Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 808 in total

  1. Vijayasingham L, Bischof E, Wolfe J, Gender and COVID-19 Research Agenda-setting Initiative
    Lancet, 2021 Mar 13;397(10278):966-967.
    PMID: 33684351 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00384-6
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors*
  2. Hitchman SC, Fong GT
    Citation: Hitchman SC, Fong GT. The Bad With the Good? The Relation Between Gender Empowerment and Female-to-Male Cigarette Smoking Rates Across 74 Countries. ITC Project Working Paper Series. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.; 2010

    Objective: Worldwide it is estimated that men smoke at nearly five times the rate of women. However, there is wide variation across countries in the gender smoking ratio (ratio of female-to-male smoking prevalence rates). Lower smoking rates among women have been attributed to social norms against women smoking, and women’s lower social status and economic resources. We tested the hypothesis that in countries with higher gender empowerment, the gender smoking ratio would be closer to 1.
    Methods: We correlated the gender smoking ratio (calculated from the 2008 WHO Global Tobacco Control Report) and the United Nations Development Programme’s Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). Because a country’s progression through stages of the tobacco epidemic and its gender smoking ratio has been attributed to its level of development, we also examined this relation partialling on economic development (Gross National Income (GNI) per capita), and income inequality (Gini).
    Findings: The gender smoking ratio was significantly and positively correlated with the GEM. GEM was also the strongest predictor of the gender smoking ratio when controlling for GNI per capita and Gini in a multiple regression analysis.
    Key Conclusions: The findings identify a challenge for countries undergoing economic development and greater gender equality: can such progress take place without a corresponding increase in smoking rates among women? These findings thus highlight the need for strong tobacco control in countries in which gender equality is increasing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  3. Hairi NN, Cumming RG, Blyth FM, Naganathan V
    Maturitas, 2013 Jan;74(1):68-73.
    PMID: 23103063 DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2012.10.001
    To establish if there is any gender difference in associations between chronic pain, impact of pain and pain severity with physical disability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors*
  4. Ibrahim A, Singh DKA, Shahar S
    PLoS One, 2017;12(10):e0185641.
    PMID: 28972994 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185641
    AIMS: The aim of this study was to establish 'Timed up and Go' test (TUG) normative data among community dwelling older adults stratified based on cognitive status, gender and age groups.

    METHODS: A total of 2084 community dwelling older adults from wave I and II were recruited through a multistage random sampling method. TUG was performed using the standard protocol and scores were then stratified based on with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI), gender and in a 5-year age groups ranging from ages of 60's to 80's.

    RESULTS: 529(16%) participants were identified to have MCI. Past history of falls and medical history of hypertension, heart disease, joint pain, hearing and vision problem, and urinary incontinence were found to have influenced TUG performance. Cognitive status as a mediator, predicted TUG performance even when both gender and age were controlled for (B 0.24, 95% CI (0.02-0.47), β 0.03, t 2.10, p = 0.36). Further descriptive analysis showed, participants with MCI, women and older in age took a longer time to complete TUG, as compared to men with MCI across all age groups with exceptions for some age groups.

    CONCLUSION: These results suggested that MCI needs to be taken into consideration when testing older adults using TUG, besides age and gender factors. Data using fast speed TUG may be required among older adults with and without MCI for further understanding.

    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors*
  5. Aziz ZA, Lee YY, Sidek NN, Ngah BA, Looi I, Hanip MR, et al.
    Neurol Res, 2016 May;38(5):406-13.
    PMID: 27142804 DOI: 10.1080/01616412.2016.1178948
    Gender as an independent predictor in stroke has been well documented. However, data on gender differences among first-ever ischemic stroke in developing country are limited. We aim to describe gender effects on clinical characteristics, thrombolysis treatment received, and outcomes of patients with first-ever ischemic stroke.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  6. Ng King Kwi, Yong SL
    Med J Malaysia, 1973 Jun;27(4):258-61.
    PMID: 4270782
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  7. Chai, Sian Yi, Zaiton Hassan, Abang Ekhsan Abang Othman
    Influx of women in the paid labor force had been identified as one of the important factors in raising awareness about work-family balance in organizations in developed countries in the west. The same phenomenon also occurs in Malaysia. Malaysia is considered as having traditional gender role ideology, whereby men and women have separate role in the workplace and in the family. Specifically, this study aims to identify whether there are differences in perception between men and women in public sector towards factors associated with work-life balance. Work-life balance factors examined in this study are work demands, supervisor support, organization’s family-friendly policies, family demands, work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC). Sixty questionnaires were administered to employees in a government health training institution in Sarawak, Malaysia. Data were analyzed using SPPS version 17 and independent t-Test was employed in testing the hypotheses. The study found that men and women are significantly different in terms of supervisor support, work-family conflict and family demands. However, there was no significant difference between men and women employees with regard to work demands, family-work conflict and utilization of family-friendly policies. In line with previous Western findings, women experienced higher level of work to family conflict (WFC) than men employees. In addition, women also reported higher family demands than men. These findings strengthened the traditional gender role ideology ascribed by majority of Malaysians and lend support to the gender role theory. Therefore, the organization could provide relevant training, such as, time and stress management. Supervisors could be trained to be more aware of work-family balance issues faced by their employees and assist them accordingly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  8. Lee JA, Otaiba SA
    PMID: 25750582
    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL. Data on kindergarteners (N = 462) were analysed using multiple-group confirmatory factory analysis. Early literacy skill differences between boys and girls are more nuanced than previously reported; subsidy status and gender interact. Both boys and girls from high-poverty households performed significantly lower than the girls from low-poverty households in alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and spelling. There were gender gaps, with a female advantage, among children from high-poverty households in alphabet knowledge and spelling and among children from low-poverty households in alphabet knowledge. These results highlight the importance of employing methodologically sound techniques to ascertain group differences in componential early literacy skills.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  9. Ting HN, Chia SY, Manap HH, Ho AH, Tiu KY, Abdul Hamid B
    J Voice, 2012 Jul;26(4):425-30.
    PMID: 22243972 DOI: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2011.07.001
    The study is going to investigate the fundamental frequency (F(0)) and perturbation measures of sustained vowels in 360 native Malaysian Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  10. Murai T, Mohamed M, Bernard H, Mahedi PA, Saburi R, Higashi S
    Primates, 2007 Apr;48(2):117-21.
    PMID: 16871366
    Successful or unsuccessful female transfers were observed seven times during a 32-month field study of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) inhabiting a riverine forest along a tributary of the Kinabatangan River, Sabah, Malaysia. In all cases, the females voluntarily left their own groups and immediately joined with another one. When adult females tried to shift to other groups, adult males called them back to their own groups, but appeared to be indifferent to subadult females. When the adult females returned, the males never attacked the females physically, but instead often emitted herding sounds to them. One subadult female was repelled by a resident adult female. When one adult female transferred into a new one-male group, she left her behind son in an all-male group. The number of females often fluctuated in most study groups, with this fluctuation being more prominent among subadult females than adult females. It is likely that female transfer in proboscis monkeys is not a rare occurrence and that it is especially common among sub-adult females.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  11. Rosli TI, Abdul Rahman R, Abdul Rahman SR, Ramli R
    Singapore Dent J, 2005 Dec;27(1):17-22.
    PMID: 16438264
    The objectives of this study were to determine the sources of stress among undergraduate dental students, and to compare the sources of stress among the 5 years of undergraduate study, between gender, and with other studies done elsewhere. A total of 325 students across the 5 academic years (88.8% response rate) of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, completed the modified Dental Environment Stress questionnaire. All respondents reported that they experienced some form of stress. The preclinical students reported that examinations and fear of failure caused the most stress. The main stressor for clinical students was clinical training, particularly factors relating to meeting clinical requirements. Female students perceived more stress generally than male students. However, male students were more stressed when faced with factors related to clinical training.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  12. Johari HM, Zainudin HA, Knight VF, Lumley SA, Subramanium AS, Caszo BA, et al.
    J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2017 Apr;57(4):396-401.
    PMID: 27045742 DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06292-7
    BACKGROUND: Anthropometric and lung function characteristics of triathletes are important for the implementation of individual specific training and recovery recommendations. However, limited data are available for these parameters in triathletes. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterize and examine the gender differences of lung function and anthropometry parameters in competitive triathletes from Malaysia.

    METHODS: Body composition assessment and lung function tests were performed on sixteen competitive triathletes (nine male and seven female). The subject's body composition profile including muscle mass (kg), fat free mass (kg), and percent body fat was measured using a bio-impedance segmental body composition analyzer. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured by Quark PFT2 spirometer.

    RESULTS: The anthropometric measurements revealed that male triathletes were significantly taller than female triathletes and had significantly more protein and skeletal muscle mass. The female triathletes, however, had significantly higher percent body fat. Male triathletes had statistically significant higher FVC and FEV1 than female triathletes. Both the male and female triathletes showed a positive correlation between height, fat free mass and the lung function markers FVC and FEV1. This association was not seen with Body Mass Index (BMI) in female triathletes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The data from our study shows that anthropometric parameters are directly linked to lung function of a triathlete. We also found the relationship between BMI and lung function to be gender specific in triathletes and is dependent on the body protein and fat content. Hence, body composition characterization is essential and provides valuable information for developing individual specific training modules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  13. Newaz MA, Adeeb NNN
    Med J Malaysia, 1998 Mar;53(1):70-5.
    PMID: 10968141
    Xanthine oxidase is a highly versatile enzyme which is widely distributed among various species. Though the presence of the enzyme in serum is not yet established, high antibody titre of this enzyme has been reported. Xanthine oxidase is thought to be the principal source of free radical generation via degradation of nucleotides to the end product, uric acid. The aim of this study was to detect xanthine oxidase activity in human plasma and report any significant relationships found between its activity and variables such as race, age and sex for the sample size studied. Forty six normal healthy individuals (14 males and 32 females) were studied. The enzyme activity was measured by a spectrophotometric method whereby the reduction of ferricytochrome c by free radicals was calculated and expressed as nmol O2 production/ml/min. Results obtained showed that there was a positive relationship between xanthine oxidase activity with age (r = 0.415, p < 0.05) and weight (r = 0.369, p < 0.05) in the normal individual. For the age group 30-39 yrs (n = 11), a higher enzyme activity was observed in males (2.71 +/- 1.44) as compared to females (2.34 +/- 1.23) but it was not significant (p = 0.53). For racial distribution, the Malays [M] have a higher enzyme activity (2.65 +/- 0.86, N = 32) than their Indian [I] (2.27 +/- 0.58; N = 7) and Chinese counterparts [C] (1.44 +/- 1.22; N = 7) but this was also not statistically significant (M vs I: p = 0.39; M vs C: p = 0.07; I vs C: p = 0.16). In conclusion this study showed that there is a measurable amount of xanthine oxidase activity in the human plasma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  14. Zulkifli A, Rogayah J
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Mar;52(1):76-81.
    PMID: 10968057
    A survey of career choices were conducted for three batches of final year medical students at Universiti Sains Malaysia. A total of 241 students responded, giving a response rate of 76%, with 107 males (44.4%) and 134 females (55.6%). Surgery ranked highest among the male students while obstetrics and gynaecology ranked highest among female students. Internal medicine was the second choice for both males and females. Among the other specialties, the male students shows preferred Hospital Administration and Radiology while female students preferred Community Medicine, Psychiatry and Pathology. Both male and female students chose to be a clinical consultant in a general hospital as the first choice. They prefer to work in or near their hometowns.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  15. Chen ST
    J Singapore Paediatr Soc, 1988;30(3-4):118-24.
    PMID: 3216636
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  16. Chen ST
    Med J Malaysia, 1985 Jun;40(2):90-4.
    PMID: 3834291
    Percentile head circumference charts, from six to eleven years of age, for boys and girls are presented. These can be used to monitor the head circumference of Malaysian children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  17. Chin K, Singham KT, Masduki A
    Med J Malaysia, 1983 Jun;38(2):142-4.
    PMID: 6621444
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  18. Lyn P, Pan Fui Lin
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Mar;43(1):90-6.
    PMID: 3244328
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  19. Yeoh OH
    Med J Malaysia, 1981 Mar;36(1):39-46.
    PMID: 7321937
    The characteristics of 74 patients who attempted suicide in Penang are described. Differences in the incidence and reasons for and methods of attempting were observed among the ethnic groups. There was a higher incidence in females and patients of single status. The majority of patients did not suffer from severe psychiatric disorders, but did encounter chronic inter-personal and intra-familial conflicts. Conflicts with elders were more frequent among female patients, and this finding suggested that young females were faced with a greater degree of role conflicts. Rural to urban shift among the Chinese patients was observed to be associated with a high incidence of attempts. Dwellers of high-rise flat complexes were not over-represented. In view of antecedent social factors, professionals and others besides psychiatrists have a role in the prevention and management of para-suicidal behaviours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
  20. Silva JF
    Trop Doct, 1979 Oct;9(4):221-7.
    PMID: 516150
    Matched MeSH terms: Sex Factors
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