Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 233 in total

  1. Kalsum HU, Shah ZA, Othman RM, Hassan R, Rahim SM, Asmuni H, et al.
    Comput Biol Med, 2009 Nov;39(11):1013-9.
    PMID: 19720371 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2009.08.002
    Protein domains contain information about the prediction of protein structure, function, evolution and design since the protein sequence may contain several domains with different or the same copies of the protein domain. In this study, we proposed an algorithm named SplitSSI-SVM that works with the following steps. First, the training and testing datasets are generated to test the SplitSSI-SVM. Second, the protein sequence is split into subsequence based on order and disorder regions. The protein sequence that is more than 600 residues is split into subsequences to investigate the effectiveness of the protein domain prediction based on subsequence. Third, multiple sequence alignment is performed to predict the secondary structure using bidirectional recurrent neural networks (BRNN) where BRNN considers the interaction between amino acids. The information of about protein secondary structure is used to increase the protein domain boundaries signal. Lastly, support vector machines (SVM) are used to classify the protein domain into single-domain, two-domain and multiple-domain. The SplitSSI-SVM is developed to reduce misleading signal, lower protein domain signal caused by primary structure of protein sequence and to provide accurate classification of the protein domain. The performance of SplitSSI-SVM is evaluated using sensitivity and specificity on single-domain, two-domain and multiple-domain. The evaluation shows that the SplitSSI-SVM achieved better results compared with other protein domain predictors such as DOMpro, GlobPlot, Dompred-DPS, Mateo, Biozon, Armadillo, KemaDom, SBASE, HMMPfam and HMMSMART especially in two-domain and multiple-domain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  2. Xiao H
    Neural Netw, 2020 Nov;131:172-184.
    PMID: 32801109 DOI: 10.1016/j.neunet.2020.07.024
    Paraphrase identification serves as an important topic in natural language processing while sequence alignment and matching underlie the principle of this task. Traditional alignment methods take advantage of attention mechanism. Attention mechanism, i.e. weighting technique, could pick out the most similar/dissimilar parts, but is weak in modeling the aligned unmatched parts, which are the crucial evidence to identify paraphrases. In this paper, we empower neural architecture with Hungarian algorithm to extract the aligned unmatched parts. Specifically, first, our model applies BiLSTM/BERT to encode the input sentences into hidden representations. Then, Hungarian layer leverages the hidden representations to extract the aligned unmatched parts. Last, we apply cosine similarity to metric the aligned unmatched parts for a final discrimination. Extensive experiments show that our model outperforms other baselines, substantially and significantly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  3. Esmaeilpour M, Naderifar V, Shukur Z
    PLoS One, 2014;9(9):e106313.
    PMID: 25243670 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106313
    Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment*
  4. Fotoohifiroozabadi S, Mohamad MS, Deris S
    J Bioinform Comput Biol, 2017 Apr;15(2):1750004.
    PMID: 28274174 DOI: 10.1142/S0219720017500044
    Protein structure alignment and comparisons that are based on an alphabetical demonstration of protein structure are more simple to run with faster evaluation processes; thus, their accuracy is not as reliable as three-dimension (3D)-based tools. As a 1D method candidate, TS-AMIR used the alphabetic demonstration of secondary-structure elements (SSE) of proteins and compared the assigned letters to each SSE using the [Formula: see text]-gram method. Although the results were comparable to those obtained via geometrical methods, the SSE length and accuracy of adjacency between SSEs were not considered in the comparison process. Therefore, to obtain further information on accuracy of adjacency between SSE vectors, the new approach of assigning text to vectors was adopted according to the spherical coordinate system in the present study. Moreover, dynamic programming was applied in order to account for the length of SSE vectors. Five common datasets were selected for method evaluation. The first three datasets were small, but difficult to align, and the remaining two datasets were used to compare the capability of the proposed method with that of other methods on a large protein dataset. The results showed that the proposed method, as a text-based alignment approach, obtained results comparable to both 1D and 3D methods. It outperformed 1D methods in terms of accuracy and 3D methods in terms of runtime.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment/methods
  5. Lim YL, Ee R, How KY, Lee SK, Yong D, Tee KK, et al.
    PeerJ, 2015;3:e1225.
    PMID: 26336650 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1225
    In this study, we sequenced the genome of Pandoraea pnomenusa RB38 using Pacific Biosciences RSII (PacBio) Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing technology. A pair of cognate luxI/R homologs was identified where the luxI homolog, ppnI, was found adjacent to a luxR homolog, ppnR1. An additional orphan luxR homolog, ppnR2, was also discovered. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that ppnI is an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase gene that is distinct from those of the nearest phylogenetic neighbor viz. Burkholderia spp. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed that Escherichia coli BL21 harboring ppnI produced a similar AHL profile (N-octanoylhomoserine lactone, C8-HSL) as P. pnomenusa RB38, the wild-type donor strain, confirming that PpnI directed the synthesis of AHL in P. pnomenusa RB38. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of the luxI/R homologs of the genus Pandoraea.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  6. Lau YL, Lee WC, Chen J, Zhong Z, Jian J, Amir A, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(6):e0157893.
    PMID: 27347683 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157893
    Anopheles cracens has been incriminated as the vector of human knowlesi malaria in peninsular Malaysia. Besides, it is a good laboratory vector of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The distribution of An. cracens overlaps with that of An. maculatus, the human malaria vector in peninsular Malaysia that seems to be refractory to P. knowlesi infection in natural settings. Whole genome sequencing was performed on An. cracens and An. maculatus collected here. The draft genome of An. cracens was 395 Mb in size whereas the size of An. maculatus draft genome was 499 Mb. Comparison with the published Malaysian An. maculatus genome suggested the An. maculatus specimen used in this study as a different geographical race. Comparative analyses highlighted the similarities and differences between An. cracens and An. maculatus, providing new insights into their biological behavior and characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  7. Low CF, Bunawan H
    Data Brief, 2016 Sep;8:1454-61.
    PMID: 27617282 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2016.08.025
    In this article, nine complete genomes of viruses from the genus Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus (Family Nodaviridae) were comparatively analyzed and the data of their evolutionary origins and relatedness are reported. The nucleotide sequence alignment of the complete genomes from all species and their deduced evolutionary relationships are presented. High sequence similarity within the genus Betanodavirus compared to the genus Alphanodavirus was revealed in multiple sequence alignment of the Nodaviridae genomes. The amino acid sequence similarity for both RNA1 and RNA2 ORF is more conserved in Betanodavirus, compared to Alphanodavirus. The conserved and variable regions within the virus genome that were defined based on the multiple sequence alignments are presented in this dataset.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  8. Chua EG, Debowski AW, Webberley KM, Peters F, Lamichhane B, Loke MF, et al.
    Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf), 2019 Feb;7(1):42-49.
    PMID: 30792865 DOI: 10.1093/gastro/goy048
    Background: Metronidazole is one of the first-line drugs of choice in the standard triple therapy used to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection. Hence, the global emergence of metronidazole resistance in Hp poses a major challenge to health professionals. Inactivation of RdxA is known to be a major mechanism of conferring metronidazole resistance in H. pylori. However, metronidazole resistance can also arise in H. pylori strains expressing functional RdxA protein, suggesting that there are other mechanisms that may confer resistance to this drug.

    Methods: We performed whole-genome sequencing on 121 H. pylori clinical strains, among which 73 were metronidazole-resistant. Sequence-alignment analysis of core protein clusters derived from clinical strains containing full-length RdxA was performed. Variable sites in each alignment were statistically compared between the resistant and susceptible groups to determine candidate genes along with their respective amino-acid changes that may account for the development of metronidazole resistance in H. pylori.

    Results: Resistance due to RdxA truncation was identified in 34% of metronidazole-resistant strains. Analysis of core protein clusters derived from the remaining 48 metronidazole-resistant strains and 48 metronidazole-susceptible identified four variable sites significantly associated with metronidazole resistance. These sites included R16H/C in RdxA, D85N in the inner-membrane protein RclC (HP0565), V265I in a biotin carboxylase protein (HP0370) and A51V/T in a putative threonylcarbamoyl-AMP synthase (HP0918).

    Conclusions: Our approach identified new potential mechanisms for metronidazole resistance in H. pylori that merit further investigation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  9. Boon Yee Wong, Taranjeet Kaur Awtar Singh, Gideon Khoo, Han Kiat Alan Ong
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:2393-2416.
    The intra- and inter-specific variation of Acetes shrimps were evaluated based on samples collected from in-shore catches and off-shore trawling around the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Species captured were identified as Acetes indicus, A. serrulatus, A. japonicus and A. sibogae. A region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene comprising 552 base pairs (bp) was amplified from 159 Acetes specimens. The sequence alignment analysis generated phylogenetic trees which depicted the four major clades that were consistent with the species identified morphologically. These four species varied considerably for haplotype and nucleotide diversity, with A. indicus and A. serrulatus showing different demographic histories. Furthermore, the observation of two clades in the A. indicus and A. sibogae lineages, with relatively high levels of intraspecific divergence, suggests that cryptic diversity is possibly present in these two taxa. This study has contributed to the knowledge of the distribution patterns and molecular phylogenetics of four Acetes spp. in the Straits of Malacca.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  10. Reddy, Nidyaletchmy Subba, Rashidah Abdul Rahim, Darah Ibrahim, Kumar, K. Sudesh
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2016;27(11):145-150.
    We report on the cloning of the lipase gene from Bacillus licheniformis IBRLCHS2
    and the expression of the recombinant lipase. DNA sequencing analysis of the
    cloned lipase gene showed that it shares 99% identity with the lipase gene from
    B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 and belongs to subfamily 1.4 of true lipases based on amino
    acid sequence alignment of various Bacillus lipases. The 612 bp lipase gene was then
    cloned into the pET-15b(+) expression vector and the construct was transformed into
    E. coli BL21 (DE3) for bulk expression of the lipase. Expression was analysed by SDSPAGE
    where the lipase was found to have a molecular weight of about 23 kDa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  11. Razmara J, Deris SB, Parvizpour S
    Comput Biol Med, 2013 Oct;43(10):1614-21.
    PMID: 24034753 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2013.07.022
    The structural comparison of proteins is a vital step in structural biology that is used to predict and analyse a new unknown protein function. Although a number of different techniques have been explored, the study to develop new alternative methods is still an active research area. The present paper introduces a text modelling-based technique for the structural comparison of proteins. The method models the secondary and tertiary structure of proteins in two linear sequences and then applies them to the comparison of two structures. The technique used for pairwise comparison of the sequences has been adopted from computational linguistics and its well-known techniques for analysing and quantifying textual sequences. To this end, an n-gram modelling technique is used to capture regularities between sequences, and then, the cross-entropy concept is employed to measure their similarities. Several experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the method and compare it with other commonly used programs. The assessments for information retrieval evaluation demonstrate that the technique has a high running speed, which is similar to other linear encoding methods, such as 3D-BLAST, SARST, and TS-AMIR, whereas its accuracy is comparable to CE and TM-align, which are high accuracy comparison tools. Accordingly, the results demonstrate that the algorithm has high efficiency compared with other state-of-the-art methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment/methods*
  12. Basu K, Sriraam N, Richard RJ
    J Med Syst, 2007 Aug;31(4):247-53.
    PMID: 17685148
    For a given DNA sequence, it is well known that pair wise alignment schemes are used to determine the similarity with the DNA sequences available in the databanks. The efficiency of the alignment decides the type of amino acids and its corresponding proteins. In order to evaluate the given DNA sequence for its proteomic identity, a pattern matching approach is proposed in this paper. A block based semi-global alignment scheme is introduced to determine the similarity between the DNA sequences (known and given). The two DNA sequences are divided into blocks of equal length and alignment is performed which minimizes the computational complexity. The efficiency of the alignment scheme is evaluated using the parameter, percentage of similarity (POS). Four essential DNA version of the amino acids that emphasize the importance of proteomic functionalities are chosen as patterns and matching is performed with the known and given DNA sequences to determine the similarity between them. The ratio of amino acid counts between the two sequences is estimated and the results are compared with that of the POS value. It is found from the experimental results that higher the POS value and the pattern matching higher are the similarity between the two DNA sequences. The optimal block is also identified based on the POS value and amino acids count.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment/methods*
  13. Ibrahim Z, Tsuboi Y, Ono O
    IEEE Trans Nanobioscience, 2006 Jun;5(2):103-9.
    PMID: 16805106
    Previously, direct-proportional length-based DNA computing (DPLB-DNAC) for solving weighted graph problems has been reported. The proposed DPLB-DNAC has been successfully applied to solve the shortest path problem, which is an instance of weighted graph problems. The design and development of DPLB-DNAC is important in order to extend the capability of DNA computing for solving numerical optimization problem. According to DPLB-DNAC, after the initial pool generation, the initial solution is subjected to amplification by polymerase chain reaction and, finally, the output of the computation is visualized by gel electrophoresis. In this paper, however, we give more attention to the initial pool generation of DPLB-DNAC. For this purpose, two kinds of initial pool generation methods, which are generally used for solving weighted graph problems, are evaluated. Those methods are hybridization-ligation and parallel overlap assembly (POA). It is found that for DPLB-DNAC, POA is better than that of the hybridization-ligation method, in terms of population size, generation time, material usage, and efficiency, as supported by the results of actual experiments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment/methods*
  14. Ng XY, Rosdi BA, Shahrudin S
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:212715.
    PMID: 25802839 DOI: 10.1155/2015/212715
    This study concerns an attempt to establish a new method for predicting antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) which are important to the immune system. Recently, researchers are interested in designing alternative drugs based on AMPs because they have found that a large number of bacterial strains have become resistant to available antibiotics. However, researchers have encountered obstacles in the AMPs designing process as experiments to extract AMPs from protein sequences are costly and require a long set-up time. Therefore, a computational tool for AMPs prediction is needed to resolve this problem. In this study, an integrated algorithm is newly introduced to predict AMPs by integrating sequence alignment and support vector machine- (SVM-) LZ complexity pairwise algorithm. It was observed that, when all sequences in the training set are used, the sensitivity of the proposed algorithm is 95.28% in jackknife test and 87.59% in independent test, while the sensitivity obtained for jackknife test and independent test is 88.74% and 78.70%, respectively, when only the sequences that has less than 70% similarity are used. Applying the proposed algorithm may allow researchers to effectively predict AMPs from unknown protein peptide sequences with higher sensitivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment/methods
  15. Lim PE, Tan J, Suana IW, Eamsobhana P, Yong HS
    PLoS One, 2012;7(5):e37276.
    PMID: 22615962 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037276
    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  16. Arockiaraj J, Bhatt P, Kumaresan V, Dhayanithi NB, Arshad A, Harikrishnan R, et al.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2015 Nov;47(1):221-30.
    PMID: 26363233 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2015.09.015
    In this study, we reported a molecular characterization of three CC chemokines namely, CsCC-Chem14, CsCC-Chem20 and CsCC-Chem25 which are were identified from the established cDNA library of striped murrel Channa striatus. Multiple sequence alignment of all the three chemokines revealed the presence of gene specific domains and motifs including small cytokine domain, IL8 like domain, receptor binding site and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding sites. Three dimensional structures of the chemokines under study showed an important facet on their anti-microbial property. Tissue specific mRNA expression showed that the CsCC-Chem14 is highly expressed in spleen, CsCC-Chem20 in liver and CsCC-Chem25 in trunk kidney. On challenge C. striatus with oomycete fungus Aphanomyces invadans, both CsCC-Chem20 and CsCC-Chem25 showed significant (P < 0.05) up-regulation compared to CsCC-Chem14. The increase in the expression levels of CsCC-Chem20 and CsCC-Chem25 due to infection showed that they are antimicrobial proteins. But considering the CsCC-Chem14 expression, it is found to be a constitutive chemokine and is involved in homeostatic function in spleen of C. striatus. C. striatus challenged with bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila also exhibited different up-regulation pattern in all the three chemokines at various time points. However, extensive studies are required to determine the functional activities of CsCC-Chem14, CsCC-Chem20 and CsCC-Chem25 in vitro and in vivo to gain more knowledge at the molecular and proteomic levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  17. Zin K, Morita K, Igarashi A
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1995;39(8):581-90.
    PMID: 7494497
    We determined the 240-nucleotide sequences of the E/NS1 gene junction of four dengue-2 viruses by the primer extension dideoxy chain termination method. These viruses were isolated from dengue patients with different clinical severities in Nakhon Phanom, Northeastern Thailand in 1993. The results were compared with the 52 published dengue-2 sequences of the same gene region. Sequence divergence of four new isolates varied from 4.17% to 5.42% compared with dengue-2 prototype New Guinea C strain whereas it varied from 5.42% to 6.67% and from 6.67% to 7.09% when compared with Jamaica 1409 strain and PR159/S1 strain, respectively. All nucleotide substitutions were found at the 3rd position of the codons which were silent mutations. All 56 isolates studied were classified into five genotypic groups by constructing the dendrogram. The results indicated that four new isolates from Northeastern Thailand belong to genotype II of dengue virus serotype 2, and were most closely related to prototype New Guinea C strain. We also observed the variation in nucleotide and amino acid sequences among clusters of isolates (Thailand-1980, Malaysia-1989 and Thailand-1993) which were obtained from the dengue patients with different clinical severities. The significance of these genetic differences have been discussed in terms of the possible correlation between genetic variability and virulence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  18. Ker DS, Pang SL, Othman NF, Kumaran S, Tan EF, Krishnan T, et al.
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e2961.
    PMID: 28265494 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2961
    BACKGROUND: Sesquiterpenes are 15-carbon terpenes synthesized by sesquiterpene synthases using farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) as a substrate. Recently, a sesquiterpene synthase gene that encodes a 65 kDa protein was isolated from the aromatic plant Persicaria minor. Here, we report the expression, purification and characterization of recombinant P. minor sesquiterpene synthase protein (PmSTS). Insights into the catalytic active site were further provided by structural analysis guided by multiple sequence alignment.

    METHODS: The enzyme was purified in two steps using affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Enzyme assays were performed using the malachite green assay and enzymatic product was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Sequence analysis of PmSTS was performed using multiple sequence alignment (MSA) against plant sesquiterpene synthase sequences. The homology model of PmSTS was generated using I-TASSER server.

    RESULTS: Our findings suggest that the recombinant PmSTS is mainly expressed as inclusion bodies and soluble aggregate in the E. coli protein expression system. However, the addition of 15% (v/v) glycerol to the protein purification buffer and the removal of N-terminal 24 amino acids of PmSTS helped to produce homogenous recombinant protein. Enzyme assay showed that recombinant PmSTS is active and specific to the C15 substrate FPP. The optimal temperature and pH for the recombinant PmSTS are 30 °C and pH 8.0, respectively. The GC-MS analysis further showed that PmSTS produces β-sesquiphellandrene as a major product and β-farnesene as a minor product. MSA analysis revealed that PmSTS adopts a modified conserved metal binding motif (NSE/DTE motif). Structural analysis suggests that PmSTS may binds to its substrate similarly to other plant sesquiterpene synthases.

    DISCUSSION: The study has revealed that homogenous PmSTS protein can be obtained with the addition of glycerol in the protein buffer. The N-terminal truncation dramatically improved the homogeneity of PmSTS during protein purification, suggesting that the disordered N-terminal region may have caused the formation of soluble aggregate. We further show that the removal of the N-terminus disordered region of PmSTS does not affect the product specificity. The optimal temperature, optimal pH, Km and kcat values of PmSTS suggests that PmSTS shares similar enzyme characteristics with other plant sesquiterpene synthases. The discovery of an altered conserved metal binding motif in PmSTS through MSA analysis shows that the NSE/DTE motif commonly found in terpene synthases is able to accommodate certain level of plasticity to accept variant amino acids. Finally, the homology structure of PmSTS that allows good fitting of substrate analog into the catalytic active site suggests that PmSTS may adopt a sesquiterpene biosynthesis mechanism similar to other plant sesquiterpene synthases.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  19. Tan KY, Tan CH, Chanhome L, Tan NH
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e3142.
    PMID: 28392982 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3142
    BACKGROUND: The monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) is a medically important venomous snake in Southeast Asia. Its venom has been shown to vary geographically in relation to venom composition and neurotoxic activity, indicating vast diversity of the toxin genes within the species. To investigate the polygenic trait of the venom and its locale-specific variation, we profiled and compared the venom gland transcriptomes of N. kaouthia from Malaysia (NK-M) and Thailand (NK-T) applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology.

    METHODS: The transcriptomes were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq platform, assembled and followed by transcript clustering and annotations for gene expression and function. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments were conducted on the toxin genes expressed. Substitution rates were studied for the major toxins co-expressed in NK-M and NK-T.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The toxin transcripts showed high redundancy (41-82% of the total mRNA expression) and comprised 23 gene families expressed in NK-M and NK-T, respectively (22 gene families were co-expressed). Among the venom genes, three-finger toxins (3FTxs) predominated in the expression, with multiple sequences noted. Comparative analysis and selection study revealed that 3FTxs are genetically conserved between the geographical specimens whilst demonstrating distinct differential expression patterns, implying gene up-regulation for selected principal toxins, or alternatively, enhanced transcript degradation or lack of transcription of certain traits. One of the striking features that elucidates the inter-geographical venom variation is the up-regulation of α-neurotoxins (constitutes ∼80.0% of toxin's fragments per kilobase of exon model per million mapped reads (FPKM)), particularly the long-chain α-elapitoxin-Nk2a (48.3%) in NK-T but only 1.7% was noted in NK-M. Instead, short neurotoxin isoforms were up-regulated in NK-M (46.4%). Another distinct transcriptional pattern observed is the exclusively and abundantly expressed cytotoxin CTX-3 in NK-T. The findings suggested correlation with the geographical variation in proteome and toxicity of the venom, and support the call for optimising antivenom production and use in the region. Besides, the current study uncovered full and partial sequences of numerous toxin genes from N. kaouthia which have not been reported hitherto; these include N. kaouthia-specific l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), snake venom serine protease (SVSP), cystatin, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), hyaluronidase (HYA), waprin, phospholipase B (PLB), aminopeptidase (AP), neprilysin, etc. Taken together, the findings further enrich the snake toxin database and provide deeper insights into the genetic diversity of cobra venom toxins.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
  20. Ng ML, Rahmat ZB, Bin Omar MSS
    Curr Comput Aided Drug Des, 2019;15(4):308-317.
    PMID: 30345923 DOI: 10.2174/1573409914666181022141753
    BACKGROUND: Orthosiphon stamineus is a traditional medicinal plant in Southeast Asia countries with various well-known pharmacological activities such as antidiabetic, diuretics and antitumor activities. Transketolase is one of the proteins identified in the leaves of the plant and transketolase is believed able to lower blood sugar level in human through non-pancreatic mechanism. In order to understand the protein behavioral properties, 3D model of transketolase and analysis of protein structure are of obvious interest.

    METHODS: In the present study, 3D model of transketolase was constructed and its atomic characteristics revealed. Besides, molecular dynamic simulation of the protein at 310 K and 368 K deciphered transketolase may be a thermophilic protein as the structure does not distort even at elevated temperature. This study also used the protein at 310 K and 368 K resimulated back at 310 K environment.

    RESULTS: The results revealed that the protein is stable at all condition which suggest that it has high capacity to adapt at different environment not only at high temperature but also from high temperature condition to low temperature where the structure remains unchanged while retaining protein function.

    CONCLUSION: The thermostability properties of transketolase is beneficial for pharmaceutical industries as most of the drug making processes are at high temperature condition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sequence Alignment
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