METHODS: This systematic review was undertaken following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (number CRD42019127021). A comprehensive literature search was performed by 2 independent reviewers using a selected search strategy in 2 electronic databases (PubMed and Scopus) until January 28, 2019. A further search was performed manually in endodontic journals. Studies investigating or comparing at least 1 shaping property resulting from root canal instrumentation with a glide path or preflaring in human extracted teeth or clinical studies were included.
RESULTS: The literature shows that the definition of glide path and preflaring procedures remains controversial, which requires an elaboration in the American Association of Endodontists' Glossary of Endodontic Terms. After the removal of irrelevant and duplicated articles, 98 articles were included. The impact of glide path preparation and preflaring on working length determination, apical file size determination, canal transportation, separation of endodontic files, shaping time, dentinal microcrack formation, and extrusion of debris was discussed. Because of heterogeneity among the included studies, quantitative synthesis was not performed for most of the parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: An evidence-based guideline is needed to define and correlate the basic concepts and current applications of each step of contemporary advancements in root canal instruments. Glide path preparation reduces the risk of debris extrusion, has no influence on the incidence of dentinal crack formation, and improves the preservation of the original canal anatomy. The creation of a glide path may have no impact on Reciproc files (VDW, Munich, Germany) in reaching the full working length. Preflaring increases the accuracy of working length determination. Further randomized clinical trials are required to evaluate the effect of a glide path and preflaring on root canal treatment outcomes.
METHODS: A total sample of 90 mandibular premolar teeth was divided into 2 groups (2 × 45 canals): the GP group and ER group. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups (n = 15): cold lateral compaction (CLC), warm lateral compaction (WLC) and single cone (SC). The teeth were subsequently embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 1, 3, 6 and 9 mm. All sections were then viewed with a stereomicroscope at ×40 magnification. The area occupied by core filling materials was determined using Cell^D software.
RESULTS: With CLC, the percentage of core filling materials in the ER group was significantly higher than in the GP group at the 1- and 3-mm levels. Similarly, with WLC, the percentage of core filling material in the ER group was significantly higher than in the GP group at the 1-, 3- and 9-mm levels. With SC, the percentage of core filling materials in the ER group was significantly higher than in the GP group at all levels.
CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the resin-coated GP/EndoREZ® sealer is superior to the gutta-percha/AH Plus in the percentage of core filling material.
METHODS: A review of clinical cases reporting NaOCl accidents was conducted in June 2016 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist; it combined an electronic search of the PubMed database and an extensive manual search.
RESULTS: Forty full-text articles corresponding to 52 case reports published between 1974 and 2015 were selected. Four main categories of data were highlighted: general and clinical information, clinical signs and symptoms of NaOCl extrusions, management of NaOCl extrusions, and healing and prognosis. Overall, up to now, clinical cases were reported in a very unsystematic manner, and some relevant information was missing.
CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the potential causes, management, and prognosis of NaOCl accidents requires a standardization of reported data; this study proposes a template that can fulfill this objective.
METHODS: Root canal preparation was performed using stainless steel K-files™ and F4 size protaper with irrigation protocols of 6% NaOCl + 2% CHX; 3.5% QIS; 2% QIS and sterile saline. Biofilms were prepared using E. faecalis adjusted and allowed to grow for 3 days, treated with irrigants, and allowed to grow for 7 days. AFM was performed and surface free energy calculated. MC3T3 cells were infected with endo irrigant treated E. faecalis biofilms. Raman spectroscopy of biofilms were performed after bacterial re-growth on root dentine and exposed to different irrigation protocols and collagen fibers analysed collagen fibers using TEM. Antimicrobial potency against E. faecalis biofilms and cytoxicity against 3T3 NIH cells were also. Resin penetration and MitoTracker green were also evaluated for sealer penetration and mitochondrial viability. Data were analysed using One-way ANOVA, principal component analysis and post-hoc Fisher's least-significant difference.
RESULTS: Elastic moduli were maintained amongst control (5.5 ± 0.9) and 3.5% QIS (4.4 ± 1.1) specimens with surface free energy higher in QIS specimens. MC3T3 cells showed reduced viability in 6%NaOCl+2%CHX specimens compared to QIS specimens. DNA/purine were expressed in increased intensities in control and 6% NaOCl + 2% CHX specimens with bands around 480-490 cm-1 reduced in QIS specimens. 3.5% QIS specimens showed intact collagen fibrillar network and predominantly dead bacterial cells in confocal microscopy. 3.5% QIS irrigant formed a thin crust-type surface layer with cytoplasmic extensions of 3T3NIH spread over root dentine. Experiments confirmed MitoTracker accumulation in 3.5% treated cells.
SIGNIFICANCE: Novel QIS root canal irrigant achieved optimum antimicrobial protection inside the root canals facilitating a toxic effect against the Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. Root dentine substrates exhibited optimum mechanical properties and there was viability of fibroblastic mitochondria.
METHODS: Fifteen intact, non-carious single-rooted teeth were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. Visually, working length was determined by using a #15 K-file under stereomicroscope (×20). The effect of cellular phones on electronic working length (EWL) was determined under 2 experimental settings: (1) in a closed room with poor signal strength and (2) in a polyclinic set up with good signal strength and 5 conditions: (1) electronically, without cellular phone in room; (2) electronically, with cellular phone in physical contact with EAL; (3) electronically, with mobile phone in physical contact with EAL and in calling mode for a period of 25 seconds; (4) electronically, mobile phone placed at a distance of 40 cm from the EAL; and (5) electronically, mobile phone placed at a distance of 40 cm and in calling mode for a period of 25 seconds. The EWL was measured 3 times per tooth under each condition. Stability of the readings was scored from 1 to 3: (1) good stability, (2) stable reading after 1 attempt, and (3) stable reading after 2 attempts. The data were compared by using analysis of variance.
RESULTS: The EWL measurements were not influenced by the presence of cellular phone and could be determined under all experimental conditions.
CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that mobile phones do not interfere with the EWL determination.
METHODS: A literature search was performed in 3 electronic databases for articles published before August 2018. Randomized clinical trials published in English that compared PP between machine-assisted agitation and syringe irrigation with needles as part of nonsurgical root canal treatment were included. Two authors were independently involved in the article selection process, data extraction, and assessment of the quality of included studies using the revised Cochrane risk of bias tool. The pooled effect estimates of the standardized mean difference (SMD) between machine-assisted agitation and syringe irrigation with needle was calculated by a random effects-modeled meta-analysis. A subgroup meta-analysis was performed. The quality of evidence was evaluated by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations approach.
RESULTS: Six studies were included for systematic review. Meta-analysis was performed using 3 studies and showed that machine-assisted agitation resulted in less PP compared with syringe irrigation with needle at 24 hours (SMD = -0.73; 95% confidence interval, -1.04 to -0.42; I2 = 30.6%) and 48 hours (SMD = -0.60; 95% CI, -0.85 to -0.35; I2 = 0%). The quality of evidence by Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations for the PP outcomes (24 hours and 48 hours) was graded as "moderate" quality.
CONCLUSIONS: Machine-assisted agitation reduced PP compared with syringe irrigation with needles in nonsurgical root canal treatment. Future clinical trials are needed to support the result of this review.
Settings and Design: Endodontic treatment aims at disinfection and then obturation of root canal system in to prevent re-infection. Root canal irrigants play a pivotal role in the disinfection process. One of the important properties of an irrigant is the removal of complete smear layer and debris. Smear layer has the potential to protect bacteria within the dentinal tubules; therefore removal may be prudent. Smear layer removal increases the bond strength of resin sealers which results in better apical seal.
Materials and Methods: Forty extracted single-rooted, primary teeth were allocated randomly into four groups of ten each: Group 1 - NaOCl, Group 2 - Nutmeg, Group 3 - Myrobolan, and Group 4 - Tulsi. Samples were stored in sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) and then decoronated at the level of the cementoenamel junction. Working length was determined followed by appropriate irrigation. The roots were split into two halves with a chisel and were stored in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution for 24 h. After fixation, the samples were dehydrated in ethanol series (70, 90, and 95 and twice at 100%). Each specimen was mounted on Al stub and sputter coated with a 20 nm layer of gold. Samples were then examined using a SEM quantum 60 at magnification of ×2000.
Results: Tulsi demonstrated the most statistically significant results followed by myrobolan and nutmeg extract. All herbal extracts were found to be significantly effective than 2.5% NaOCl.
Conclusion: Tulsi, nutmeg and myrobolan can be effectively used as an irrigant in primary teeth.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of studies comparing the fracture resistance and/or endodontic outcomes between different AC designs was conducted in two electronic search databases (PubMed and Web of Science) following the PRISMA guidelines. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed. Meta-analyses were undertaken for fracture resistance and root canal detection, with the level of significance set at 0.05 (P = 0.05).
RESULTS: A total of 33 articles were included in this systematic review. The global evaluation of the risk of bias in the included studies was assessed as moderate, and the level of evidence was rated as low. Four types of AC designs were categorized: traditional (TradAC), conservative (ConsAC), ultraconservative (UltraAC), and truss (TrussAC). Their impact on fracture resistance, cleaning/disinfection, procedural errors, root canal detection, treatment time, apical debris extrusion, and root canal filling was discussed. Meta-analysis showed that compared to TradAC, (i) there is a significant higher fracture resistance of teeth with ConsAC, TrussAC, or ConsAC/TrussAC when all marginal ridges are preserved (P 0.05), and (iii) there is a significantly higher risk of undetected canals with ConsAC if not assisted by dental operating microscope and ultrasonic troughing (P root canal treatment quality remains a pragmatic recommendation. Different criteria can guide the practitioner for the optimal extent of AC outline form which varies from case to case.