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  1. Zhu C, Zhou W, Han M, Yang Y, Li Y, Jiang Q, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2023 Sep 15;891:164460.
    PMID: 37247739 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.164460
    Microplastics and nanoplastics (MPs and NPs) are abundant, persistent, and widespread environmental pollutants that are of increasing concern as they pose a serious threat to ecosystems and aquatic species. Identifying the ecological effects of NPs pollution requires understanding the effects of changing nanoplastics concentrations in aquatic organisms. Monopterus albus were orally fed three different concentrations of 100 nm polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs): 0.05 %, 0.5 %, and 1 % of the feed for 28 days. Nanoplastics significantly activated the PPAR signaling pathway, Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1A), angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) at the mRNA level, resulting in disturbed lipid metabolism. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly elevated in the high nanoplastics-feeding exposure group, leading to oxidative stress in the liver. Overexpression of the cytokines genes Interleukin 1 (IL1B) and Interleukin-8 (IL8), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), activation of MAPK signaling pathway, and increased gene expression of c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 indicate that exposure to NPs may lead to hepatopancreas apoptosis through oxidative stress and inflammation. In summary, dietary PS-NPs exposure alters hepatic glycolipid metabolism, triggering inflammatory responses and apoptosis in M. albus. The results of this study provide valuable ecotoxicological data for a better understanding of the biological fate and effects of nanoplastics in M. albus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha*
  2. Lawson JM, Foster SJ, Lim AC, Chong VC, Vincent AC
    J Fish Biol, 2015 Jan;86(1):1-15.
    PMID: 25307290 DOI: 10.1111/jfb.12527
    Life-history variables for three incidentally captured species of seahorse (Kellogg's seahorse Hippocampus kelloggi, the hedgehog seahorse Hippocampus spinosissimus and the three-spot seahorse Hippocampus trimaculatus) were established using specimens obtained from 33 fisheries landing sites in Peninsular Malaysia. When samples were pooled by species across the peninsula, sex ratios were not significantly different from unity, and height and mass relationships were significant for all species. For two of these species, height at physical maturity (HM ) was smaller than the height at which reproductive activity (HR ) commenced: H. spinosissimus (HM = 99·6 mm, HR = 123·2 mm) and H. trimaculatus (HM = 90·5 mm, HR = 121·8 mm). For H. kelloggi, HM could not be estimated as all individuals were physically mature, while HR = 167·4 mm. It appears that all three Hippocampus spp. were, on average, caught before reproducing; height at 50% capture (HC ) was ≥HM but ≤HR . The results from this study probe the effectiveness of assessment techniques for data-poor fisheries that rely heavily on estimates of length at maturity, especially if maturity is poorly defined. Findings also question the sustainability of H. trimaculatus catches in the south-west region of Peninsular Malaysia, where landed specimens had a notably smaller mean height (86·2 mm) and markedly skewed sex ratio (6% males) compared with samples from the south-east and north-west of the peninsula.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha/physiology*
  3. Sow AY, Ismail A, Zulkifli SZ, Amal MN, Hambali KA
    Sci Rep, 2019 04 23;9(1):6391.
    PMID: 31015502 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-42753-2
    This work investigates the metals concentration in the tissues of Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus. Five selected tissues, including liver, gill, bone, skin, and muscle were examined for the concentration of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were found high in the muscle tissues of the eels. Additionally, high amounts of Zn and Cu metals were observed in the liver, whereas the Cd, Pb, and Ni metals were highly detected in gill. The accumulation of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni in both skin and bone of the eel seems to vary between seasons. Low levels of Zn, Cu, and Ni were identified in the muscle tissues of the eels. This study revealed that the concentration of Cd and Pb in the muscle tissues of Asian swamp eels exceeded the permissible limits by the US EPA, suggesting the consumption of the muscle may be hazardous and can severely affect one's health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha/metabolism*
  4. Tsuboi M, Lim AC, Ooi BL, Yip MY, Chong VC, Ahnesjö I, et al.
    J Evol Biol, 2017 Jan;30(1):150-160.
    PMID: 27748990 DOI: 10.1111/jeb.12995
    Brain size varies greatly at all taxonomic levels. Feeding ecology, life history and sexual selection have been proposed as key components in generating contemporary diversity in brain size across vertebrates. Analyses of brain size evolution have, however, been limited to lineages where males predominantly compete for mating and females choose mates. Here, we present the first original data set of brain sizes in pipefishes and seahorses (Syngnathidae) a group in which intense female mating competition occurs in many species. After controlling for the effect of shared ancestry and overall body size, brain size was positively correlated with relative snout length. Moreover, we found that females, on average, had 4.3% heavier brains than males and that polyandrous species demonstrated more pronounced (11.7%) female-biased brain size dimorphism. Our results suggest that adaptations for feeding on mobile prey items and sexual selection in females are important factors in brain size evolution of pipefishes and seahorses. Most importantly, our study supports the idea that sexual selection plays a major role in brain size evolution, regardless of on which sex sexual selection acts stronger.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha/anatomy & histology*
  5. Shapawi R, Anyie AL, Hussien MA, Zuldin WH
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2015 Dec;26(2):1-13.
    PMID: 26868706 MyJurnal
    Seahorse diversity (genus Hippocampus, Family Syngnathidae), species identification, size composition and sexual dimorphism were studied from November 2012 to March 2013 in selected coastal waters around Kota Kinabalu, Sabah and the local market trade. Six species of seahorses were identified in the study: (1) Hippocampus barbouri, (2) Hippocampus comes, (3) Hippocampus kelloggi, (4) Hippocampus kuda, (5) Hippocampus spinosissimus and (6) Hippocampus trimaculatus. All six species were sold at the local market, and the dried seahorses were obtained mainly by local fishermen using trawl by-catch method and traded as traditional medicine, souvenirs and other uses. Four species were identified by direct samplings in various different habitats of Kota Kinabalu coastal waters: (1) H. barbouri, (2) H. comes, (3) H. kuda, and (4) H. spinosissimus. Based on the results, H. comes was the largest in size among the four fresh/live species found (mean standard length [SL]: 148.25±1.26 mm), whereas H. barbouri was the smallest species (mean SL: 129±7.81 mm). For the dried samples, H. kelloggi was the largest (mean SL: 245.25±14.55 mm) and H. barbouri was the smallest (mean SL: 127.21±10.01 mm). No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between the lengths of males and females in every seahorse species, and there was no sexual size dimorphism in any of the species. The findings from the study are significant to provide baseline data for the conservation efforts of these unique marine teleost.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha
  6. Ashiq Ur Rahman M, Khan SA, Lyla PS, Kadharsha K, Chander PM, John BA
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2013 Apr 01;16(7):345-50.
    PMID: 24498802
    Determination of Length-weight Relationship (LWR) of any commercially important fish is crucial to validate the wild stock level, to predict their wellbeing in the natural habitat and for various sustainable fishery management practices. Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) is noted to be highly abundant along the coast of Parangipettai, South east coast of India. Hence, the present study was aimed to establish Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Greenback mullet, Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) occurring in Vellar estuary, Parangipettai (lat. 11 degrees 30' N, long. 79 degrees 46' E) using least square method. To determine the actual relationship between length and weight of L. subviridis exponent coefficient or equilibrium constant (b) and relative condition factor (Kn) analysis were adopted. The females were found to be heavier than males at similar length. The equilibrium constant 'b' was found to be 2.7106 in males and 2.8927 in females. The corresponding parabolic representation for male was W = 0.0462L(2.7106) and for female W = 0.0382L(2.8927). The equilibrium constant did not obey the cube law as it deviated significantly from 3 in the case of males. The relative condition factor around 1 and little over it revealed the well-being of L. subviridis in Parangipettai waters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha/anatomy & histology*; Smegmamorpha/growth & development
  7. Ab Ghani NI, Merilä J
    Ecol Evol, 2015 Jan;5(1):7-23.
    PMID: 25628860 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1342
    Compensatory growth (CG) may be an adaptive mechanism that helps to restore an organisms' growth trajectory and adult size from deviations caused by early life resource limitation. Yet, few studies have investigated the genetic basis of CG potential and existence of genetically based population differentiation in CG potential. We studied population differentiation, genetic basis, and costs of CG potential in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) differing in their normal growth patterns. As selection favors large body size in pond and small body size in marine populations, we expected CG to occur in the pond but not in the marine population. By manipulating feeding conditions (viz. high, low and recovery feeding treatments), we found clear evidence for CG in the pond but not in the marine population, as well as evidence for catch-up growth (i.e., size compensation without growth acceleration) in both populations. In the marine population, overcompensation occurred individuals from the recovery treatment grew eventually larger than those from the high feeding treatment. In both populations, the recovery feeding treatment reduced maturation probability. The recovery feeding treatment also reduced survival probability in the marine but not in the pond population. Analysis of interpopulation hybrids further suggested that both genetic and maternal effects contributed to the population differences in CG. Hence, apart from demonstrating intrinsic costs for recovery growth, both genetic and maternal effects were identified to be important modulators of CG responses. The results provide an evidence for adaptive differentiation in recovery growth potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha
  8. Aylesworth L, Lawson JM, Laksanawimol P, Ferber P, Loh TL
    J Fish Biol, 2016 Apr;88(4):1620-30.
    PMID: 26840386 DOI: 10.1111/jfb.12908
    New records of the Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei from Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, along with recently published studies from India and Singapore, have greatly expanded the known range of H. mohnikei within Southeast Asia. These new records reveal novel habitat preferences and threats to H. mohnikei in the region. Although the global conservation status of H. mohnikei is classified as Data Deficient according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, new sightings indicate that this species is found in similar habitats and faces similar threats as other Hippocampus species that are considered Vulnerable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha
  9. Nyanti L, Nur 'Asikin R, Ling T, Jongkar G
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1517-1525.
    This study aimed to document the fish diversity and water quality at Semariang mangrove area, Kuching, Sarawak, which is located at the eastern part of Kuching Wetland National Park. Field samplings were carried out in 2009 during the construction of the flood mitigation channel at the eastern part of the park. A total of 21 families represented by 37 species of fish were caught from the area. The six dominant families in terms of the number of individuals caught were Mugilidae (16%), Leiognathidae (16%), Ambassidae (11%), Ariidae (9%), Lutjanidae (8%) and Plotosidae (6%). In terms of the percentage of six dominant genera based on the number of individuals caught, 16% was represented by Valamugil, 11% by Ambassis, 10% by Gazza, 9% by Arius, 8% by Lutjanus and 6% by Plotosus. The values of diversity and richness indices were lower at stations located close to the flood mitigation channel. Similarly, the concentrations of dissolved oxygen were lower and total suspended solids were significantly higher at stations close to the channel and sand mining area. Therefore, fish fauna and water quality at Semariang mangrove area were affected during the construction of the flood mitigation channel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha
  10. Lim AC, Chong VC, Chew WX, Muniandy SV, Wong CS, Ong ZC
    J Acoust Soc Am, 2015 Jul;138(1):404-12.
    PMID: 26233039 DOI: 10.1121/1.4923153
    Acoustic signals of the tiger-tail seahorse (Hippocampus comes) during feeding were studied using wavelet transform analysis. The seahorse "click" appears to be a compounded sound, comprising three acoustic components that likely come from two sound producing mechanisms. The click sound begins with a low-frequency precursor signal, followed by a sudden high-frequency spike that decays quickly, and a final, low-frequency sinusoidal component. The first two components can, respectively, be traced to the sliding movement and forceful knock between the supraorbital bone and coronet bone of the cranium, while the third one (purr) although appearing to be initiated here is produced elsewhere. The seahorse also produces a growling sound when under duress. Growling is accompanied by the highest recorded vibration at the cheek indicating another sound producing mechanism here. The purr has the same low frequency as the growl; both are likely produced by the same structural mechanism. However, growl and purr are triggered and produced under different conditions, suggesting that such "vocalization" may have significance in communication between seahorses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha/physiology*
  11. Sow AY, Ismail A, Zulkifli SZ, Amal MN, Hambali K
    BMC Pharmacol Toxicol, 2019 Jan 29;20(1):8.
    PMID: 30696486 DOI: 10.1186/s40360-019-0286-x
    BACKGROUND: Levels of toxic metal exposure in indigenous inhabitants are key bioindicators of the severity of environmental contamination. This study measured the seasonal variation of heavy metals and metallothionein (MT) contents in Asian swamp eels (Monopterus albus) from a paddy field situated in Tumpat, Kelantan, Malaysia, to identify prevalence, patterns and associations and togain insight on the suitability of MT as a biomarker for metal exposure.

    METHODS: Gill, muscle and liver tissues of M. albus (n = 50) sampled during the ploughing, seedling, growing and harvesting phases of rice growing were collected. The concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and cadmium (Cd) in these tissues were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. MT from each sample was isolated and purified, and subsequently quantitated using UV spectrophotometry. Associations between metal and MT concentrations, season and tissue type were evaluated using Pearson correlation and ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey HSD analysis.

    RESULTS: Zn was present in higher quantities in gill and liver tissues, while Cu levels were elevated solely in liver. Patterns of non-essential metal accumulation were varied: Cd was detected in low concentrations in all tissues, while Pb and Ni were abundant in gill tissues across all seasons. MT concentration in liver tissue was consistently higher than that found in muscle or gill tissue, except during the growing phase. Moreover, significant correlations (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha*
  12. Soo OY, Lim LH
    J Helminthol, 2015 Mar;89(2):131-49.
    PMID: 24148150 DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X13000655
    Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. and Ligophorus kederai n. sp. are described from Liza subviridis Valenciennes, 1836 and Valamugil buchanani Bleeker, 1854, respectively. Ligophorus kederai n. sp. has fenestrated ventral anchors, while in L. belanaki n. sp. the ventral anchor is not fenestrated. Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. is similar to L. careyensis, one of its coexisting congeners, in the overall shape and size of hard parts, but differs in having a flat median piece in the structure of the AMP (antero-median protuberance of the ventral bar), copulatory organ with non-ornamented initial part and longer vaginal tube, compared to raised median piece in the AMP, ornamented initial part and comparatively shorter vaginal tube in L. careyensis. Ligophorus kederai n. sp. is similar to L. fenestrum, a coexisting congener, in having fenestrated ventral anchors, but differs in having longer points and narrower base. Ligophorus fenestrum, unlike L. kederai n. sp., also possesses fenestrated dorsal anchors. The principal component analysis (PCA) scatterplots indicate that the two new and eight known Ligophorus species from Malaysian mugilids can be differentiated based on the morphometries of their anchors, ventral bars and copulatory organ separately and when combined together. Numerical taxonomy (NT) analyses based on Jaccard's Index of Similarity and neighbour-joining clustering, is used to facilitate comparison of these two new species with the 50 known Ligophorus based on morphological and metric characters. The two new species are different from each other and the other 50 species in the overall shapes and sizes of hard parts, as indicated by the NT analyses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha/parasitology
  13. Lim AC, Chong VC, Wong CS, Muniandy SV
    PeerJ, 2015;3:e1471.
    PMID: 26734507 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1471
    Background. Syngnathid fishes produce three kinds of sounds, named click, growl and purr. These sounds are generated by different mechanisms to give a consistent signal pattern or signature which is believed to play a role in intraspecific and interspecific communication. Commonly known sounds are produced when the fish feeds (click, purr) or is under duress (growl). While there are more acoustic studies on seahorses, pipefishes have not received much attention. Here we document the differences in feeding click signals between three species of pipefishes and relate them to cranial morphology and kinesis, or the sound-producing mechanism. Methods. The feeding clicks of two species of freshwater pipefishes, Doryichthys martensii and Doryichthys deokhathoides and one species of estuarine pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus, were recorded by a hydrophone in acoustic dampened tanks. The acoustic signals were analysed using time-scale distribution (or scalogram) based on wavelet transform. A detailed time-varying analysis of the spectral contents of the localized acoustic signal was obtained by jointly interpreting the oscillogram, scalogram and power spectrum. The heads of both Doryichthys species were prepared for microtomographical scans which were analysed using a 3D imaging software. Additionally, the cranial bones of all three species were examined using a clearing and double-staining method for histological studies. Results. The sound characteristics of the feeding click of the pipefish is species-specific, appearing to be dependent on three bones: the supraoccipital, 1st postcranial plate and 2nd postcranial plate. The sounds are generated when the head of the Dorichthyes pipefishes flexes backward during the feeding strike, as the supraoccipital slides backwards, striking and pushing the 1st postcranial plate against (and striking) the 2nd postcranial plate. In the Syngnathoides pipefish, in the absence of the 1st postcranial plate, the supraoccipital rubs against the 2nd postcranial plate twice as it is pulled backward and released on the return. Cranial morphology and kinesis produce acoustic signals consistent with the bone strikes that produce sharp energy spikes (discrete or merged), or stridulations between bones that produce repeated or multimodal sinusoidal waveforms. Discussion. The variable structure of the sound-producing mechanism explains the unique acoustic signatures of the three species of pipefish. The differences in cranial bone morphology, cranial kinesis and acoustic signatures among pipefishes (and seahorses) could be attributed to independent evolution within the Syngnathidae, which warrants further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha
  14. Yin SA, Ismail A, Zulkifli SZ
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2012 Dec;23(2):27-38.
    PMID: 24575231 MyJurnal
    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha
  15. Rosli, N., Sarbon, N.M.
    MyJurnal
    The aims of this study are to report on the extraction and characterization of Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) skin gelatin. The characterization conducted were includes chemical composition, pH, gel strength, viscosity, thermal property, color and structure determination of extracted eel skin gelatin. Eel skin contains 70.28% moisture, 11.07% protein, 4.21% fat, and 5.01% ash. The chemical composition of eel skin gelatin (yield of 12.75%) was 18.8% moisture, 67.64% protein, 0.34% fat and 1.08% ash, with a pH of 4.62 and gel strength of 215.96 g (± 9.62 g). Although viscosity (2.8 cPa/min) profile of eel skin gelatin showed lower than that of bovine gelatin, the higher melting temperature (35 °C) of eel skin gelatin indicating its higher stability than bovine gelatin with FTIR spectrum similar to that of typical bovine gelatin. Eel skin gelatin has a 71.4 (± 1.14), a +3.2 (± 0.29), and a +7.52 (± 0.29) for L*, a* and b* value respectively, indicate a darker and less yellow colour. These findings show promising potential for the application of eel skin gelatin as an alternative to commercial gelatin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha
  16. Sow AY, Ismail A, Zulkifli SZ
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2013 Jul;91(1):6-12.
    PMID: 23666324 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-013-1009-4
    Livers and muscles of swamp eels (Monopterus albus) were analyzed for bioaccumulation of heavy metals during the plowing stage of a paddy cycle. Results showed heavy metals were bioaccumulated more highly in liver than muscle. Zinc (Zn) was the highest bioaccumulated metal in liver (98.5 ± 8.95 μg/g) and in muscle (48.8 ± 7.17 μg/g). The lowest bioaccumulated metals were cadmium (Cd) in liver (3.44 ± 2.42 μg/g) and copper (Cu) in muscle (0.65 ± 0.20 μg/g). In sediments, Zn was present at the highest mean concentration (52.7 ± 2.85 μg/g), while Cd had the lowest mean concentration (1.04 ± 0.24 μg/g). The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, Cd and nickel (Ni) in liver tissue was greater than the corresponding BSAF for muscle tissue. For the three plowing stages, metal concentrations were significantly correlated between liver and muscle tissues in all cases, and between sediment and either liver or muscle in most cases. Mean measured metal concentrations in muscle tissue were below the maximum permissible limits established by Malaysian and U.S. governmental agencies, and were therefore regarded as safe for human consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha/metabolism*
  17. Abdelsalam M, Chen SC, Yoshida T
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2010 Jan;302(1):32-8.
    PMID: 19895643 DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01828.x
    Lancefield group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging fish pathogen, which was first isolated in 2002 in Japan. Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates collected from diseased fish in Japan (n=12), Taiwan (n=12), China (n=2), Malaysia (n=3), and Indonesia (n=1) were characterized using biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE), sodA gene sequence analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility. These isolates exhibited high phenotypic homogeneity irrespective of the countries from where the strains were collected. Seventeen isolates were found to be resistant to oxytetracycline and carried the tet(M) gene, except for the strains collected in Taiwan and the PP1564 strain collected in China. The sodA gene sequence analysis revealed that 23 isolates were identical, except for one Japanese isolate (KNH07902), in which a single nucleotide differed from that of the other isolates. Based on BSFGE typing by ApaI macrorestriction, the isolates - including the Japanese, Taiwanese, and Chinese isolates - could be grouped into one main cluster at a 70% similarity level. However, the macrorestriction genotypes of some isolates were apparently distinct from those of the main cluster.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smegmamorpha/microbiology*
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