One hundred and twenty specialists from the Ministry of Health, the Universities and the private sector provided information on 4,802 patients seen over a total of two hundred and forty working days. This information was used to classify the patients into four categories based on a disease complexity classification. Each specialist's perception on the appropriateness of utilisation of his expertise was obtained. Complex cases requiring specialist expertise in management made up 69.8%, 73.5% and 19.1% of the cases of the Ministry of Health, University and private sector specialists respectively. Underutilisation was most marked with paediatricians and obstetricians in the private sector. The Specialist Register, the Programme for Accreditation of Hospitals and a National Health Financing Plan can be used to influence positively the case-mix of specialists.
A survey of specialisation choices was conducted for two batches of medical officers applying to the local medical schools for specialisation in Malaysia. A total of 359 doctors responded, giving a response rate of 71%, with 169 male (44.4%) and 187 female (55.6%) respondents. Surgery ranked highest among the male doctors followed by orthopaedic surgery and internal medicine. Family medicine ranked highest among female doctors followed by public health and anaesthesiology. Among the other specialties, the male doctors preferred otorhinolaryngology while female doctors preferred Pathology. Both male and female doctors chose to be a clinical consultant in a general hospital as the first choice. They prefer to work in or near their hometowns.
Here we provide an illustrated key to lepidopteran larvae that occur as pests on rice (Oryza) in Malaysia. We are unaware of a published key for this region for this vital commercial crop, and hence provide one based on easily observable features that could be useful for identification, early detection, and pest management by specialists and non-specialists alike (see discussion in Mukerji & Singh 1951, Sri et al. 2010, Timm et al. 2007, Tillmon et al. 2000, Wagener et al. 2004).
Forensic odontology has been an interdisciplinary part of forensic science for many years. In Malaysia, this forensic discipline has been practiced for more than two decades however it is still considered a new discipline as there are a limited number of specialists. To date, there are less than ten practicing forensic odontologists in Malaysia. Many dentists do not have a clear perception of this field, thus forensic odontology rarely becomes a career of choice. The purpose of this article is to highlight the attributes of a competent forensic odontologist and encourage dentists towards this challenging career path.
A total of 356 doctors responded to a survey on the timing and stability of choice of medical specialty. The majority of doctors made their final decision while working as a medical officer. One hundred (48.5%) of the doctors had made an earlier choice as medical students, 63 (30.6%) during their internship and 43 (20.9%) made their final choice while they were medical officers. Working experience in the specialty was the most important factor in determining final choice of specialty. Advice from consultants/seniors, better financial prospects and parental influence were more important for the male doctors while marriage and family considerations were more important for the female doctors in making their final choice.
Healthcare costs continue to rise every day as the demand outgrows the supply of surgeons. The application of telephone consultation for immediate management is needed as most neurosurgeons are technology orientated. This enables a specialist at a remote mobile site to receive the necessary information and reduce transmission time, from the second the patient is seen till the management is obtained.
This article presents an overview of long acting products used in animal health, production
and reproduction. The topic represents a niche field of controlled release that few formulation scientists become specialists and experts in, but it is a field which has made significant contribution to the area of controlled release technology, and one which is of major importance to human kind due to their dependence on farmed animals as a source of hide, protein, milk and eggs.
Intake and Output (I/O) records in hospitals were often found to be incomplete and illegible. The form used to record I/O is not user-friendly - i.e., they feature miniscule boxes, 'total' lines that do not correspond with shift changes and lack of instructions. Complaints often received from Specialists & Doctors regarding calculation errors or no totalling of I/O. Moreover, Nursing Sisters objective rounds often saw incompleteness of I/O chart. This study aims to identify the types of mistakes in recording the existing I/O chart. The second aim is to find out whether shift totalling of I/O chart helps in reducing mistakes. We try to determine whether the identified mistakes were repeated in the new I/O Chart. This study was conducted from October till December 2010 in 9 selected wards in Sibu Hospital. Data collection was divided into 3 phases. A pre-implementation audit using a checklist was carried out. The compliance rate of completeness of documentation of I/O Chart was 63%. A one month trial of new I/O chart was being done in the selected 9 wards. Post implementation audit showed a significant improvement of compliance rate (88%). Feedback from health care workers (N=110) showed that, 89% of doctors (n=17) and 60% of nurses (n=93) in the sample prefer to use the new format as more practical and relevant to the changing shift of nurses and doctors' ward round. It is suggested to implement the new format to increase compliance rate of documentation of I/O charting. Briefing should be given to nurses periodically and the new format should be introduced to nursing students in nursing colleges.
The School of Medical Sciences of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) is the launching pad for this journal. From the school's humble beginning at the USM Main Campus in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, it has grown in stature at its current location in the USM Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Commemorating its 40th anniversary, this editorial aims to recollect, although not exhaustively, the wealth of returns for the USM, as well as for the nation, which the school has managed to deliver in that period. Resolute to its vision and mission, this article highlights the outstanding accomplishments in various core aspects of the school's academic, research and professional growth as we continually strive to train globally competitive and compassionate medical graduates, medical specialists and scientists, skilled to serve nation's needs and broader markets worldwide. Currently guided by the Malaysian Higher Education Blueprint (2015-2025), the school shall remain ingenious in its duties in the many more years to come, as we head for a world-class trajectory.
Background: Differentiating between chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the variations in diagnosis between CP versus AgP and the staging of AgP based on the disease-staging index for AgP among periodontists, specialists in oral medicine, and general dental practitioners (GDPs).
Materials and Methods: Fifteen cases diagnosed as either CP or AgP were included in a "case document" and sent electronically to 75 respondents. Case document included a detailed history with periodontal charting, clinical features, images, and radiographs for all the cases. Diagnosis and staging for the case (if diagnosed as AgP) were requested. A reordered case document (cases in a different sequence) was again sent to respondents after a gap of 1 month.
Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics including frequency and percentage were calculated. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to analyze the data collected.
Results: For the "case document," 10.17% of the responses were different from those of the authors for diagnosis, whereas 4.48% of the responses were different from those of the authors for the staging of AgP. The agreement in the overall responses was in the range of 0.69-0.84, which was considered good. Comparison of the responses for diagnosis showed statistically significant (P = 0.009) difference between specialists in oral medicine and GDPs.
Conclusions: Variations exist among respondents regarding the diagnosis of CP versus AgP. Staging of AgP based on the listed criteria showed low variations.
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the perception of Hospital Directors in performing clinical duties. This was done through a postal survey which was conducted covering all public hospitals in Malaysia. The majority of Hospital Directors had read the circular at the time of the study and agreed to do clinical work besides managerial duties. Before the issuance of the directive, the majority of those directors were already doing some clinical work. However they disagreed that by doing clinical work they could help overcome the problem of shortage of doctors. They agreed that the duration of 10 hours per week is suitable to do clinical duties. In term of confidence in giving curative treatment, the Hospital Directors especially those from district hospitals without specialists were confident in giving curative care to individuals. As for the clinicians, the majority felt that the implementation of the directive for Hospital Directors to do clinical work will not disrupt the clinicians' routine duties.
Study site: University Malaya, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Introduction: In Malaysia, medical specialisation training is mainly carried out by the public universities. Methods: A survey was carried out to explore the views of medical specialists in the country on issues such as structure of medical specialty training, availability of human resource, public/private sector competition, competency and apprenticeship, and its impact on assurance and quality of medical specialty training. Results: Altogether 238 medical specialists from 30 hospitals and medical institutions in the country participated in the survey. Conclusion: Among the findings, competition for human resource between public and private sector and lack of uniformity on medical specialty training across universities in the country are among the issues found to be of concern. There is also a need to address governance issue which necessitates to clearly delineating what constitutes medical specialty and what constitutes a subspecialty so that an agreed uniformed nomenclature is exercised across all stakeholders. The respondents also strongly agreed on the need to ensure competence in medical specialist training.
The Ministry of Health had instructed all state hospitals to go for Accreditation. Accreditation is considered to be a more appropriate tool forquality assurance in a hospital setting than ISO 9000.The objective of this research was to study doctors perception towards the implementation of Accreditation in state hospital. Self-administered questionnaires were sent through mail to doctors in eight clinical departments of all state hospitals. From 832 questionnaires sent, 297 responded (36%),i.e. 84 specialists and 2/2 medical officers. The study showed that 69% doctors knew that their hospital was implementing Accreditation. There were more clinical specialist (9I%) who were involved in accreditation as compared to Medical Ojicers (73%). 83% of doctors believed that accreditation can assist in assuring quality in their hospital. Those who do not, thought that quality can be assured stajfing was adequate (67%) and accreditation does not assess patient care
(33%). The study also showed that 7I% of doctors knew that their hospital was implementing MS ISO 9000. A 77% of doctors believed that ISO 9000 can assist in assuring quality in their hospital. Those who do not, thought that quality can onhi be assured Jstajfng was adequate (27%) and ISO 9000 was only meant for industry (8%). In conclusion, doctors believed that Accreditation and MS ISO 9000 can assist in assuring quality in their hospitals. Amongst, those who do not, majority thought that quality can only be assured staffing was adequate.
Caring practice is one of the three core values of Corporate Culture of Ministry of Health Malaysia, initiated in 1991. A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the extent of hospital healthcare personnel practicing the element of caring. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to all staff working in public hospitals followed by reminder letters and telephone calls. A total of 37,267 responded out of 69,385 personnel working in the hospitals with a response rate of 53.7%. Results showed that about half of the respondents perceived that they practice caring value of the corporate culture (49.5%) and only 33.3% perceived that their colleagues practiced it. The practice of caring value was highest among clinical specialists (65.4%) and lowest among the clerks (22.1%). Nurses perceived that 40.4% of their colleagues practiced caring values while the clerks perceived only 17.0% of their colleagues practice it. In conclusion, caring value is not being well practiced by healthcare staff especially among the support staff. There is a need for further research to study the reasons for poor caring practice by healthcare personnel and develop strategies to improve the situation.