Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 571 in total

  1. Jeevanandam J, Barhoum A, Chan YS, Dufresne A, Danquah MK
    Beilstein J Nanotechnol, 2018;9:1050-1074.
    PMID: 29719757 DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.9.98
    Nanomaterials (NMs) have gained prominence in technological advancements due to their tunable physical, chemical and biological properties with enhanced performance over their bulk counterparts. NMs are categorized depending on their size, composition, shape, and origin. The ability to predict the unique properties of NMs increases the value of each classification. Due to increased growth of production of NMs and their industrial applications, issues relating to toxicity are inevitable. The aim of this review is to compare synthetic (engineered) and naturally occurring nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructured materials (NSMs) to identify their nanoscale properties and to define the specific knowledge gaps related to the risk assessment of NPs and NSMs in the environment. The review presents an overview of the history and classifications of NMs and gives an overview of the various sources of NPs and NSMs, from natural to synthetic, and their toxic effects towards mammalian cells and tissue. Additionally, the types of toxic reactions associated with NPs and NSMs and the regulations implemented by different countries to reduce the associated risks are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  2. Roslina Mohammad, Zamree Amin, Norazli Othman
    The aim of this paper is to identify, review and carry out comparison to seven guidelines where the main focus is on its risk
    assessment elements related to confined space activities. This is due to lack of the specific approach of the Legislation for confined
    space such as entry procedure requirements, risk assessment method, existing practice of risk assessment is too general and additional
    references are required for conducting risk assessment which would lead to poor response from industries. The selected guidelines will
    be summarized on its requirements, followed by a review of each guideline and finally the comparison of Legislations will be carried
    out. The results from the study would be used as a contribution factor to promote an ideal method in developing an effective risk
    assessment tools for working safely in confined space. Furthermore, several literatures which have been referred could give additional
    input for developing the risk assessment tools.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  3. Karupaiah T, Tan HK, Ong WW, Tan CH, Sundram K
    PMID: 24872121 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2014.929183
    The extent of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply is unknown in Malaysia, whilst TFA disclosure on food labels is not mandatory by Malaysian food standards. Supermarket foods such as dairy products, fats and oils, meat products, snack foods, soups, and confectionery are commonly cited to be major contributors of TFA in the diet. A consumer survey (n = 622) was used to develop a food listing of these 'high risk' foods. TFA content of high-risk foods were analysed by gas chromatography. Food samples (n = 158) were analysed and their total TFA content were compared with Malaysian Food Standards. A wide variation in TFA content within food categories was indicated. Of the foods containing TFA, many food labels did not cite TFA content or the use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) as an ingredient. Hypothesised estimates of TFA intake from these supermarket foods in a sample day's menu providing 2000 kcal projected a minimum intake of 0.5 g and a maximum intake of 5.2 g TFA. This study found there was no voluntary disclosure of TFA content on food labels or identifying PHVO as an ingredient. It appears that health education targeting consumers to minimise TFA consumption is required supported by mandatory PHVO disclosure on the food label.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment*
  4. Sany SB, Hashim R, Rezayi M, Rahman MA, Razavizadeh BB, Abouzari-lotf E, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Aug;22(15):11193-208.
    PMID: 25953606 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-4511-x
    Current ecological risk assessment (ERA) schemes focus mainly on bioaccumulation and toxicity of pollutants in individual organisms. Ecological models are tools mainly used to assess ecological risks of pollutants to ecosystems, communities, and populations. Their main advantage is the relatively direct integration of the species sensitivity to organic pollutants, the fate and mechanism of action in the environment of toxicants, and life-history features of the individual organism of concern. To promote scientific consensus on ERA schemes, this review is intended to provide a guideline on short-term ERA involving dioxin chemicals and to identify key findings for exposure assessment based on policies of different agencies. It also presents possible adverse effects of dioxins on ecosystems, toxicity equivalence methodology, environmental fate and transport modeling, and development of stressor-response profiles for dioxin-like chemicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment/methods*
  5. Saleem F, Hassali M, Shafie A, Atif M
    J Young Pharm, 2012 Apr;4(2):101-7.
    PMID: 22754262 DOI: 10.4103/0975-1483.96624
    The study is aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of hypertensive patients toward medication use and adherence. The study was qualitative in nature conducted at Sandamen Provisional Hospital of Quetta city, Pakistan; a public hospital catering to the health needs of about 40% of the population. A qualitative approach was used to gain an in-depth knowledge of the issues. Sixteen patients were interviewed, and the saturation point was achieved after the 14(th) interview. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and were then analyzed for thematic contents by the standard content analysis framework. Thematic content analysis yielded five major themes. (1) Perceived benefits and risks of medications, (2) physician's interaction with patients, (3) perception toward traditional remedies, (4) layman concept toward medications, and (5) beliefs toward hypertension and its control. The majority of the patients carried specific unrealistic beliefs regarding the long-term use of medication; yet these beliefs were heavily accepted and practiced by the society. The study indicated a number of key themes that can be used in changing the beliefs and experiences of hypertensive patients. Physician's attitude, patient's past experiences, and knowledge related to hypertension were noted as major contributing factors thus resulting in nonadherence to therapy prescribed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  6. Abdelhaq M, Alsaqour R, Abdelhaq S
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(5):e0120715.
    PMID: 25946001 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120715
    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  7. Buurman J, Zhang S, Babovic V
    Risk Anal., 2009 Mar;29(3):366-79.
    PMID: 19076327 DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2008.01160.x
    Complex engineering systems are usually designed to last for many years. Such systems will face many uncertainties in the future. Hence the design and deployment of these systems should not be based on a single scenario, but should incorporate flexibility. Flexibility can be incorporated in system architectures in the form of options that can be exercised in the future when new information is available. Incorporating flexibility comes, however, at a cost. To evaluate if this cost is worth the investment a real options analysis can be carried out. This approach is demonstrated through analysis of a case study of a previously developed static system-of-systems for maritime domain protection in the Straits of Malacca. This article presents a framework for dynamic strategic planning of engineering systems using real options analysis and demonstrates that flexibility adds considerable value over a static design. In addition to this it is shown that Monte Carlo analysis and genetic algorithms can be successfully combined to find solutions in a case with a very large number of possible futures and system designs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  8. Hassan, S.H., John Kua, S.B., Harun, H.
    The attention on genetically modified (GM) food industry is increasing due to the flourishing
    of biotechnology. However, there are some debates on the associated benefits and risks of
    employing modification technology in food industry. This study strives to examine the causes
    that determine consumers’ benefit and risk perceptions on GM foods. Besides, the influence of
    perceived benefit and risk of GM food on consumers’ attitude is investigated. The empirical
    results of this study showed that GM food knowledge, and GM food characteristics have been
    acting as important predictors of both benefits and risks perceptions. Further, it is also found
    that perceived benefits showed significant positive influence on attitude, and attitude affects
    purchase intention towards GM food. Research implications to policy makers, scientists, and
    market practitioners are covered, in which suggestions and recommendations are provided
    to these parties. Lastly, research implications and recommendations to future research are
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  9. Norhidayah Mat Sout, Muhamad Arifpin Mansor, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail
    Ergonomics can be viewed as an approach to reduce injury and illness rates to improve the overall working
    conditions for employees by addressing risk factor exposure that may occur during manual tasks. The objective
    of this research was to analyze ergonomics risk factors by associating the perception of employer and employees
    towards their workplace condition in quarry and mining industry. A Questionnaire on Ergonomics Risk Assessment
    was used to determine the comparison level awareness and perception analysis among quarry and mining industry in
    Malaysia. The findings of this research prove that the exposure of ergonomics risk factors towards the workers is in
    a moderate level with a mean of 3.59 for the overall respondent review about the ergonomics risk among workers at
    their workplace. Besides, the most concern in ergonomics is about the awkward posture at work. Some 8.8% of them
    agreed and 6.6% of them totally agreed that they were in awkward posture while doing their work. As a conclusion,
    assessment of ergonomics in quarry and mining industry will be a platform to provide a safe and healthy working
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  10. Lewiecki EM, Binkley N, Morgan SL, Shuhart CR, Camargos BM, Carey JJ, et al.
    J Clin Densitom, 2016 Apr-Jun;19(2):127-40.
    PMID: 27020004 DOI: 10.1016/j.jocd.2016.03.003
    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a technology that is widely used to diagnose osteoporosis, assess fracture risk, and monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD). The clinical utility of DXA is highly dependent on the quality of the scan acquisition, analysis, and interpretation. Clinicians are best equipped to manage patients when BMD measurements are correct and interpretation follows well-established standards. Poor-quality acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of DXA data may mislead referring clinicians, resulting in unnecessary diagnostic evaluations, failure to evaluate when needed, inappropriate treatment, or failure to provide medical treatment, with potentially ineffective, harmful, or costly consequences. Misallocation of limited healthcare resources and poor treatment decisions can be minimized, and patient care optimized, through meticulous attention to DXA instrument calibration, data acquisition and analysis, interpretation, and reporting. This document from the International Society for Clinical Densitometry describes quality standards for BMD testing at DXA facilities worldwide to provide guidance for DXA supervisors, technologists, interpreters, and clinicians. High-quality DXA testing is necessary for correct diagnostic classification and optimal fracture risk assessment, and is essential for BMD monitoring.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment/methods
  11. Chia YC
    Singapore Med J, 2011 Feb;52(2):116-23.
    PMID: 21373738
    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. While it is relatively easy to identify those who are obviously at high risk and those at the lowest risk for CVD, it is often the large group of individuals with what appears to be modestly abnormal risk factors who contributes most to the burden of CVD. This is where estimation of CVD risk is necessary. Many tools for risk assessment have been devised. All these risk scores have their own inherent advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, they may also not be directly applicable to a local population. Ideally, each country should have its own risk score that takes into account other factors as well. In the interim, it is worthwhile to be familiar with one of these scores, select one that is most appropriate for your patient and discuss treatment options based on the estimated risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment/methods*
  12. Joseph P, Yusuf S, Lee SF, Ibrahim Q, Teo K, Rangarajan S, et al.
    Heart, 2018 04;104(7):581-587.
    PMID: 29066611 DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-311609
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the non-laboratory INTERHEART risk score (NL-IHRS) to predict incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across seven major geographic regions of the world. The secondary objective was to evaluate the performance of the fasting cholesterol-based IHRS (FC-IHRS).

    METHODS: Using measures of discrimination and calibration, we tested the performance of the NL-IHRS (n=100 475) and FC-IHRS (n=107 863) for predicting incident CVD in a community-based, prospective study across seven geographic regions: South Asia, China, Southeast Asia, Middle East, Europe/North America, South America and Africa. CVD was defined as the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure or coronary revascularisation.

    RESULTS: Mean age of the study population was 50.53 (SD 9.79) years and mean follow-up was 4.89 (SD 2.24) years. The NL-IHRS had moderate to good discrimination for incident CVD across geographic regions (concordance statistic (C-statistic) ranging from 0.64 to 0.74), although recalibration was necessary in all regions, which improved its performance in the overall cohort (increase in C-statistic from 0.69 to 0.72, p<0.001). Regional recalibration was also necessary for the FC-IHRS, which also improved its overall discrimination (increase in C-statistic from 0.71 to 0.74, p<0.001). In 85 078 participants with complete data for both scores, discrimination was only modestly better with the FC-IHRS compared with the NL-IHRS (0.74 vs 0.73, p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: External validations of the NL-IHRS and FC-IHRS suggest that regionally recalibrated versions of both can be useful for estimating CVD risk across a diverse range of community-based populations. CVD prediction using a non-laboratory score can provide similar accuracy to laboratory-based methods.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment/methods*
  13. Inayat-Hussain SH, Fukumura M, Muiz Aziz A, Jin CM, Jin LW, Garcia-Milian R, et al.
    Environ Int, 2018 08;117:348-358.
    PMID: 29793188 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.05.010
    BACKGROUND: Recent trends have witnessed the global growth of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production. Epidemiologic studies have suggested associations between proximity to UOG operations with increased adverse birth outcomes and cancer, though specific potential etiologic agents have not yet been identified. To perform effective risk assessment of chemicals used in UOG production, the first step of hazard identification followed by prioritization specifically for reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity is crucial in an evidence-based risk assessment approach. To date, there is no single hazard classification list based on the United Nations Globally Harmonized System (GHS), with countries applying the GHS standards to generate their own chemical hazard classification lists. A current challenge for chemical prioritization, particularly for a multi-national industry, is inconsistent hazard classification which may result in misjudgment of the potential public health risks. We present a novel approach for hazard identification followed by prioritization of reproductive toxicants found in UOG operations using publicly available regulatory databases.

    METHODS: GHS classification for reproductive toxicity of 157 UOG-related chemicals identified as potential reproductive or developmental toxicants in a previous publication was assessed using eleven governmental regulatory agency databases. If there was discordance in classifications across agencies, the most stringent classification was assigned. Chemicals in the category of known or presumed human reproductive toxicants were further evaluated for carcinogenicity and germ cell mutagenicity based on government classifications. A scoring system was utilized to assign numerical values for reproductive health, cancer and germ cell mutation hazard endpoints. Using a Cytoscape analysis, both qualitative and quantitative results were presented visually to readily identify high priority UOG chemicals with evidence of multiple adverse effects.

    RESULTS: We observed substantial inconsistencies in classification among the 11 databases. By adopting the most stringent classification within and across countries, 43 chemicals were classified as known or presumed human reproductive toxicants (GHS Category 1), while 31 chemicals were classified as suspected human reproductive toxicants (GHS Category 2). The 43 reproductive toxicants were further subjected to analysis for carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Calculated hazard scores and Cytoscape visualization yielded several high priority chemicals including potassium dichromate, cadmium, benzene and ethylene oxide.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal diverging GHS classification outcomes for UOG chemicals across regulatory agencies. Adoption of the most stringent classification with application of hazard scores provides a useful approach to prioritize reproductive toxicants in UOG and other industries for exposure assessments and selection of safer alternatives.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment/methods*
  14. Khan MJ, Chelliah S, Haron MS
    Iran. J. Public Health, 2016 Feb;45(2):134-45.
    PMID: 27114978
    BACKGROUND: Role of information source, perceived benefits and risks, and destination image has significantly been examined in travel and tourism literature; however, in medical tourism it is yet to be examined thoroughly. The concept discussed in this article is drawn form well established models in tourism literature.

    METHODS: The purpose of this research was to identify the source of information, travel benefits and perceived risks related to movement of international patients and develop a conceptual model based on well-established theory. Thorough database search (Science Direct, utmj.org, nih.gov, nchu.edu.tw, palgrave-journals, medretreat, Biomedcentral) was performed to fulfill the objectives of the study.

    RESULTS: International patients always concern about benefits and risks related to travel. These benefits and risks form images of destination in the minds of international patients. Different sources of information make international patients acquaint about the associated benefits and risks, which later leads to development of intention to visit. This conceptual paper helps in establishing model for decision-making process of international patients in developing visit intention.

    CONCLUSION: Ample amount of literature is available detailing different factors involved in travel decision making of international patients; however literature explaining relationship between these factors is scarce.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  15. S.L. Tan
    ASM Science Journal, 2013;7(2):129-138.
    The paper seeks to assuage the fears and worries over living modified organisms (LMOs). It describes how any research carried out on LMOs as well as any release activity on LMOs for public use in Malaysia is controlled by the Biosafety Act 2007. Stringent risk assessment of the LMO and its product/s is carried out to eradicate or minimize the negative effects of these on animal and human health, and to biological diversity and the environment. In contrast, no such risk assessment is carried out on introduced exotic species, or on the products of other types of technology, with the exception of pharmaceuticals. Examples are given comparing risk assessment on LMOs and exotic species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  16. Ezrin Hani Sukadarin, Baba Md Deros, Jaharah A. Ghani, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Nur Syazwani Mohd Nawi, Norhidayah Abdull
    Validity test is important during the development of ergonomics measurement. Failure to conduct validity tests will result in the measurement method being developed to be incapable of providing reliable ergonomics measurements. The objective of this study is to conduct validity test on the simple method ergonomics measurement which was developed. The method named Simple Ergonomics Risks Assessment (SERA). Content validity test and criterion validity test were conducted. The content validity test consists of 6 ergonomics experts who actively provide inputs and positive feedbacks to improve the measurement method being developed. Meanwhile, the criterion validity test involves data collection of complaints on body parts among oil palm workers which were derived from Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and ergonomics risk assessment scores obtained from SERA. Both findings were tested with the Chi-square test to explore possible relations between the two findings. Results from the test conducted showed that there are significant relations in the scores of neck posture; hip, right and left shoulder, right and left wrists and the right hand associated with fresh fruit bunch (FFB) harvesting activities. In the loose fruits collection, the Chi-square test showed significant relations in the scores of neck posture, hip, right and left shoulders, right wrist, right arm and the left hand. However, there are body parts such as the legs which showed no significant relation. More tests should be conducted to further explore the validity of the method being developed. Findings from both validity tests show that SERA were verified by the experts and tested with validated method so that it is valid to be applied in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  17. Alslaibi TM, Abunada Z, Abu Amr SS, Abustan I
    Environ Technol, 2018 Nov;39(21):2691-2702.
    PMID: 28789588 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2017.1365936
    Landfills are one of the main point sources of groundwater pollution. This research mainly aims to assess the risk of nitrate [Formula: see text] transport from the unlined landfill to subsurface layers and groundwater using experimental results and the SESOIL model. Samples from 12 groundwater wells downstream of the landfill were collected and analyzed in 2008, 21 years after the landfill construction. The average [Formula: see text] concentration in the wells was 54 mg/L, slightly higher than the World Health Organization ([Formula: see text] 50 mg/L) standards. SESOIL model was used to predict the [Formula: see text] concentration at the bottom of the unsaturated zone. Results indicated that the current mean [Formula: see text] concentration at the bottom of the unsaturated zone is 75 mg/L. the model predicted that the level of NO3 will increased up to 325 mg/L within 30 years. Accordingly, the [Formula: see text] concentration in groundwater wells near the landfill area is expected to gradually increase with time. Although the current risk associated with the [Formula: see text] level might not be harm to adults, however, it might pose severe risks to both adults and infants in the near future due to [Formula: see text] leaching. Urgent mitigation measures such as final cell cover (cap), lining system and vertical expansion should be considered at the landfill to protect the public health in the area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  18. Wan Fadzlina Wan Muhd Shukeri, Azrina Md. Ralib, Mohd Basri Mat-Nor
    Clinical scoring methods such as the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
    (SOFA) score are frequently used to predict outcome in sepsis, with limited capacity.
    Further tools for risk assessment of septic critically ill patients would thus be useful.
    Our purpose was to derive a scoring method i.e. Sepsis Mortality Score using multimarker
    approach for the prediction of 30-day mortality in septic critically ill patients,
    and compare its performance to the SOFA score (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  19. Thangam, N., Farah Radhiah, H., Sashitharan, D., Abdul Kadir, A.K.
    Clozapine is effective in treatment resistant schizophrenia. Priaprism is a rare side effect of Clozapine. It is a urological emergency and can lead to permanent damage to the penis. We present two cases two cases of clozapine induced priapism. Both patients were started on Clozapine in view of treatment resistant. For the first patient, priapism was noted after 2 years on Clozapine and treated conservatively. Clozapine was rechallenged in this patient but in a lower dosage and was augmented with amisulpride. He did not develop priaprism until date. In the second case, patient developed priaprism after 7 months on clozapine and required urological intervention. He redeveloped recurrent episode of priaprism as clozapine was restarted on the previous dose. In conclusion, priaprism is not related to dosage or duration of treatment of Clozapine. Thus, a careful risk-benefit assessment need to done as there is always a risk of priapism to recur when clozapine rechallenged.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
  20. Zainap Lamat, Yuhani Jamian, Mohd Agus Adib Eskandar
    Sarawak has experienced several earthquakes of local origin and was also affected by long-distance earthquake that originated from Southern Philippine and the Straits of Macassar, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea. The objectives for this study were to conduct site specific ground response analysis and develop design response spectra for Bakun area by using 1-D equivalent linear ground response analysis. The site characterisation was carried out utilising the soil profile and soil property data of the selected site. Local surface fault ruptures were investigated for possible hazards due to intraplate earthquakes. Earthquake ground motion records were selected based on characteristics of the controlling earthquakes for an area and the maximum magnitude faults were considered for risk assessment. The site-specific response spectra represent the predicted surface ground motions that reflect the levels of strong motion amplitude and frequency content at a particular site. The site-specific ground response analysis for Bakun site found that the peak ground acceleration at bedrock was amplified from 0.16 g to 0.33 g at the ground surface.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Assessment
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