In this paper, we report the results of our investigation on the possibility of producing foam concrete by using a geopolymer system. Class C fly ash was mixed with an alkaline activator solution (a mixture of sodium silicate and NaOH), and foam was added to the geopolymeric mixture to produce lightweight concrete. The NaOH solution was prepared by dilute NaOH pellets with distilled water. The reactives were mixed to produce a homogeneous mixture, which was placed into a 50 mm mold and cured at two different curing temperatures (60 °C and room temperature), for 24 hours. After the curing process, the strengths of the samples were tested on days 1, 7, and 28. The water absorption, porosity, chemical composition, microstructure, XRD and FTIR analyses were studied. The results showed that the sample which was cured at 60 °C (LW2) produced the maximum compressive strength for all tests, (11.03 MPa, 17.59 MPa, and 18.19 MPa) for days 1, 7, and 28, respectively. Also, the water absorption and porosity of LW2 were reduced by 6.78% and 1.22% after 28 days, respectively. The SEM showed that the LW2 sample had a denser matrix than LW1. This was because LW2 was heat cured, which caused the geopolymerization rate to increase, producing a denser matrix. However for LW1, microcracks were present on the surface, which reduced the compressive strength and increased water absorption and porosity.
Calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) ceramic composites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared using hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150°C. Quantitative microstructural analysis suggests that GNP play a role in grain size and is responsible for the improved densification. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that GNP survived the harsh processing conditions of the selected HIP processing parameters. The uniform distribution of 1 wt.% GNP in the CS matrix, high densification and fine CS grain size help to improve the fracture toughness by ∼130%, hardness by ∼30% and brittleness index by ∼40% as compared to the CS matrix without GNP. The toughening mechanisms, such as crack bridging, pull-out, branching and deflection induced by GNP are observed and discussed. The GNP/CS composites exhibit good apatite-forming ability in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Our results indicate that the addition of GNP decreased pH value in SBF. Effect of addition of GNP on early adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblast cells (hFOB) was measured in vitro. The GNP/CS composites showed good biocompatibility and promoted cell viability and cell proliferation. The results indicated that the cell viability and proliferation are affected by time and concentration of GNP in the CS matrix.
This study investigated the impact of calcium silicate (CS) content on composition, compressive mechanical properties, and hardness of CS cermets with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V alloys sintered at 1200°C. The powder metallurgy route was exploited to prepare the cermets. New phases of materials of Ni16Ti6Si7, CaTiO3, and Ni31Si12 appeared in cermet of Ti-55Ni with CS and in cermet of Ti-6Al-4V with CS, the new phases Ti5Si3, Ti2O, and CaTiO3, which were emerged during sintering at different CS content (wt%). The minimum shrinkage and density were observed in both groups of cermets for the 50 and 100 wt% CS content, respectively. The cermets with 40 wt% of CS had minimum compressive Young's modulus. The minimum of compressive strength and strain percentage at maximum load were revealed in cermets with 50 and 40 wt% of CS with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V cermets, respectively. The cermets with 80 and 90 wt% of CS showed more plasticity than the pure CS. It concluded that the composition and mechanical properties of sintered cermets of Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V with CS significantly depend on the CS content in raw cermet materials. Thus, the different mechanical properties of the cermets can be used as potential materials for different hard tissues replacements.
The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803-0.998, 0.144-0.248, and 1.727-2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.
Use of dispersive clay as construction material requires treatment such as by chemical addition. Treatments to dispersive clay using pozzolan and Portland cement, singly and simultaneously, were carried out in this study. When used alone, the optimum amount of pozzolan required to treat a fully dispersive clay sample was 5%, but the curing time to reduce dispersion potential, from 100% to 30% or less, was 3 month long. On the other hand, also when used alone, a 3% cement content was capable of reducing dispersion potential to almost zero percent in only 7 days; and a 2% cement content was capable of achieving similar result in 14 days. However, treatment by cement alone is costly and could jeopardize the long term performance. Thus, a combined 5% pozzolan and 1.5% cement content was found capable of reducing dispersion potential from 100% to zero percent in 14 days. The results indicate that although simultaneous treatment with pozzolan and cement would extend the required curing time in comparison to treatment by cement alone of a higher content, the task could still be carried out in a reasonable period of curing time while avoiding the drawbacks of using either pozzolan or cement alone.
Waste plastics contain a substantial number of valuable chemicals. The wastes from post-consumer as well as from industrial production can be recycled to valuable chemical feedstock, which can be used in refineries and/or petrochemical industries. This chemical recycling process is an ideal approach in recycling the waste for a better environment. Polymer cracking using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor concentrated on the used highly contaminated catalyst, E-Cat 2. Even though E-Cat 2 had low activity due to fewer acid sites, the products yielded were similar with amorphous ASA and were far better than thermal cracking. The high levels of heavy metals, namely nickel and vanadium, deposited during their lifetime as an FCC catalyst, did not greatly affect on the catalyst activity. It was also shown that E-Cat 2 could be used with and without regeneration. Although there was more deactivation when there was no regeneration step, the yield of gases (C(2)-C(7)) remained fairly constant. For the first time, these results indicate that "waste" FCC catalyst (E-Cat) is a good candidate for future feedstock recycling of polymer waste. The major benefits of using E-Cat are a low market price, the ability to tolerate reuse and regeneration capacity.
In the current study, a sol-gel-synthesized tricalcium magnesium silicate powder was coated on Ti-6Al-4V alloys using plasma spray method. Composition of feed powder was evaluated by X-ray diffraction technique before and after the coating process. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the morphology of coated substrates. The corrosion behaviors of bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were examined using potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in stimulated body fluids. Moreover, bare and coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys were characterized in vitro by culturing osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cells for several days. Results demonstrated a meaningful improvement in the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloys coated with tricalcium magnesium silicate compared with the bare counterparts, by showing a decrease in corrosion current density from 1.84 μA/cm2 to 0.31 μA/cm2. Furthermore, the coating substantially improved the bioactivity of Ti-6Al-4Valloys. Our study on corrosion behavior and biological response of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated by tricalcium magnesium silicate proved that the coating has considerably enhanced safety and applicability of Ti-6Al-4V alloys, suggesting its potential use in permanent implants and artificial joints.
Development of new materials for different applications especially as bio-composites has received great attention. This study concentrates on development of a biopolymer based on chitosan (CT) and halloysite nanotubes (HNT) and evaluates the copper removal intake as a potential application of this bio-composite. In this study, CT/HNT beads were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extrusion-dripping method for the first time. Two sources of HNTs (i.e. Dragonite and Matauri Bay) were added into a chitosan solution (2wt.%) at various loading fractions (25, 50, 75wt.%). The effect of ultrasound as a mixing device was also studied by varying the amplitude at constant frequency of 25%, 50% and 75%. Characteristics and physical properties of the prepared CT/HNT beads were also analyzed by SEM, FTIR, TGA and BET the results show that introducing HNT to chitosan increases the adsorption capacity toward copper ions; however HNT loading fraction above 50wt.% resulted in a decrease in adsorption capacity attributed to limited accessibility of the amino groups. The adsorption capacity of the CT/HNT beads prepared from Dragonite source had a larger adsorption capacity of 14.2mg/g as compared to that of Matauri Bay, 10.55mg/g. It was observed that the adsorption capacity of the beads toward copper ions decreased when the loading fraction of HNT is increased at constant ultrasound amplitude. The result of this study helps to understand the links between the characteristics and adsorption abilities of CT/HNT beads.
This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.
The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of Al2O3 on α-calcium silicate (α-CaSiO3) ceramic. α-CaSiO3 was synthesized from CaO and SiO2 using mechanochemical method followed by calcinations at 1000°C. α-CaSiO3 and alumina were grinded using ball mill to create mixtures, containing 0-50w% of Al2O3 loadings. The powders were uniaxially pressed and followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) in order to achieve greater uniformity of compaction and to increase the shape capability. Afterward, the compaction was sintered in a resistive element furnace at both 1150°C and 1250°C with a 5h holding time. It was found that alumina reacted with α-CaSiO3 and formed alumina-rich calcium aluminates after sintering. An addition of 15wt% of Al2O3 powder at 1250°C were found to improve the hardness and fracture toughness of the calcium silicate. It was also observed that the average grain sizes of α-CaSiO3 /Al2O3 composite were maintained 500-700nm after sintering process.
In this study, regenerated cellulose/halloysites (RC/HNT) nanocomposites with different nanofillers loading were fabricated by dissolving the cellulose in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIMCl) ionic liquid. The films were prepared via solution casting method and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical properties were investigated by tensile testing. It clearly displayed a good enhancement of both tensile strength and Young's modulus with HNT loading up to 5 wt%. As the HNT loadings increased to 5 wt%, the thermal behaviour and water resistance rate was also increased. The TEM and SEM images also depicted even dispersion of the HNT and a good intertubular interaction between the HNT and the cellulose matrix.
In this study, novel nanocomposite films based on regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube (RC/HNT) have been prepared using an environmentally friendly ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) through a simple green method. The structural, morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of the RC/HNT nanocomposites were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermal analysis and tensile strength measurements. The results obtained revealed interactions between the halloysite nanotubes and regenerated cellulose matrix. The thermal stability and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films, compared with pure regenerated cellulose film, were significantly improved When the halloysite nanotube (HNT) loading was only 2 wt.%, the 20% weight loss temperature (T20) increased 20°C. The Young's modulus increased from 1.8 to 4.1 GPa, while tensile strength increased from 35.30 to 60.50 MPa when 8 wt.% halloysite nanotube (HNT) was incorporated, interestingly without loss of ductility. The nanocomposite films exhibited improved oxygen barrier properties and water absorption resistance compared to regenerated cellulose.
This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of temperature on geopolymers manufactured using pozzolanic materials (fly ash). In this paper, we report on our investigation of the performance of porous geopolymers made with fly ash after exposure to temperatures from 600 °C up to 1000 °C. The research methodology consisted of pozzolanic materials (fly ash) synthesized with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution as an alkaline activator. Foaming agent solution was added to geopolymer paste. The geopolymer paste samples were cured at 60 °C for one day and the geopolymers samples were sintered from 600 °C to 1000 °C to evaluate strength loss due to thermal damage. We also studied their phase formation and microstructure. The heated geopolymers samples were tested by compressive strength after three days. The results showed that the porous geopolymers exhibited strength increases after temperature exposure.
The removal of ammonium from aqueous solutions using zeolite NaY prepared from a local agricultural waste, rice husk ash waste was investigated and a naturally occurring zeolite mordenite in powdered and granulated forms was used as comparison. Zeolite NaY and mordenite were well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and the total cation exchange capacity (CEC). CEC of the zeolites were measured as 3.15, 1.46 and 1.34 meq g(-1) for zeolite Y, powdered mordenite and granular mordenite, respectively. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium data for the removal of NH(4)(+) ions were examined by fitting the experimental data to various models. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order reaction. The equilibrium pattern fits well with the Langmuir isotherm compared to the other isotherms. The monolayer adsorption capacity for zeolite Y (42.37 mg/g) was found to be higher than that powdered mordenite (15.13 mg/g) and granular mordenite (14.56 mg/g). Thus, it can be concluded that the low cost and economical rice husk ash-synthesized zeolite NaY could be a better sorbent for ammonium removal due to its rapid adsorption rate and higher adsorption capacity compared to natural mordenite.
In this work, the potential of CO₂ mineral carbonation of brucite (Mg(OH)2) derived from the Mount Tawai peridotite (forsterite based (Mg)₂SiO4) to produce thermodynamically stable magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) was evaluated. The effect of three main factors (reaction temperature, particle size, and water vapor) were investigated in a sequence of experiments consisting of aqueous acid leaching, evaporation to dryness of the slurry mass, and then gas-solid carbonation under pressurized CO2. The maximum amount of Mg converted to MgCO₃ is ~99%, which occurred at temperatures between 150 and 175 °C. It was also found that the reduction of particle size range from >200 to <75 µm enhanced the leaching rate significantly. In addition, the results showed the essential role of water vapor in promoting effective carbonation. By increasing water vapor concentration from 5 to 10 vol %, the mineral carbonation rate increased by 30%. This work has also numerically modeled the process by which CO₂ gas may be sequestered, by reaction with forsterite in the presence of moisture. In both experimental analysis and geochemical modeling, the results showed that the reaction is favored and of high yield; going almost to completion (within about one year) with the bulk of the carbon partitioning into magnesite and that very little remains in solution.
In this study, a new, more effective and cost-effective treatment alternative is investigated for the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater treatment plant effluent (WWTP-eff). The potential of combining clay with biodegradable polymeric flocculants is further highlighted. Flocculation is viewed as the best method to get the optimum outcome from clay. In addition, flocculation with cationic starch increases the biodegradability and cost of the treatment. Clay is naturally abundantly available and relatively inexpensive compared to conventional adsorbents. Experimental studies were carried out with existing naturally occurring pharmaceutical concentrations found and measured in WWTP-eff with atrazine spiking for comparison between the demineralised water and WWTP-eff matrix. Around 70% of the total measured pharmaceutical compounds were removable by the clay-starch combination. The effect of clay with and without starch addition was also highlighted.
This study aimed to investigate the structural, physical and mechanical behavior of composites and functionally graded materials (FGMs) made of stainless steel (SS-316L)/hydroxyapatite (HA) and SS-316L/calcium silicate (CS) employing powder metallurgical solid state sintering. The structural analysis using X-ray diffraction showed that the sintering at high temperature led to the reaction between compounds of the SS-316L and HA, while SS-316L and CS remained intact during the sintering process in composites of SS-316L/CS. A dimensional expansion was found in the composites made of 40 and 50 wt% HA. The minimum shrinkage was emerged in 50 wt% CS composite, while the maximum shrinkage was revealed in samples with pure SS-316L, HA and CS. Compressive mechanical properties of SS-316L/HA decreased sharply with increasing of HA content up to 20 wt% and gradually with CS content up to 50 wt% for SS-316L/CS composites. The mechanical properties of the FGM of SS-316L/HA dropped with increase in temperature, while it was improved for the FGM of SS-316L/CS with temperature enhancement. It has been found that the FGMs emerged a better compressive mechanical properties compared to both the composite systems. Therefore, the SS-316L/CS composites and their FGMs have superior compressive mechanical properties to the SS-316L/HA composites and their FGMs and also the newly developed FGMs of SS-316L/CS with improved mechanical and enhanced gradation in physical and structural properties can potentially be utilized in the components with load-bearing application.
Slope failure has become a major concern in Malaysia due to the rapid development and urbanisation in the country. It poses severe threats to any highway construction industry, residential areas, natural resources and tourism activities. The extent of damages that resulted from this catastrophe can be lessened if a long-term early warning system to predict landslide prone areas is implemented. Thus, this study aims to characterise the relationship between Oxisols properties and soil colour variables to be manipulated as key indicators to forecast shallow slope failure. The concentration of each soil property in slope soil was evaluated from two different localities that consist of 120 soil samples from stable and unstable slopes located along the North-South Highway (PLUS) and East-West Highway (LPT). Analysis of variance established highly significant difference (P
Nanotubular clay minerals, composed of aluminosilicate naturally structured in layers known as halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), have a significant reinforcing impact on polymer matrixes. HNTs have broad applications in biomedical applications, the medicine sector, implant alloys with corrosion protection and manipulated transportation of medicines. In polymer engineering, different research studies utilize HNTs that exhibit a beneficial enhancement in the properties of polymer-based nanocomposites. The dispersion of HNTs is improved as a result of pre-treating HNTs with acids. The HNTs' percentage additive up to 7% shows the highest improvement of tensile strength. The degradation of the polymer can be also significantly improved by doping a low percentage of HNTs. Both the mechanical and thermal properties of polymers were remarkably improved when mixed with HNTs. The effects of HNTs on the mechanical and thermal properties of polymers, such as ultimate strength, elastic modulus, impact strength and thermal stability, are emphasized in this study.
Considering the chemical properties of batik effluents, an efficient and economical treatment process was established to treat batik wastewater containing not only high levels of Si and chemical oxygen demand (COD), but also toxic heavy metals. After mixing the effluents obtained from the boiling and soaking steps in the batik process, acidification using concentrated hydrochloric acid (conc. HCl) was conducted to polymerize the silicate under acidic conditions. Consequently, sludge was produced and floated. XRD and FT-IR analyses showed that wax molecules were coordinated by hydrogen bonding with silica (SiO2). The acidification process removed ∼78-95% of COD and ∼45-50% of Si, depending on the pH. In the next stage, magnesium oxide (MgO) was applied to remove heavy metals completely and almost 90% of the Si in the liquid phase. During this step, about 70% of COD was removed in the hydrogel that arose as a consequence of the crosslinking characteristics of the formed nano-composite, such as magnesium silicate or montmorillonite. The hydrogel was composed mainly of waxes with polymeric properties. Then, the remaining Si (∼300 mg/L) in the wastewater combined with the effluents from the rinsing steps was further treated using 50 mg/L MgO. As a final step, palm-shell activated carbon (PSAC) was used to remove the remaining COD to