Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 465 in total

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  1. Stoner EA
    Family Practitioner, 1976;2(4):36-37.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population
  2. Kiyu A, Hardin S
    Bull. World Health Organ., 1992;70(1):125-8.
    PMID: 1568276
    A cross-sectional survey of 976 households in 41 villages covered by the Rural Health Improvement Scheme in Sarawak was carried out to determine the state of functioning and utilization of rural water supplies. The survey was carried out by inspection and interview. About one-third of the systems were functioning well, one-third imperfectly, and the remainder were no longer functioning. The coverage of households by water supply varied with the type of water supply, the overall coverage being 81.3%. Usage varied with the type of water supply and access, the overall figure being 87.1%, and the overall utilization was 70.8%. The study showed that it is important to account for water supply usage in impact evaluation because not all households have access and not all those with access use the water supply. It is also important to define water use, depending on whether the health outcome is a reduction in diseases that are water-borne or related to washing with water, because the percentage of households using the water for drinking is different from those using it for bathing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population*
  3. Leeves G, Soyiri I
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:539212.
    PMID: 25685796 DOI: 10.1155/2015/539212
    Background. Education is usually associated with improvement in health; there is evidence that this may not be the case if education is not fully utilised at work. This study examines the relationship between education level, occupation, and health outcomes of individuals in rural Malaysia. Results. The study finds that the incidence of chronic diseases and high blood pressure are higher for tertiary educated individuals in agriculture and construction occupations. This brings these individuals into more frequent contact with the health system. These occupations are marked with generally lower levels of education and contain fewer individuals with higher levels of education. Conclusions. Education is not always associated with better health outcomes. In certain occupations, greater education seems related to increased chronic disease and contact with the health system, which is the case for workers in agriculture in rural Malaysia. Agriculture is the largest sector of employment in rural Malaysia but with relatively few educated individuals. For the maintenance and sustainability of productivity in this key rural industry, health monitoring and job enrichment policies should be encouraged by government agencies to be part of the agenda for employers in these sectors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population*
  4. Pathmanathan I
    Med J Malaysia, 1974 Sep;29(1):34-9.
    PMID: 4282628
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population*
  5. BIN AHMADA
    Med J Malaysia, 1964 Jun;18:235-8.
    PMID: 14199441
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population*
  6. EDESON JF, WHARTON RH, WILSON T, REID JA
    Med J Malaya, 1957 Sep;12(1):319-47.
    PMID: 13492806
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population*
  7. Pulikkotil SJ, Nath S, Ramachandran V
    Community Dent Health, 2020 Feb 27;37(1):26-31.
    PMID: 32031346 DOI: 10.1922/CDH_4632Pulikkotil06
    OBJECTIVES: Identify the determinants of periodontitis in a rural Indian population aged 35-44 years.

    BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Case-control clinical and questionnaire study in a cluster sample of 50 villages.

    METHODS: A total of 3000 persons were screened for the presence of periodontitis using the CDC case definition in full mouth examination. Equal numbers of cases (604 persons with periodontitis) and controls (604 without periodontitis) were recruited and interviewed with a piloted questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) respectively with 95% confidence limits.

    RESULTS: Six factors were determined by multivariate analysis to predict periodontitis: education less than or equal to twelve years of schooling (aOR=2.51, 95% CI=1.18-5.34), alcohol consumption (aOR= 1.7, 95% CI=1.16-2.49), consuming a non-vegetarian diet (aOR=1.38, 95% CI=1.08-1.76), not drinking milk (aOR=1.7, 95% CI= 1.29-2.24), not using a toothbrush for cleaning of teeth (aOR=2.98, 95% CI =1.71-5.21) and not cleaning teeth at least once a day (aOR=2.13, 95% CI=1.58-2.87).

    CONCLUSION: Risk factors for periodontitis in a rural Indian population were identified. Further studies should validate these findings and appropriate recommendations should be developed to decrease the prevalence and burden of periodontitis in this population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population*
  8. Cheah WL, Lee PY, Khatijah Y, Rasidah AW
    PMID: 22135588 MyJurnal
    It is important to understand the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, especially in a rural setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population
  9. Muhammad Azami NA, Salleh SA, Neoh HM, Syed Zakaria SZ, Jamal R
    BMC Res Notes, 2011;4:216.
    PMID: 21714858 DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-216
    BACKGROUND:
    Dengue infection has been an important and serious public health concern in Malaysia ever since its first reported case here in 1902. Nevertheless, to our knowledge, no nationwide investigation has been carried out to determine the actual magnitude of dengue endemicity in the Malaysian population. In this study, we describe a cross sectional seroepidemiology study of dengue IgG seroprevalence in the Malaysian adult population.

    FINDINGS:
    From 1000 subjects (35-74 years old), 91.6% subjects were found to be dengue seropositive. Age is found to be a significant risk factor associated with dengue seroposivity, where the seroprevalence increased with every 10 year increase in age. Nevertheless, gender and ethnicity did not have an effect. Interestingly, there were similar seroprevalence rates between urban and rural samples, showing that dengue is presently not confined to urban areas in Malaysia.

    CONCLUSIONS:
    High dengue IgG seropositivity found in the population is an indication that dengue might be endemic in Malaysia for a long time into the future. Public awareness, proper vector control and vigilant surveillance are critical to keep the infection rates low and to prevent outbreaks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population
  10. Karim WJ
    Soc Sci Med, 1984;18(2):159-66.
    PMID: 6701560
    This paper attempts to analyse professional rivalry and dissonance amongst traditional Malay midwives (bidan kampung) in the Northwest areas of Peninsular Malaysia. It elucidates how techniques of symbolic and ritual communication are carefully monitored by these female specialists, to develop regular clientele and professional credibility over time. However, since an integral element of Malay midwifery is protection from and mastery over mystical forces in nature and evil spirits harboured by witches, a midwife is also an exorcist with skills rather similar to the Malay bomoh (traditional medical practitioner, usually male) except that her range of knowledge of witchcraft is limited to diagnostic and curative rituals of spirit-possession, in infants and children, young unmarried women and pregnant mothers. Within a restricted population area, professional rivalries and competition amongst midwives regularly surface in oblique attacks of witchcraft accusations where the accused strives to maintain her credibility while her accuser gradually wins over her clientele. Significantly, codes of professionalism in traditional Malay midwifery are not only determined by skill and experience, but also religiousness (faith in Islam), benevolence, virtue, diligence and a sense of equality and fair-play in the practice of the trade. These qualities are seemingly lacking in witches who are conceived to be anti-Islamic, uncompromising, manevolent and destructive. Thus, government midwives who threaten the popularity of traditional midwives by being particularly active in their work or supervising and controlling midwives in an authoritarian way, are also labelled as witches. Generally, while midwifery and witchcraft reflect two forms of knowledge that are structurally opposed, in ideology and morality, they exist within the same sphere of ritual and symbolic communication where the practitioners aided by their clients, shift from one state of dissonance to another in an attempt to regulate behaviour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population
  11. Saw SH
    Demography, 1967 Jun;4(2):641-56.
    PMID: 21318676 DOI: 10.2307/2060305
    During the early postwar years up to 1957, the three main races in Malaya - Malays, Chinese, and Indians - experienced some differences in their levels of fertility. The lowest fertility was recorded among the Malays, with Chinese and Indian fertility about 5 percent and 10 percent higher, respectively. The comparatively low fertility of the Malays was owing to the exceptionally high rate of divorce, which meant unstable marriages and shorter periods of exposure to the risk of childbearing.A fairly well-defined pattern of state differences in fertility levels is found to exist in Malaya. Briefly, fertility was on the high side in the northern states of Johore, Malacca, and Negri Sembilan, and on the low side in the northern states of Penanq, Kelantan, Perlis, Kedah, and Trengganu, with the central states of Perak, Selangor, and Pahang in the intermediate position.The usual rural-urban fertility differentials are seen to prevail in Malaya as a whole and in the smaller units at state levels. Finally, the three main races registered higher fertility in rural areas, and the greatest gap between rural and urban rates prevailed among the Chinese.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population
  12. Chen PC
    Med J Malaya, 1969 Mar;23(3):159-69.
    PMID: 4240067
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population
  13. Khairul Anuar A
    JUMMEC, 2002;7:14-14.
    Many nation states, including Malaysia are undergoing development and modernization while modernization brings tremendous achievements related to social and economic wellbeing, on the other hand, it also brings along with it the various untoward effects on the nation. One of the main factors which have an impact on modernization seems to be the rapid changes in the demographic pattern. In the initial stage of modernization, mass migration of rural populations to the urban areas, has been on going in Malaysia since the seventies. In the early nineties, the robust economic development in Malaysia necessitated the import of foreign labour from the neighbouring countries in order to provide cheap labour in the labour intensive industries. This demographic changes, internal and foreign migration, parallels the economic progress of the host countries. According to the latest report from the Immigration Department, there are more than 1.2 million registered foreign workers (up to January 1998) in Malaysia. This figure may exceed 2 million if we take into consideration the illegal immigrants and this is a big proportion (about 10%) of foreign workers in which has Malaysia's population of approxiamtely 20 million. The presence of such a big number of foreign workers during less than a decade is not merely an immigration issue, but it is a major concern for the nation especially with respect to health care, housing and education. As the immigrant community is highly dynamic, the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a great concern for Malaysia especially in formulating health policies for Malaysia currently and in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population
  14. Balakrishnan S, Hussein HB
    PMID: 585738
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population
  15. Radhamany D, Das KS, Azeez PA, Wen L, Sreekala LK
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2016 Aug;27(2):127-34.
    PMID: 27688856 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2016.27.2.10
    The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a widely distributed bird species found throughout the world. Being a species which has close association with humans, they chiefly nest on man-made structures. Here we describe the materials used by the house sparrow for making nests along an urban to rural gradient. For the current study, we selected the Coimbatore to Anaikatty road (State Highway-164), a 27 km inter-state highway, which traverses along an urban core to rural outstretch of Coimbatore. Of the 30 nests observed, 15 nests were from the rural, 8 were from the suburban, and 7 were from the urban areas. The nests had two distinct layers, specifically the structural layer and the inner lining. In the current study, we identified 11 plant species, 2 types of animal matter, and 6 types of anthropogenic matter, including plastic pieces and fine rope. The amount of anthropogenic materials in the nest formation varied along the gradients. The usage of anthropogenic materials was high in urban areas (p<0.05) whereas it did not differ at the sub-urban regions (p>0.05). A gradual decrease in the usage of plant matter towards the urban area was noticed (p<0.05). This study explicitly documents the links between nest material usage along an urban to rural gradient, in a human associated bird.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population
  16. Kamil MA
    Family Physician, 1994;6:12-14.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population
  17. Chen PC, Yap SB
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Jun;43(2):159-61.
    PMID: 3266288
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population*
  18. Lim HH, Ong CN, Domala Z, Phoon WO, Khoo HE
    Public Health, 1985 Jan;99(1):23-9.
    PMID: 3991872
    Matched MeSH terms: Rural Population*
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