Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1880 in total

  1. Aljaberi MA, Alsalahi A, Juni MH, Noman S, Al-Tammemi AB, Hamat RA
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2021 Jul 22;18(15).
    PMID: 34360058 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18157765
    This review aimed to systematically outline and meta-analyze the efficacy of psychoeducational, cultural orientation, socio-cultural, and peer-pairing programs in reducing acculturative stress and enhancing adjustment among international students worldwide. The consulted databases were PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, and ProQuest. Eligibility criteria allowed the inclusion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental trials without applying language, country, publication type or time restrictions. The quality of the eligible studies was appraised by the RoB2 tool of Cochrane for RCTs and JBI critical appraisal tools for quasi-experimental trials. Data items were collected based on PICO acronym by two investigators and reviewed for accuracy by a third one. The evidence was narratively synthesized and validated by proceeding with a random model meta-analysis using Cochrane RevMan software(Version 5.4). The quality of the pooled evidence from meta-analysis was assessed using the tool of GRADE. Out of 29,975 retrieved records, 14 studies (six RCTs and eight quasi-experimental trials) were included. The psychoeducational program significantly reduced acculturative stress and enhanced adjustment. In contrast, cultural orientation and peer-pairing programs significantly enhanced adjustment, but could not reduce acculturative stress. In meta-analysis, acculturative stress was significantly reduced in the psychoeducational intervention versus controls [overall pooled size effect = -3.89 (95% CI: -5.42, -2.53) at p < 0.001]. Similarly, adjustment was significantly enhanced in the psychoeducation and socio-cultural interventions versus control [overall pooled size effect = 3.10 (95% CI: 2.35, 3.85) at p < 0.001]. In conclusion, the psychoeducational program demonstrated superior efficacy in reducing acculturative stress and enhancing adjustment compared to the other interventional programs. However, socio-cultural programs have still been effective in enhancing adjustment. This systematic review is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018104211).
    Matched MeSH terms: Students*
  2. Shah PK, Duncan HF, Abdullah D, Tomson PL, Murray G, Friend TM, et al.
    Int Endod J, 2020 Nov;53(11):1569-1580.
    PMID: 32748456 DOI: 10.1111/iej.13377
    AIM: To compare the educational benefits and user friendliness of two anonymized endodontic case difficulty assessment (CDA) methods.

    METHODOLOGY: A cohort (n = 206) of fourth-year undergraduate dental students were recruited from four different Dental Schools and divided randomly into two groups (Group A and B). The participants assessed six test endodontic cases using anonymized versions of the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) case difficulty assessment form (AAE Endodontic Case Difficulty Assessment Form and Guidelines, 2006) and EndoApp, a web-based CDA tool. Group A (n = 107) used the AAE form for assessment of the first three cases, followed by EndoApp for the latter. Group B (n = 99) used EndoApp for the initial three cases and switched to the AAE form for the remainder. Data were collected online and analysed to assess participants' knowledge reinforcement and agreement with the recommendation generated. Statistical analysis was performed using the two-way mixed model anova, Cohen's Kappa (κ) and independent t-tests, with the levels of significance set at P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Dental*
    Nurs Times, 1950 Jun 17;46(24):640.
    PMID: 15423798
    Matched MeSH terms: Students*
  4. Lim RBL
    Family Physician, 1996;8:15-20.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students; Students, Medical
  5. Ahmad A, Wahab H, Seman N
    Enferm Clin, 2020 03;30 Suppl 3:100-103.
    PMID: 32331728 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.12.038
    With the revision on the concept of empathy, this study attempted to teach empathy to nursing students with the goal of to increase the students' empathy levels.
    METHOD: We conducted a quasi-experimental study with a non-equivalent group design and incorporated empathy training, pre- and post-training empathy measurements of participants in a private nursing college (N=64). Empathy scores were measured using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (2001) and the educational intervention used was Wlodkowski and Ginsberg's Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching (1995). Descriptive analysis and paired T-test were used to determine the effect of intervention applied.
    RESULTS: The study found increased mean score for both control and experimental group during post-intervention as compared to pre-intervention mean score.
    CONCLUSIONS: The result indicates the effectiveness of educational intervention in enhancing empathy among nursing students in the experimental group.
    Study site: private nursing college, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Nursing*
  6. Wadi MM, Yusoff MSB, Taha MH, Shorbagi S, Nik Lah NAZ, Abdul Rahim AF
    BMC Med Educ, 2023 Apr 05;23(1):213.
    PMID: 37016407 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-023-04177-5
    BACKGROUND: Burnout and depression among health professions education (HPE) students continue to rise, leading to unwanted effects that ultimately jeopardise optimal medical care and patient health. Promoting the resilience of medical students is one solution to this issue. Several interventions have been implemented to foster resilience, but they focus on aspects other than the primary cause: the assessment system. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework to promote resilience in assessment planning and practice.

    METHODS: We followed the guidelines suggested by Whetten for constructing a theoretical model for framework development. There were four phases in the model development. In the first phase, different literature review methods were used, and additional students' perspectives were collected through focus group discussions. Then, using the data, we constructed the theoretical model in the second phase. In the third phase, we validated the newly developed model and its related guidelines. Finally, we performed response process validation of the model with a group of medical teachers.

    RESULTS: The developed systematic assessment resilience framework (SAR) promotes four constructs: self-control, management, engagement, and growth, through five phases of assessment: assessment experience, assessment direction, assessment preparation, examiner focus, and student reflection. Each phase contains a number of practical guidelines to promote resilience. We rigorously triangulated each approach with its theoretical foundations and evaluated it on the basis of its content and process. The model showed high levels of content and face validity.

    CONCLUSIONS: The SAR model offers a novel guideline for fostering resilience through assessment planning and practice. It includes a number of attainable and practical guidelines for enhancing resilience. In addition, it opens a new horizon for HPE students' future use of this framework in the new normal condition (post COVID 19).

    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Health Occupations*; Students, Medical*
  7. Mitra, N.K., Nagaraja, H.S., Ponnudurai, G., Judson, J. P.
    Item analysis is the process of collecting, summarizing and using information from students’ responses to assess the quality of test items. Difficulty index (P) and Discrimination index (D) are two parameters which help evaluate the standard of MCQ questions used in an examination, with abnormal values indicating poor quality. In this study, 120 test items of 12 Type A MCQ tests of Foundation 1 multi-disciplinary summative assessment from M2 / 2003 to M2 / 2006 cohorts of International Medical University were selected and their P-scores in percent and D-scores were estimated using Microsoft Office Excel. The relationship between the item difficulty index and discrimination index for each test item was determined by Pearson correlation analysis using SPSS 11.5. Mean difficulty index scores of the individual summative tests were in the range of 64% to 89%. One-third of total test items crossed the difficulty index of 80% indicating that those items were easy for the students. Sixty seven percent of the test items showed acceptable (> 0.2) discrimination index. Forty five out of 120 test items showed excellent discrimination index. Discrimination index correlated poorly with difficulty index (r = -0.325). In conclusion, a consistent level of test difficulty and discrimination indices was maintained from 2003 to 2006 in all the twelve summative type A MCQ tests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students
  8. Siti Nurma Hanim Hadie, Asma' Hassan, Zul Izhar Mohd Ismail, Mohd Asnizam Asari, Aaijaz Ahmed Khan, Fazlina Kasim, et al.
    Anatomy is an important knowledge for medical practice. Insufficient anatomy knowledge leading to errors in identification of anatomical structures during medical practices has been reported in many countries. Many medical students seem to have difficulties in learning anatomy and retaining the knowledge for future practice, thus this might reflect the possible flaws in anatomy education. In order to achieve optimum anatomy education environment and to close the gaps in education, measuring the students' perception on anatomy teaching and learning is a pre-emptive measure needed by educationists. At present, there is no valid and reliable inventory available to specifically evaluate the anatomy education environment. Therefore, this article highlights the importance of having such inventory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical
  9. Azizah, A. F., Muhamad Aqil, A. A, Mohd Amirul, Z., Atika, A.
    Medicine & Health, 2017;12(2):304-311.
    Bisecting-angle-technique is a method used to improve patient comfort during periapical radiography. This technique is usually performed without X-ray beam aiming device and has been commonly associated with dental radiographic error. The use of external marker as a beam aiming device in bisecting-angle-technique is potentially effective to reduce the number of errors occurring during periapical radiography. In this study, 240 periapical radiographs were taken by undergraduate dental students. Periapical radiographs were taken using traditional method of bisecting-angle-technique (BAT), bisecting-angle-technique with the use of external marker (BAT-M) and the standard method in periapical radiography; paralleling technique (PT). All radiographic images were evaluated and errors were classified and tabled according to the type and number of errors. Chi-square test was used to compare the total number of radiographic errors made using these three techniques. One of the most common errors with BAT was cone cut error (13.8%). This error had been markedly reduced to 1.3% and 2.5% by implementation of BAT-M and PT, respectively. The total number of errors was also found to be significantly lesser for BAT-M compared to BAT, p< 0.05.
    Keywords: errors, dental, radiography
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Dental
  10. Reshma Mohamed Ansari, Atikah Abdul Latif, Norhafizah AbManan
    Histology, a branch of anatomy is a correlational science between structure of tissues and their
    functions. Knowledge of histology is emphasised for undergraduate medical students as a basic for
    clinical knowledge and research. To impart retainable and reproducible knowledge in histology, a new
    laboratory manual with images and clinical correlates was introduced to the Year I MBBS students
    in the Academic Session 2017/2018 during their general anatomy module. The objective structured
    practical examination marks between 101 students of Batches 2016/17 and 2017/18 were analysed.
    The difference in marks between both the batches were analysed using SPSS 20. Batch 2017/18
    students who used the new lab manual scored better than the previous batch who used the old
    manual. Independent t-test was not statistically significant. The students who used the new manual
    fared better than their seniors. Since the difference was not statistically significant, it can be concluded
    that if existent, drawbacks in the lab manual should be improved and adequate usage of the manual by
    the students should be emphasised. Nevertheless, usage of the new lab manual shows that the students
    could understand the subject and score better with less study hours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical
  11. Ho TM
    Family Physician, 1992;4:29-34.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical
  12. Abdi A, Idris N, Alguliyev RM, Aliguliyev RM
    PLoS One, 2016;11(1):e0145809.
    PMID: 26735139 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145809
    Summarization is a process to select important information from a source text. Summarizing strategies are the core cognitive processes in summarization activity. Since summarization can be important as a tool to improve comprehension, it has attracted interest of teachers for teaching summary writing through direct instruction. To do this, they need to review and assess the students' summaries and these tasks are very time-consuming. Thus, a computer-assisted assessment can be used to help teachers to conduct this task more effectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students/psychology
  13. Satheesha NB, Somayaji SN, Ramnarayan K
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2005 Jun;29(2):130-1.
    PMID: 15905160
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical*
  14. Vignesh R, Ganesh SS, Vengata Subramani M, Ravindran M, Abdul Karim RH
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 12;73(6):444.
    PMID: 30647230
    No abstract provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students*
  15. Pishipati KV, Telang L, Nerali JT, Telang A, Jaganathan S
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2021 Jan 01;22(1):89-92.
    PMID: 34002716
    AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the dental students' performance in ICDAS (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) coding with different levels of clinical experience.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dental students (n = 122) in their clinical years, year 3 (n = 37), year 4 (n = 44), and year 5 (n = 41) received training (two-hour introductory lecture on ICDAS, followed by a 90 min e-learning video, and practice sessions using extracted teeth and photographs) from a calibrated expert. After training, the students examined a prevalidated set of extracted teeth and assigned scores in two sessions. The intra- and inter-examiner agreement between students was analyzed using weighted kappa statistics and a focus group discussion was conducted for qualitative feedback.

    RESULTS: The range of kappa values for intra-examiner agreement among the year 3, 4, and 5 students for ICDAS caries code (0.611-0.879, 0.633-0.848, and 0.645-1.000) and restoration code (0.615-0.942, 0.612-0.923, 0.653-1.000), respectively. The range of kappa values for inter-examiner agreement for year 3, 4, and 5 students with a trained expert for ICDAS caries code (0.526-0.713, 0.467-0.810, and 0.525-0.842) and restoration code (0.531-0.816, 0.682-0.842, and 0.645-0.928), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The ICDAS system is a promising tool for caries detection and its implementation in the curriculum was perceived by dental students as an effective method. In general, there was moderate to substantial agreement for ICDAS caries and restoration code between students of different academic year groups and with a trained ICDAS expert.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: ICDAS is a simple, logical, and evidence-based system for the detection and classification of caries. Introducing ICDAS to dental students enables them to detect caries in a reliable and reproducible manner irrespective of their past clinical experience and also significantly improves their caries detection skills.

    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Dental*
  16. Chandratilake M, Nadarajah VD, Mohd Sani RMB
    Med Teach, 2021 Jul;43(sup1):S53-S58.
    PMID: 32248710 DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2020.1741530
    Cultural beliefs and practices impact heavily on health outcomes of patients. Doctors' ability to deal with such issues in clinical practice, i.e. cultural competence, is widely studied in the west. It has yet to be given due importance in non-western contexts. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable measure of cultural competence in the Malaysian cultural context and to assess cultural competence among Malaysian medical students. Thirty-five cultural issues faced by Malaysian doctors were identified with a series of interviews to develop a preliminary tool. The responses of students to these cultural issues were evaluated against the extent of inquiry and advocacy based on a theoretical framework of cultural competence. The responses were subjected to statistical analysis to determine the internal structure of the tool and to reduce the number of items in the tool. The final tool (IMU Measure of Cultural Competence - IMoCC) comprised of 22 issues, which deemed to be reliable in the second round of testing. In both tools, student cohorts demonstrated an acceptable level of cultural competence with room for improvement. However, they appeared to learn how to deal with cultural issues primarily through informal means and not in the formal curriculum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical*
  17. Asha V, Devi V, Raghavendra R, Rachel AR, Vinod P, Sharmila T
    Objectives: This investigation focused on finding the changes in learning approaches of students’ while experiencing physiology curriculum and to explore the reflection of changes if any, on their critical thinking skills.
    Methods: In this longitudinal study, information on students’ learning approaches was obtained using the revised two factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) at the commencement (pre-test) and completion (post-test) of first year MBBS course. The total score and the scores obtained in the critical thinking questions in four physiology assessments were analysed. Pre and post-tests scores in R-SPQ-2F and assessment scores were compared using independent samples t-test and one way repeated measure ANOVA respectively. Correlation of scores between assessments was done using Pearson correlation. A p value < 0.05 was taken as significant.
    Results: A significant increase in students’ deep learning approach at the completion of the physiology curriculum when compared to commencement (p < 0.001) was observed. A progressive improvement in their scores as they experienced the curriculum was also noticed. A moderate correlation among critical thinking questions scores and a strong correlation between critical thinking questions and total essay scores were also recorded.
    Conclusion: The study revealed improvement in students’ deep approach to learning in physiology which was reflected in their performance in critical thinking questions.
    Study site: Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, India
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Medical*
  18. KADRI ZN
    Med J Malaya, 1963 Mar;17:191-8.
    PMID: 13958217
    Matched MeSH terms: Student Health Services*; Students*
  19. 'Adlina Abdul Khalil, Rosfazila Abd Rahman, Hairol Anuar Mak Din
    This is a case study research that is trying to identify a social interaction among multi ethnic students to maintain national integration. This research is concern on the factors that influence social interaction among students through co-curriculum activities like participate in sports and clubs at school. Findings from interview session individualy and grouping at two secondary schools at Kuala Ketil, Kedah shown there is a conflict and stereotype among students, however feeling to learn and accept the differences within ethnics still exist. Throughout the research, it shows that factors from external influence comes from school and peer groups. However, in the part of internal influence it is from student’s intrapersonal factor. In order to maintain social interaction among students, strategies had been taken by school through co-curriculum activities like sports and clubs. As a conclusion, a good social interaction among multiethnic students very important and need support from school’s administrator to maintain and sustain the harmonius and glory of the nation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students*
  20. Mohd Sidik S, Azhar MZ, Abdullah MY
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2004;3(1&2):1-8.
    The Community Follow-up Project involves a scheme by which clinical students follow the progress of patients after discharge from hospital. The Community Follow-up Project begins with the student choosing a hospital in-ward patient during their first clinical ward based attachment and follows this patient's progress after discharge from the hospital. The students do a series of home visits and also accompany their patients for some of their follow-ups to the hospital or government clinics; to their general practitioners and even to the palliative care or social welfare centres. The students assess the physical, psychological and social impact of the illness on the patient, family and community. This project supplements students' knowledge of the natural history of disease and emphasizes the importance of communication and the use of community resources. By commitment to the patient for a duration of time, the students are able to take an active role in patients' care, understand in depth the problems faced by patients and in assessing a patient's progress, students find themselves in the role of a teacher and advisor to their patient as well. We outline the main components of this project, describe its outcome and consider areas that invite further developments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students; Students, Medical
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