Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 104 in total

  1. Ei KS, Shoesmith WD
    In this study parallel scales were constructed to use to measure the levels of HIV-related stigma towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in populations with different backgrounds in Sabah. The study also explored the components of stigma within the population. We found that there were three principle components of HIV related stigma: “Interpersonal distancing,” “Shame and blame,” and “Positive opinions about PLHIV”. The scales constructed showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.69 to 0.85) in all samples. The medical students and people with more knowledge about HIV had significantly lower levels of all three factors of personal stigma. Regarding HIV-related knowledge, the non-medical university students and the rural community group were found to have poor knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention. This scale can be used by researchers or public health officials who wish to study HIV related stigma or to evaluate the impact of stigma interventions in the local context.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma*
  2. Ahmad S, Ismail AI, Zim MAM, Ismail NE
    Front Public Health, 2019;7:420.
    PMID: 32039131 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2019.00420
    Purpose: The elusive goal of asthma management guidelines is to achieve and maintain good asthma control in asthmatic patients. Against a background of long-term respiratory limitations when living with asthma, stigma and low self-esteem have also been identified as the social phenomenon among adult asthmatics. This study aimed to assess the levels of self-stigma, self-esteem, and asthma control, and to investigate the impact of self-stigma and self-esteem as psychosocial factors on asthma control in Malaysian adults living with asthma.
    Materials and Methods: In this multicenter cross-sectional study, post-ethics approval and patients' consents, 152 stable asthmatic patients (aged > 18 years old; nil cognitive disability; not diagnosed with other respiratory diseases) were recruited from four respiratory clinics in Selangor, Malaysia. The patients' socio-demographic, medical, and psychosocial (self-stigma and self-esteem) data were recorded in a pre-validated, self-designed questionnaire. All data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially (independent t-test/one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression) using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS®).
    Results: The enrolled patients showed moderate levels of self-stigma (62.12 ± 6.44) and self-esteem (29.31 ± 3.29), and not well-controlled asthma (17.58 ± 3.99). The number of patients' visits to emergency rooms because of asthma [CI (-1.199, 0.317), p < 0.001] was the significant predictor to asthma control among all selected study variables from socio-demographic and medical data. Moreover, from psychosocial factors both self-stigma [CI (-0.367, 0.190), p < 0.001], and self-esteem [CI (-0.007, 0.033), p = 0.041] found to be the significant predictors of asthma control.
    Conclusion: The preliminary evidences presented in this study found that frequent emergency room visits, high self-stigma and low self-esteem in asthma patients becomes more apparent with poor asthma control. Educational interventions to reduce patients' self-stigma and improve self-esteem are needed to achieve optimal control of asthma.
    Study site: Four respiratory clinics in Selangor, Malaysia (UiTM Respiratory specialist Clinic, Hospital Selayang and Hospital Sungai Buloh)
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma*
  3. Ahmadi K, Reidpath DD, Allotey P, Hassali MA
    BMJ Open, 2013;3(5).
    PMID: 23793653 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002755
    HIV/AIDS-related stigma affects the access and utilisation of health services. Although HIV/AIDS-related stigma in the health services has been studied, little work has attended to the relationship between professional development and stigmatising attitudes. Hence, in this study, we will extend earlier research by examining the relationship between the stage of professional development and the kinds of stigmatising attitudes held about people living with HIV/AIDS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  4. Azlan HA, Overton PG, Simpson J, Powell PA
    J Behav Med, 2020 06;43(3):377-390.
    PMID: 31865486 DOI: 10.1007/s10865-019-00130-4
    Disgust-driven stigma may be motivated by an assumption that a stigmatized target presents a disease threat, even in the absence of objective proof. Accordingly, even non-contagious diseases, such as cancer, can become stigmatized by eliciting disgust. This study had two parts: a survey (n = 272), assessing the association between disgust traits and cancer stigma; and an experiment, in which participants were exposed to a cancer surgery (n = 73) or neutral video (n = 68), in order to test a causal mechanism for the abovementioned association. Having a higher proneness to disgust was associated with an increased tendency to stigmatize people with cancer. Further, a significant causal pathway was observed between disgust propensity and awkwardness- and avoidance-based cancer stigma via elevated disgust following cancer surgery exposure. In contrast, those exposed to cancer surgery not experiencing elevated disgust reported less stigma than controls. Exposure-based interventions, which do not elicit disgust, may be profitable in reducing cancer stigma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  5. Khan T, Hassali M, Tahir H, Khan A
    Iran J Public Health, 2011;40(1):50-6.
    PMID: 23113054
    To evaluate public perceptions towards the causes of depression and schizophrenia and identifications of factors resulting stigma towards mental ill.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  6. Nadia, A. B., Leelavathi, M., Narul Aida, S., Diana, M.
    Medicine & Health, 2017;12(2):230-243.
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic remains a significant burden in Malaysia. Stigma related to HIV and its effect on the quality of life (QOL) of persons living with HIV (PLHIV) remains under-reported. The aim of the present study was to assess self-perceived stigma amongst PLHIV attending an urban community clinic and its influence on their QOL. Data was collected using HIV Stigma Scale and WHO-QOL HIV BREF Scale. The overall stigma experienced by PLHIV in this community was higher than previous studies (mean ± SD; 103.37 ±18.14). Majority participants had fear disclosing their disease status, while personalized stigma or the experience of prejudice and rejection was the least experienced. The overall QOL was low and was significantly impaired in social relationship domain (mean ± SD; 12.72 ± 3.59). However, their ability to perform daily activities was not affected by the illness (mean ± SD; 14.48 ± 2.91). PLHIV with higher spiritual values demonstrate lower perception of negative self-image and inferiority (r= -0.54). This finding was unique to PLHIV in this study and suggested the importance of spirituality and personal beliefs on their self-esteem. In conclusion, stigma remains as a significant problem among PLHIV in this community. Primary care offers the best platform to promote a holistic management of PLHIV, where the integration between counselors, religious experts, family and non-governmental associations could come together. The management of PLHIV is unique in every community, hence individualized approach based on cultural norms and beliefs could assist in the overall management of PLHIV.
    Keywords: HIV, quality of life, social stigma
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma*
  7. Owuamalam CK, Rubin M
    Scand J Psychol, 2017 Oct;58(5):458-467.
    PMID: 28901575 DOI: 10.1111/sjop.12388
    Owuamalam, Weerabangsa, Karunagharan and Rubin found that Malaysians associate people in low status groups with anger more than their higher status counterparts: the hunchback heuristic. But is this belief accurate? Here, we propose the alternative possibility that members of low-status groups might deliberately suppress anger to counter this stigma, while members of high-status groups might disinhibit their anger to assert their superiority. To test these propositions, we manipulated undergraduate students' relative group status by leading them to believe that provocative comments about their undergraduate social identity came from a professor (low-status condition) or a junior foundation year student (high-status condition). Using eye-tracking, we then measured their gaze durations on the comments, which we used as a physiological signal of anger: dwelling (Experiment 1). Results revealed that dwelling was significantly greater in the high-status condition than in the low-status condition. Experiment 2 conceptually replicated this pattern using a self-report method and found that the suppression-disinhibition effect occurred only when reputational concerns were strong.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma*
  8. Earnshaw VA, Jin H, Wickersham J, Kamarulzaman A, John J, Altice FL
    Trop Med Int Health, 2014 Jun;19(6):672-679.
    PMID: 24666546 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12306
    OBJECTIVES: Stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is strong in Malaysia. Although stigma has been understudied, it may be a barrier to treating the approximately 81 000 Malaysian PLWHA. The current study explores correlates of intentions to discriminate against PLWHA among medical and dental students, the future healthcare providers of Malaysia.
    METHODS: An online, cross-sectional survey of 1296 medical and dental students was conducted in 2012 at seven Malaysian universities; 1165 (89.9%) completed the survey and were analysed. Socio-demographic characteristics, stigma-related constructs and intentions to discriminate against PLWHA were measured. Linear mixed models were conducted, controlling for clustering by university.
    RESULTS: The final multivariate model demonstrated that students who intended to discriminate more against PLWHA were female, less advanced in their training, and studying dentistry. They further endorsed more negative attitudes towards PLWHA, internalised greater HIV-related shame, reported more HIV-related fear and disagreed more strongly that PLWHA deserve good care. The final model accounted for 38% of the variance in discrimination intent, with 10% accounted for by socio-demographic characteristics and 28% accounted for by stigma-related constructs.
    CONCLUSIONS: It is critical to reduce stigma among medical and dental students to eliminate intentions to discriminate and achieve equitable care for Malaysian PLWHA. Stigma-reduction interventions should be multipronged, addressing attitudes, internalised shame, fear and perceptions of deservingness of care.
    KEYWORDS: HIV/AIDS; Malaisie; Malasia; Malaysia; VIH/SIDA; cuidados sanitarios profesionales; discriminación; discrimination; estigma; homosexuality; professional healthcare students; stigma; stigmatisation; substance abuse; étudiants en profession de soins de santé
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma*
  9. Wo MC, Lim KS, Choo WY, Tan CT
    Epilepsy Res, 2015 Oct;116:67-78.
    PMID: 26354169 DOI: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2015.06.016
    People with epilepsy were (PWE) reported to have poorer employment rate. However, the methodologies used differ greatly from one study to another, making global comparison difficult. We aimed to determine the employment rate of PWE globally using a unified definition of employment rate and to summarize the reported positive and negative factors affecting employability in PWE, using a systematic review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma*
  10. Dahlui M, Azahar N, Bulgiba A, Zaki R, Oche OM, Adekunjo FO, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(12):e0143749.
    PMID: 26658767 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143749
    HIV/AIDS remain a major public health concern in Nigeria. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) face not only personal medical problems but also social problems associated with the disease such as stigma and discriminatory attitudes. This study provides an insight into HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination against PLWHA in Nigeria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  11. Hanafiah AN, Van Bortel T
    PMID: 25774215 DOI: 10.1186/s13033-015-0002-1
    Stigma of mental illness has been identified as a significant barrier to help-seeking and care. Basic knowledge of mental illness - such as its nature, symptoms and impact - are neglected, leaving room for misunderstandings on mental health and 'stigma'. Numerous researches have been conducted on stigma and discrimination of people with mental disorders. However, most of the literature investigates stigma from a cultural conception point of view, experiences of patients or public attitudes towards mental illness but little to none from the standpoint of mental health professionals. In Malaysia, this research on stigma is particularly limited. Therefore, the state of stigma and discrimination of people with mental illness was investigated from the perspectives of mental health professionals in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  12. Osman Che Bakar, Ainsah Omar
    Medical Health Reviews, 2009;2009(2):17-26.
    The various shortcomings involving issues related to managing patients with mental health are compared to those with physical health which are mainly attributed to attitude, misconception and stigma attached to mental health. There is a strong need to have a comprehensive collective efforts and a paradigm shift on how to deal with these critical issues especially in the area of Primary care for mentally ill.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  13. Maruta T, Matsumoto C
    Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci, 2019 Jun;28(3):262-264.
    PMID: 30370893 DOI: 10.1017/S2045796018000598
    The movement towards renaming of schizophrenia in Japan started in 1993 upon receipt of a letter by The National Federation of Families with Mentally Ill in Japan addressed to the board of Japanese Society of Psychiatry of Neurology (JSPN), requesting to rename schizophrenia as the then-official term for the condition, Seishin-Bunretsu-Byo, or 'mind-splitting disease', was humiliating. A committee was established within JSPN to address the issue, public comments were collected, a new name 'Togo-Shitcho-Sho' ('disintegration disorder') was approved in 2002, and in 2005, the new name was adopted in the Revised Mental Health and Welfare Act. This paper describes the process of renaming, and also the current situation in Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong and Malaysia, where Chinese characters are used. Also, it presents alternative names for schizophrenia that have been suggested in the process of two research projects conducted by the authors and also additional candidates suggested by others.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  14. Raja Nur Fakhriah Raja Zainal B, Aizan Sofia A
    Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 2018;32:131-145.
    Education is one of the most important aspects for every individual including people with visual impairments. Visually impaired students also have the right to a good educational opportunity to higher education. In this regard, this article explores the issues and challenges of visually impaired students in higher learning institution. This study uses a full qualitative approach, a case study in the Klang Valley. In-depth interviews were used in data collection involving 5 students with visual impairment: four males and one female. The findings showed that among the major issues faced by visually impaired students pursuing higher education in tertiary institution were self-esteem, financial and public stigma. In addition, visually impaired students also faced challenges in accessibility, peer-to-peer acceptance and difficulties in learning at the university. In conclusion, this study emphasises on issues and challenges often faced by students with visual impairments at higher learning institution so that appropriate supports and facilities can be effectively provided by the university.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  15. Ek Zakuan Kalil, Tan, Susan M.K., Loh, Sit Fong, Norazlin Kamal Nor, Suzaily Wahab
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2010;11(2):216-219.
    Objective: This case report highlights males as victims of sexual abuse, ascertain the factors that are associated with male sexual abuse and outline problems in management of sexual abuse with the presence of co morbidities. Methods: We report a case of sexual abuse in a 14 year old boy who has borderline mental retardation and ADHD. Results: The victim was
    traumatized due to the abuse. The perpetrator was not charged due to lack of evidence of the abuse and stigma. Conclusion: Sexual abuse that occurs in males can be influenced by multiple factors such as the presence of comorbidities. Strong awareness must be present in caregivers to prevent abuse in this population and to take appropriate and early action to effect the necessary intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  16. Saloma P, Zabidah, P., Rekaya, V.B., Jane, B.
    This study explores the quality of life, social integration and the effects of perceived stigma of people with mental illness living in the community. Adopting a complimentary mixed method, this study was represented by 165 people with mental illness in Kuching, Sibu and Miri. Findings indicated that the quality of life scale was poor, 49.67% and 78.43% often experienced stigma. Anticipated stigma 43.79%; 16.99% all the time and 4.58% never experienced stigma. Findings also noted that people with mental illness living in the community are still largely depending on and needed continuous support from their family members/carers for financial aid and their living arrangement for a “better” quality of life. Where treatment is concerned, follow up care at home by health care providers continue to play a significant role. In order to “erase” the perceived or stigma experienced, establishing therapeutic relationship, communication and creating awareness on “stigma discrimination paradigm” poses a phenomenal challenge in the current misrepresentations of mental health messages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  17. Berry C, Michelson D, Othman E, Tan JC, Gee B, Hodgekins J, et al.
    Early intervention in psychiatry, 2020 02;14(1):115-123.
    PMID: 31111672 DOI: 10.1111/eip.12832
    AIM: Mental health problems are prevalent among young people in Malaysia yet access to specialist mental health care is extremely limited. More context-specific research is needed to understand the factors affecting help-seeking in youth, when mental health problems typically have first onset. We aimed to explore the attitudes of vulnerable young Malaysians regarding mental health problems including unusual psychological experiences, help-seeking and mental health treatment.

    METHODS: In the present study, nine young people (aged 16-23 years) from low-income backgrounds participated in a semi-structured interview about their perspectives on mental health problems, unusual psychological experiences and help-seeking.

    RESULTS: Four themes were developed using thematic analysis. "Is it that they [have] family problems?" reflected participants' explanatory models of mental health problems. "Maybe in Malaysia" was concerned with perceptions of Malaysian culture as both encouraging of open sharing of problems and experiences, but also potentially stigmatizing. "You have to ask for help" emphasized the importance of mental health help-seeking despite potential stigma. "It depends on the person" addressed the challenges of engaging with psychological therapy.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that young people in Malaysia may hold compassionate, non-stigmatizing views towards people experiencing mental health problems and a desire to increase their knowledge and understandings. Yet societal stigma is a perceived reputational risk that may affect mental health problem disclosure and help-seeking. We suggest that efforts to improve mental health literacy would be valued by young Malaysians and could support reduced stigma and earlier help-seeking.

    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  18. Wong DTL, Tong SF, Daud TIM, Aziz SA, Midin M
    Front Psychiatry, 2019;10:962.
    PMID: 32116809 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00962
    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that leads to significant productivity loss and is listed in the top 15 global burdens of disease. One important contributor to the high disease burden is duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) which can be shortened with promotion of professional help-seeking behavior. This study explored caregivers' perspective on factors influencing professional help-seeking behavior during first episode psychosis (FEP) in schizophrenia in Malaysia. The results of this study would inform the development of intervention strategies targeted at promoting professional help-seeking behavior in caregivers of individuals experiencing first episode psychosis (FEP). This is a thematic exploratory study which employed purposive sampling using focus group discussion (FGD). These interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Basic thematic approach was used in analyzing the transcribed interviews. Two main themes identified were adequacy of knowledge and stigma. These two factors were found to co-influence each other. Stigma undermined the impact of knowledge on professional help-seeking; likewise, the reverse was also observed. Intervention strategies for promoting help-seeking behavior during FEP should simultaneously focus on improving knowledge about schizophrenia and reducing the stigma attached to it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  19. Hadi AM, Lee PY, Adibah HI
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(2):43-45.
    PMID: 32843944
    Despite the advancements made in the knowledge and treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) since it was first discovered, people living with HIV (PLWH) continue to be stigmatized. This paper presents the case of an HIV-infected patient who delayed the necessary treatment due to stigma and ultimately presented with AIDS. Through social support, however, he was able to overcome his internalized stigma; he was finally willing to start on antiretroviral treatment (ART). This case report addresses the effect of stigma on and the role of social support in the management of an individual with HIV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
  20. Mohamed Hashi Faraade, Mohammad Saffree Jeffree, Osman A. Fiidow, Richard Avoi, Kamaruddin Ahmed, Loo Jiann Lin
    Introduction: Despite considerable effort invested for tuberculosis (TB) control, the outcome has not been optimal due to several barriers. Stigma has been an important factor that hinders the completion of full course of TB treat-ment, i.e. it results in poor treatment adherence. This systematic review is aimed to review the interventions target-ing tuberculosis related stigma in order to improve treatment adherence among tuberculosis patients in developing countries. Methods: A systematic electronic database search (PubMed, Google Scholar, ProQuest, Science Direct, Ovid, Spring and Cochrane) covering articles published between 2008 and 2019 had been conducted using truncat-ed search words of “stigma related to tuberculosis”, “TB Stigma”, “Intervention”, “treatment adherence”, “treatment compliance”, and “developing countries”. Only English articles exploring stigma among TB patients and its anti-stig-ma intervention in developing countries were included. Results: A total of 846 articles were retrieved and 346 were excluded due to duplication while another 361 non-relevant articles at the stage of title screening were excluded. Subsequently, 119 articles were excluded for not fulfilling inclusion criteria and only 3 studies remained. Conclu-sion: From the three articles, TB treatment outcomes were improved with the use of stigma intervention, including health education and counselling, self-support, and psychological support interventions. Optimal implementation of stigma interventions may vary by setting, resources, and the local TB epidemiology. More controlled interventional research is needed in stigma reduction that leads to improve TB adherence in developing countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Stigma
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