MATERIALS AND METHODS: The development process of the new 2D CB SLE includes, (i) the identification of common errors made by students in the audiology clinic, (ii) the development of five case simulations that include four routine audiology tests incorporating learning assistance derived from the errors commonly made by audiology students and, (iii) the development of 2D CB SLE from a technical perspective. A preliminary evaluation of the use of the 2D CB SLE software was conducted among twenty-six second-year undergraduate audiology students.
RESULTS: The pre-analysis evaluation of the new 2D CB SLE showed that the majority of the students perceived the new 2D CB SLE software as realistic and helpful for them in achieving the course learning outcomes and in improving their clinical skills. The mean overall scores among the twenty-six students using the self-reported questionnaire were significantly higher when using the 2D CB SLE software than with the existing software typically used in their SLE training.
CONCLUSIONS: This new 2D CB SLE software has the potential for use by audiology students for enhancing their learning.
Methods: In this cross-sectional survey study, 285 Malaysian elite athletes (170 males, 115 females) aged 15-44 years (M = 18.89, SD = 4.49) completed measures of various PSTs and mental toughness. Latent profile analysis was employed to determine the type and number of profiles that best represent athletes' reports of their use of PSTs in practice and competition settings, and examine differences between these classes in terms of self-reported mental toughness.
Results: Our results revealed three profiles (low, moderate, high use) in both practice and competition settings that were distinguished primarily according to quantitative differences in the absolute levels of reported use across most of the PSTs assessed in practice and competition settings, which in turn, were differentially related with mental toughness. Specifically, higher use of PSTs was associated with higher levels of mental toughness.
Conclusion: This study provides one of the first analyses of the different configurations of athletes' use of PSTs that typify unique subgroups of performers. An important next step is to examine the longitudinal (in) stability of such classes and therefore provide insight into the temporal dynamics of different configurations of athletes' use of PSTs.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess physical activity levels among Malaysian adolescents and investigate the association between physical activity levels and body composition such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 1361 school-going 13 year old multi-ethnic adolescents from population representative samples in Malaysia were involved in our study. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Height, weight, body fat composition and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Data collection period was from March to May 2012.
RESULTS: 10.8% of the males and 7.4% of the females were obese according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. A majority of the adolescents (63.9%) were physically inactive. There is a weak but significant correlation between physical activity scores and the indicators of obesity. The adjusted coefficient for body fatness was relatively more closely correlated to physical activity scores followed by waist circumference and lastly BMI.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that high physical activity scores were associated with the decreased precursor risk factors of obesity.