ergonomics Risk Assessment
    was used to determine the comparison level awareness and perception analysis among quarry and mining industry in
    Malaysia. The findings of this research prove that the exposure of ergonomics risk factors towards the workers is in
    a moderate level with a mean of 3.59 for the overall respondent review about the ergonomics risk among workers at
    their workplace. Besides, the most concern in ergonomics is about the awkward posture at work. Some 8.8% of them
    agreed and 6.6% of them totally agreed that they were in awkward posture while doing their work. As a conclusion,
    assessment of ergonomics in quarry and mining industry will be a platform to provide a safe and healthy working
    environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  8. Hassan, S.H., John Kua, S.B., Harun, H.
    MyJurnal
    The attention on genetically modified (GM) food industry is increasing due to the flourishing
    of biotechnology. However, there are some debates on the associated benefits and risks of
    employing modification technology in food industry. This study strives to examine the causes
    that determine consumers’ benefit and risk perceptions on GM foods. Besides, the influence of
    perceived benefit and risk of GM food on consumers’ attitude is investigated. The empirical
    results of this study showed that GM food knowledge, and GM food characteristics have been
    acting as important predictors of both benefits and risks perceptions. Further, it is also found
    that perceived benefits showed significant positive influence on attitude, and attitude affects
    purchase intention towards GM food. Research implications to policy makers, scientists, and
    market practitioners are covered, in which suggestions and recommendations are provided
    to these parties. Lastly, research implications and recommendations to future research are
    discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  9. Aliff, Farhan Bustani M., Siti Aslina Hussain
    MyJurnal
    Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) nowadays is an established risk assessment method used worldwide for the evaluation of risks on onshore plant and offshore facilities which associated with the major hazard installations. However, there are still many issues on QRA used. These include lack of consistency, complexity of the overall model structure, incorporation of new data, methodology and model analysis. Common problem observed for the onshore QRA methodology is conservatism of fire and explosion consequence results using DNV PhastRisk 6.7 software which is mainly contributed from the high release rate due to loss of containment. This paper presents an alternative way to predict the actual release rate for fire and explosion modelling which called limiting flowrate technique. This method has been applied for calculating risk in Onshore Gas Terminal (OGT) Plant. Adopting the limiting flowrate technique has provide more precise model towards real scenarios. Challenges facing during this research such as using the unmodified United Kingdom (UK) HSE hydrocarbon release database without integrate with the actual failure frequencies from the plant, the risk results tend to be much higher than actual experience. It should be noted that the development of improved onshore risk model has been used as an example for this research but many of the issues are equally applicable to offshore studies as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  10. Noor Adilah Hamzah, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Nor Kamilah Makhtar, Khairul Azhar Mat Daud, Norhidayah Mat Sout
    MyJurnal
    Today, more accidents reported in school, resulting not only minor injuries but also severe injuries such as fire in schools, mercury spills and falling from high places. The study was aimed at measuring the level of occupational safety and health practices in schools. The study was conducted at 205 schools in Kelantan, Malaysia. This study is a semi-quantitative study using observation method. Data collection is conducted based on Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC) Guidelines provided by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Malaysia. Hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control are determined using the HIRARC form. The findings were measured by determining the discrete data according to the number of low, medium and high-risk levels found. The study found that there were two dominant hazards namely physical hazard and ergonomic hazard. Therefore, the management should increase and improve classroom safety awareness to ensure safety and health of all occupants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  11. Grondys K, Ślusarczyk O, Hussain HI, Androniceanu A
    PMID: 33920916 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18084183
    The subject matter of the article relates to the assessment of the perception of selected types of risk in economic activities of the SME sector, which change their intensity as a result of the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The current economic downturn is unprecedented and involves many companies and industries that have faced new, previously unknown challenges and threats. The objective of the article is to identify the most important risks and their resources based on the empirical research carried out in small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. The formulated objective was accomplished using the data collection method, i.e., the survey and reports on the condition of the SME sector in Poland as well as statistical data analysis methods, i.e., structure index and the analysis of variance, using the SPSS system. The process of primary data collection was carried out by means of an electronic survey among selected enterprises of the SME sector, conducting business activities in Poland. In the study, the employment factor was taken into account as a determinant of the perception and assessment of the intensity of selected risks arising from the economic activity in the Polish market in the conditions of the current economic downturn. On the basis of the obtained results, the impact of market, economic, financial and operational risks, depending on their intensity, on the functioning of micro-, small and medium-sized enterprises was identified. Based on the analysis of variance, the effect of the size of the company on the level of individual risks was also examined. As a result of the observations made, it was established that, during the pandemic, the level and type of risk is similar in all the surveyed enterprises. They are most often threatened by strong competition in the industry, an increase in energy prices and insufficient profit. The overall results of the empirical research indicate the importance and the need to manage the key threats to the Polish SME sector.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  12. Yusof AAM, Harun MN, Nasruddin FA, Syahrom A
    Int J Sports Med, 2020 Aug 25.
    PMID: 32842154 DOI: 10.1055/a-1231-5268
    According to numerous studies, rowing performance is influenced by several factors including rower's biomechanics, rower's physiology, the force generated and stroke style. However, there is a missing gap linking such factors with rowing performance in the available literature. This paper aims to investigate the rowing mechanism in terms of rower anthropometry and physiology, which can impact its biomechanics and performance. The corresponding hydrodynamic force generated by the oar blade to accelerate the boat is also considered in the current study. To test the objectives, systematical online searching was conducted in search of the inclusion literature criteria. All included studies used Preferred Reporting item for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to obtain the final collection of articles for this review. In order to rate the quality of the articles, risk bias assessment was performed. A total of 35 studies were included in the assessment. The studies discussed the aspects of anthropometry and physiological of the rower, the biomechanics of the rower, corresponding hydrodynamic force on the oar blade and the rowing mechanism concerning boat performance. Based on the information obtained, an understanding of the important aspects of the rowing mechanism was achieved to provide an update for comprehensive improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  13. Jeevanandam J, Barhoum A, Chan YS, Dufresne A, Danquah MK
    Beilstein J Nanotechnol, 2018;9:1050-1074.
    PMID: 29719757 DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.9.98
    Nanomaterials (NMs) have gained prominence in technological advancements due to their tunable physical, chemical and biological properties with enhanced performance over their bulk counterparts. NMs are categorized depending on their size, composition, shape, and origin. The ability to predict the unique properties of NMs increases the value of each classification. Due to increased growth of production of NMs and their industrial applications, issues relating to toxicity are inevitable. The aim of this review is to compare synthetic (engineered) and naturally occurring nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructured materials (NSMs) to identify their nanoscale properties and to define the specific knowledge gaps related to the risk assessment of NPs and NSMs in the environment. The review presents an overview of the history and classifications of NMs and gives an overview of the various sources of NPs and NSMs, from natural to synthetic, and their toxic effects towards mammalian cells and tissue. Additionally, the types of toxic reactions associated with NPs and NSMs and the regulations implemented by different countries to reduce the associated risks are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  14. Raslan R, Hassim MH, Chemmangattuvalappil NG, Ng DKS, Ten JY
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2020 Oct;116:104753.
    PMID: 32745583 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2020.104753
    Consumers are commonly exposed to numerous chemical ingredients found in various formulated products especially household and personal care products. Therefore, identification of hazardous ingredients contained in those products should be performed at the early stages of product design to reduce the high cost of redesigning the products at the final stage. Thus, a systematic safety and health risk assessment methodology is required for the product formulation design. In this work, a two-step index-based methodology is presented to estimate the severity of the hazards and the magnitude of risks. In Tier 1 assessment, potential hazards of the ingredients were identified by following the Product Ingredient Safety Index (PISI). The basic toxicology information of ingredients was required for this assessment. In Tier 2 assessment, the extent of risks of the ingredients via dermal and inhalation exposure routes were evaluated. At this stage, the concentration of ingredients and the amount of exposure were considered. The value of Margin of Exposure (MOE) was used as an indicator in the development of Product Ingredient Exposure Index (PIEI). To demonstrate the proposed methodology, a case study on the evaluation of potential hazards and the risks from ingredients used in personal care product formulations were performed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  15. Zhang H, Liu S, Wu K, Cui J, Zhu A, Zhang Y, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2021 Jul;168:112433.
    PMID: 33962084 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112433
    The heavy metal contents (Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As) of 88 surface sediment samples from the western Sunda Shelf were analyzed to determine their spatial distribution patterns and contamination status. The results demonstrated that high enrichment regions of heavy metals were focused in the Kelantan, Pahang, and Ambat river estuaries, and deep water regions of the study area. These high enrichment regions were mainly controlled by riverine inputs and their hydrodynamic conditions. The enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were used to assess heavy metal accumulation. The results indicated that the study area was not significantly contaminated overall at the time of the study; however, Cd, As, and Hg were at levels corresponding to moderate contamination at many stations located in the Pahang River estuary, Kelantan River estuary, and north-eastern region of the study area, primarily because of anthropogenic activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  16. Khan MI, Mubashir M, Zaini D, Mahnashi MH, Alyami BA, Alqarni AO, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2021 08 05;415:125364.
    PMID: 33740721 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125364
    In the present research work, a comprehensive tool for cumulative ecotoxicological impact assessment of ionic liquids (ILs) to aquatic life has been constructed. Using the probabilistic tool, impact of individual ILs to a group of aquatic species is assessed by chemical toxicity distributions (CTDs). The impact of group of ILs to individual aquatic species is assessed by species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). Acute toxicity data of imidazolium ILs with chloride (Cl-), bromide (Br-), tetrafluoroborate (BF4-), and hexafluorophosphate (PF6-) anions are used in CTD and SSD. Allowable concentrations for a group of Imidazolium ILs with the same mode of action (SMOA) to five aquatic species; Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri, Algae, Zebrafish, and Escherichia coli are estimated by CTDs. It has been concluded that 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) possess the lowest risk at an acceptable risk value of 750 × 10-5 mmol/L which is 12% less than that of OMIMCl. Furthermore, the sensitivities towards the aquatic species reveal that from the studied ILs, BMIMBF4 with an acceptable risk value of 3200 × 10-5 mmol/L is the most suitable IL towards the selected aquatic species. Hence, current work provides cumulative allowable concentrations and acceptable risk values for ILs which release to aquatic compartment of ecosystem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  17. Yunus MNH, Jaafar MH, Mohamed ASA, Azraai NZ, Hossain MS
    PMID: 34444087 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18168342
    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are among the most common disorders in any work sector and industry. Ergonomic risk assessment can reduce the risk of WMSDs. Motion capture that can provide accurate and real-time quantitative data has been widely used as a tool for ergonomic risk assessment. However, most ergonomic risk assessments that use motion capture still depend on the traditional ergonomic risk assessment method, focusing on qualitative data. Therefore, this article aims to provide a view on the ergonomic risk assessment and apply current motion capture technology to understand classical mechanics of physics that include velocity, acceleration, force, and momentum in ergonomic risk assessment. This review suggests that using motion capture technologies with kinetic and kinematic variables, such as velocity, acceleration, and force, can help avoid inconsistency and develop more reliable results in ergonomic risk assessment. Most studies related to the physical measurement conducted with motion capture prefer to use non-optical motion capture because it is a low-cost system and simple experimental setup. However, the present review reveals that optical motion capture can provide more accurate data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  18. Alsubih M, El Morabet R, Khan RA, Khan NA, Ul Haq Khan M, Ahmed S, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Nov;28(44):63017-63031.
    PMID: 34218378 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-15062-3
    Groundwater is a primary natural water source in the absence of surface water bodies. Groundwater in urban environments experiences unprecedented stress from urban growth, population increase, and industrial activities. This study assessed groundwater quality in terms of arsenic and heavy metal contamination in three industrial areas (Shahdara, Jhilmil, and Patparganj), Delhi, India. The water quality was assessed over a 3-year time interval (i.e., 2015 and 2018). The groundwater constituents investigated were As, Fe, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Pb. Metal index and heavy metal pollution indexes were estimated to assess groundwater pollution. The health risk was evaluated in terms of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk assessment. Patparganj industrial area saw increment in concentration for Cu 0.23 mg/L (2015)-0.85 mg/L (2018), Zn 0.51 mg/L (2015)-7.2 mg/L (2018), Fe 0.32 mg/L (2015)-0.9 mg/L (2018), Cr 0.21 mg/L (2015)-0.26 mg/L (2018), Mn 0.14 mg/L (2015)-0.25 mg/L (2018), Ni 0.04 mg/L (2015)-0.34 mg/L (2018), and As 0.01 mg/L (2015)-0.18 mg/L (2018). Cd and Pb concentrations were observed to decrease by 40-90 % and 85-99% for all the three industrial areas. Metal index and heavy metal index values were found to be >1 for all locations. The risk quotient value > 1 was observed for all locations in the year 2015 but was found to increase further to a range of RQ 10-62 in the year 2018, inferring increased non-carcinogenic risk to consumers. The carcinogenic risk was significant with respect to Fe (0.2-0.7), Zn (0.001-0.007), and As (0.002-0.003) for all locations in the year 2015. This study concludes that groundwater in the three industrial areas is highly polluted and is not fit for human consumption. Further studies are required to explore possible control measures and develop methods to mitigate groundwater pollution, sustainable management, and optimized use to conserve it for future generations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  19. Liu YW, Li JK, Xia J, Hao GR, Teo FY
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Dec;28(45):64322-64336.
    PMID: 34304355 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-15603-w
    Non-point source (NPS) pollution has become a vital contaminant source affecting the water environment because of its wide distribution, hydrodynamic complexity, and difficulty in prevention and control. In this study, the identification and evaluation of NPS pollution risk based on landscape pattern were carried out in the Hanjiang River basin above Ankang hydrological section, Shaanxi province, China. Landscape distribution information was obtained through land use data, analyzing the contribution of "source-sink" landscape to NPS pollution through the location-weighted landscape contrast index. Using the NPS pollution risk index to identify and evaluate the regional NPS pollution risk considering the slope, cost distance, soil erosion, and precipitation erosion affect migration of pollutants. The results showed that (i) the pollution risk was generally high in the whole watershed, and the sub-watersheds dominated by "source" landscapes account for 74.61% of the whole basin; (ii) the high-risk areas were distributed in the central, eastern, and western regions of the river basin; the extremely high-risk areas accounted for 12.7% of the whole watershed; and the southern and northern regions were dominated by forestland and grassland with little pollution risk; (iii) "source" landscapes were mostly distributed in areas close to the river course, which had a great impact on environment, and the landscape pattern units near the water body needed to be further adjusted to reduce the influence of NPS pollution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  20. Anandkumar A, Nagarajan R, Sellappa Gounder E, Prabakaran K
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;287(Pt 1):132069.
    PMID: 34523457 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132069
    Miri city has a dynamic coastal environment, mainly influenced by intensive sedimentation from the Baram River and excessive trace metal loading by the Miri River, which are significant environmental concerns. As the mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of the trace metals in the sediments are largely controlled by their particulate speciation, the modified BCR sequential extraction protocol was applied to determine the particulate speciation of trace metals in the coastal sediments of Miri, to unravel the seasonal geochemical processes responsible for known observations, and to identify possible sources of these trace metals. The granulometric analysis results showed that littoral currents aided by the monsoonal winds have influenced the grain size distribution of the sediments, enabling us to divide the study area into north-east and south-west segments where the geochemical composition are distinct. The Cu (>84%) and Zn (82%) concentrations are predominantly associated with the exchangeable fraction, which is readily bioavailable. Pb and Cd are dominant in non-residual fractions and other metals viz., Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, and Cr are dominant in the residual fraction. Using Pearson's correlation and factor analysis, the major mechanisms controlling the chemistry of the sediments are identified as association of Cu and Zn with fine fraction sediments, sulphide oxidation in the SW segment of the study area, atmospheric fallout of Pb and Cd in the river basins, precipitation of dissolved Fe and Mn supplied from the rivers and remobilization of Mn from the coastal sediments. Based on various pollution indices, it is inferred that the coastal sediments of NW Borneo are contaminated with Cu and Zn, and are largely bioavailable, which can be a threat to the local aquatic organisms, coral reefs, and coastal mangroves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
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