METHODS: We conducted a 9-month, parallel, multiarm, cluster-randomised controlled trial in 31 rural villages in Kishoreganj District, Bangladesh. Villages were randomly allocated to: group sessions ('group'); alternating groups and home visits ('combined'); or a passive control arm. Sessions were delivered fortnightly by trained community members. The primary outcome was child stimulation (Family Care Indicators); the secondary outcome was child development (Ages and Stages Questionnaire Inventory, ASQi). Other outcomes included dietary diversity, latrine status, use of a child potty, handwashing infrastructure, caregiver mental health and knowledge of lead. Analyses were intention to treat. Data collectors were independent from implementers.
RESULTS: In July-August 2017, 621 pregnant women and primary caregivers of children<15 months were enrolled (group n=160, combined n=160, control n=301). At endline, immediately following intervention completion (July-August 2018), 574 participants were assessed (group n=144, combined n=149, control n=281). Primary caregivers in both intervention arms participated in more play activities than control caregivers (age-adjusted means: group 4.22, 95% CI 3.97 to 4.47; combined 4.77, 4.60 to 4.96; control 3.24, 3.05 to 3.39), and provided a larger variety of play materials (age-adjusted means: group 3.63, 3.31 to 3.96; combined 3.81, 3.62 to 3.99; control 2.48, 2.34 to 2.59). Compared with the control arm, children in the group arm had higher total ASQi scores (adjusted mean difference in standardised scores: 0.39, 0.15 to 0.64), while in the combined arm scores were not significantly different from the control (0.25, -0.07 to 0.54).
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that group-based, multicomponent interventions can be effective at improving child development outcomes in rural Bangladesh, and that they have the potential to be delivered at scale.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The trial is registered in ISRCTN (ISRCTN16001234).
BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Case-control clinical and questionnaire study in a cluster sample of 50 villages.
METHODS: A total of 3000 persons were screened for the presence of periodontitis using the CDC case definition in full mouth examination. Equal numbers of cases (604 persons with periodontitis) and controls (604 without periodontitis) were recruited and interviewed with a piloted questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) respectively with 95% confidence limits.
RESULTS: Six factors were determined by multivariate analysis to predict periodontitis: education less than or equal to twelve years of schooling (aOR=2.51, 95% CI=1.18-5.34), alcohol consumption (aOR= 1.7, 95% CI=1.16-2.49), consuming a non-vegetarian diet (aOR=1.38, 95% CI=1.08-1.76), not drinking milk (aOR=1.7, 95% CI= 1.29-2.24), not using a toothbrush for cleaning of teeth (aOR=2.98, 95% CI =1.71-5.21) and not cleaning teeth at least once a day (aOR=2.13, 95% CI=1.58-2.87).
CONCLUSION: Risk factors for periodontitis in a rural Indian population were identified. Further studies should validate these findings and appropriate recommendations should be developed to decrease the prevalence and burden of periodontitis in this population.
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