Item analysis is the process of collecting, summarizing and using information from students’ responses to assess the quality of test items. Difficulty index (P) and Discrimination index (D) are two parameters which help evaluate the standard of MCQ questions used in an examination, with abnormal values indicating poor quality. In this study, 120 test items of 12 Type A MCQ tests of Foundation 1 multi-disciplinary summative assessment from M2 / 2003 to M2 / 2006 cohorts of International Medical University were selected and their P-scores in percent and D-scores were estimated using Microsoft Office Excel. The relationship between the item difficulty index and discrimination index for each test item was determined by Pearson correlation analysis using SPSS 11.5. Mean difficulty index scores of the individual summative tests were in the range of 64% to 89%. One-third of total test items crossed the difficulty index of 80% indicating that those items were easy for the students. Sixty seven percent of the test items showed acceptable (> 0.2) discrimination index. Forty five out of 120 test items showed excellent discrimination index. Discrimination index correlated poorly with difficulty index (r = -0.325). In conclusion, a consistent level of test difficulty and discrimination indices was maintained from 2003 to 2006 in all the twelve summative type A MCQ tests.
Anatomy is an important knowledge for medical practice. Insufficient anatomy knowledge leading to errors in identification of anatomical structures during medical practices has been reported in many countries. Many medical students seem to have difficulties in learning anatomy and retaining the knowledge for future practice, thus this might reflect the possible flaws in anatomy education. In order to achieve optimum anatomy education environment and to close the gaps in education, measuring the students' perception on anatomy teaching and learning is a pre-emptive measure needed by educationists. At present, there is no valid and reliable inventory available to specifically evaluate the anatomy education environment. Therefore, this article highlights the importance of having such inventory.
Histology, a branch of anatomy is a correlational science between structure of tissues and their
functions. Knowledge of histology is emphasised for undergraduate medical students as a basic for
clinical knowledge and research. To impart retainable and reproducible knowledge in histology, a new
laboratory manual with images and clinical correlates was introduced to the Year I MBBS students
in the Academic Session 2017/2018 during their general anatomy module. The objective structured
practical examination marks between 101 students of Batches 2016/17 and 2017/18 were analysed.
The difference in marks between both the batches were analysed using SPSS 20. Batch 2017/18
students who used the new lab manual scored better than the previous batch who used the old
manual. Independent t-test was not statistically significant. The students who used the new manual
fared better than their seniors. Since the difference was not statistically significant, it can be concluded
that if existent, drawbacks in the lab manual should be improved and adequate usage of the manual by
the students should be emphasised. Nevertheless, usage of the new lab manual shows that the students
could understand the subject and score better with less study hours.
Bisecting-angle-technique is a method used to improve patient comfort during periapical radiography. This technique is usually performed without X-ray beam aiming device and has been commonly associated with dental radiographic error. The use of external marker as a beam aiming device in bisecting-angle-technique is potentially effective to reduce the number of errors occurring during periapical radiography. In this study, 240 periapical radiographs were taken by undergraduate dental students. Periapical radiographs were taken using traditional method of bisecting-angle-technique (BAT), bisecting-angle-technique with the use of external marker (BAT-M) and the standard method in periapical radiography; paralleling technique (PT). All radiographic images were evaluated and errors were classified and tabled according to the type and number of errors. Chi-square test was used to compare the total number of radiographic errors made using these three techniques. One of the most common errors with BAT was cone cut error (13.8%). This error had been markedly reduced to 1.3% and 2.5% by implementation of BAT-M and PT, respectively. The total number of errors was also found to be significantly lesser for BAT-M compared to BAT, p< 0.05.
Keywords: errors, dental, radiography
Summarization is a process to select important information from a source text. Summarizing strategies are the core cognitive processes in summarization activity. Since summarization can be important as a tool to improve comprehension, it has attracted interest of teachers for teaching summary writing through direct instruction. To do this, they need to review and assess the students' summaries and these tasks are very time-consuming. Thus, a computer-assisted assessment can be used to help teachers to conduct this task more effectively.
BACKGROUND: The literature indicates that medical practitioners experience declining empathy levels in clinical practice. This highlights the need to educate medical students about empathy as an attribute early in the academic curriculum. The objective of this study was to evaluate year one students' self-reported empathy levels following a 2-hour empathy workshop at a large medical school in Malaysia.
METHODS: Changes in empathy scores were examined using a paired repeated-measures t-test in this prospective before and after study.
RESULTS: Analyzing the matched data, there was a statistically significant difference and moderate effect size between mean empathy scores before and 5 weeks after the workshop (112.08±10.67 versus 117.93±13.13, P<0.0001, d=0.48) using the Jefferson Scale Physician Empathy (Student Version).
CONCLUSION: The results of this observational study indicate improved mean self-reported empathy scores following an empathy workshop.
KEYWORDS: Malaysia; empathy; medical students
Objectives: This investigation focused on finding the changes in learning approaches of students’ while experiencing physiology curriculum and to explore the reflection of changes if any, on their critical thinking skills.
Methods: In this longitudinal study, information on students’ learning approaches was obtained using the revised two factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) at the commencement (pre-test) and completion (post-test) of first year MBBS course. The total score and the scores obtained in the critical thinking questions in four physiology assessments were analysed. Pre and post-tests scores in R-SPQ-2F and assessment scores were compared using independent samples t-test and one way repeated measure ANOVA respectively. Correlation of scores between assessments was done using Pearson correlation. A p value < 0.05 was taken as significant.
Results: A significant increase in students’ deep learning approach at the completion of the physiology curriculum when compared to commencement (p < 0.001) was observed. A progressive improvement in their scores as they experienced the curriculum was also noticed. A moderate correlation among critical thinking questions scores and a strong correlation between critical thinking questions and total essay scores were also recorded.
Conclusion: The study revealed improvement in students’ deep approach to learning in physiology which was reflected in their performance in critical thinking questions.
Study site: Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, India
This is a case study research that is trying to identify a social interaction among multi ethnic students to maintain national integration. This research is concern on the factors that influence social interaction among students through co-curriculum activities like participate in sports and clubs at school. Findings from interview session individualy and grouping at two secondary schools at Kuala Ketil, Kedah shown there is a conflict and stereotype among students, however feeling to learn and accept the differences within ethnics still exist. Throughout the research, it shows that factors from external influence comes from school and peer groups. However, in the part of internal influence it is from student’s intrapersonal factor. In order to maintain social interaction among students, strategies had been taken by school through co-curriculum activities like sports and clubs. As a conclusion, a good social interaction among multiethnic students very important and need support from school’s administrator to maintain and sustain the harmonius and glory of the nation.
This paper involves the obtained results of an "Elective Program" project which was carried out by Phase I Medical Students of the 1998-1999 academic year at the Faculty of Medicine (FOM), University of Malaya (UM). A questionnaire was designed to survey the attitudes of teachers at FOM-UM, the subject of choice of a 4-student group who were supervised by a faculty member. Students obtained a list of faculty members (teachers) of all academic departments from the Dean's Office and rehearsed their interviewing skills prior to collecting the data of the questionnaire, within a 1-week period. Respondents were 146 out of 275 in total (53%), which included all academic ranks and clinical and non-clinical teachers. Results showed that respondents were well qualified, have enough teaching experience and teach in a variety of forms. All teachers liked to teach and were motivated; however, 15% felt unhappy about their teaching and 6% did not think that their teaching was effective. The nlajority (96%) of teachers liked their teaching to be evaluated and many revealed several means to assist and 111otivate students. Teachers felt that there was room for improvenlent in the aspect of student-teacher interactions. Results of this project revealed that FOM-UM is well endowed by qualified, motivated and caring teachers who wish for better interactions with their students. I
The Community Follow-up Project involves a scheme by which clinical students follow the progress of patients after discharge from hospital. The Community Follow-up Project begins with the student choosing a hospital in-ward patient during their first clinical ward based attachment and follows this patient's progress after discharge from the hospital. The students do a series of home visits and also accompany their patients for some of their follow-ups to the hospital or government clinics; to their general practitioners and even to the palliative care or social welfare centres. The students assess the physical, psychological and social impact of the illness on the patient, family and community. This project supplements students' knowledge of the natural history of disease and emphasizes the importance of communication and the use of community resources. By commitment to the patient for a duration of time, the students are able to take an active role in patients' care, understand in depth the problems faced by patients and in assessing a patient's progress, students find themselves in the role of a teacher and advisor to their patient as well. We outline the main components of this project, describe its outcome and consider areas that invite further developments.
Introduction The Comprehensive Healthcare (CHC) module was developed to introduce pre-clinical medical and pharmacy students to the concept of comprehensive healthcare. This study aims to explore their shared learning experiences within this module. Methodology During this module, medical and pharmacy students conducted visits to patients' homes and to related community-based organisations in small groups. They were required to write a reflective journal on their experiences regarding working with other professions as part of their module assessment. Highly scored reflective journals written by students from the 2011/2012 academic session were selected for analysis. Their shared learning experiences were identified via thematic analysis. We also analysed students' feedback regarding the module. Results Analysis of 25 selected reflective journals revealed several important themes: 'Understanding of impact of illness and its relation to holistic care', 'Awareness of the role of various healthcare professions' and 'Generic or soft skills for inter-professional collaboration'. Although the primary objective of the module was to expose students to comprehensive healthcare, the students learnt skills required for future collaborative practice from their experiences. Discussion The CHC module provided early clinical exposure to community-based health issues and incorporated some elements of inter-professional education. The students learnt about the roles of other healthcare professions and acquired soft skills required for future collaborative practice during this module.
Engaging students in active learning lies at the center of effective higher education. In medical schools, students' engagement in learning and research has come under increasing attention. The objective of this study was to synthesize evidence on medical students' perspectives on the engagement in research. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Relevant studies were searched in electronic databases. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. Overall, 14 observational studies (with 17 data sets) were included. In general, many studies did not use the same questionnaires and the outcome measurements were not consistently reported; these presented some difficulties in pooling the results. Whenever data permitted, we performed pooled analysis for the 4 education outcomes. A Bayesian meta-analytical approach was supplemented as a measure of uncertainty. A pooled analysis showed that 74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57%-11.07%; I2: 95.2%) of those students who engaged in research (while at the medical school) had positive attitudes toward their research experiences, whereas 49.5% (95% CI: 36.4%-62.7%; I2: 93.4%) had positive attitudes toward the study of medical sciences, 62.3% (95% CI: 46.7%-77.9%; I2: 96.3%) had self-reported changes in their practices, and 64% (95% CI: 30.8%-96.6%; I2: 98.5%) could have published their work. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies. We acknowledged the caveats and the merit of the current review. Findings showed that engagement in research resulted in favorable reactions toward research and academic learning. Future well-designed studies using standardized research tools on how to engage students in research are recommended.
Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical/psychology*; Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
Foundational elements of problem based learning (PBL) are triggers, tutors and students. Ineffective triggers are important issues for students' inability to generate appropriate learning issues. The objective of this study was to evaluate PBL triggers and to determine similarities of students' generated learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives.
Didactic lecture is the oldest and most commonly used method of teaching. In addition, it is considered one of the most efficient ways to disseminate theories, ideas, and facts. Many critics feel that lectures are an obsolete method to use when students need to perform hands-on activities, which is an everyday need in the study of medicine. This study evaluates students' perceptions regarding lecture quality in a new medical school.