Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 108 in total

  1. Larney S, Mathers BM, Poteat T, Kamarulzaman A, Degenhardt L
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2015 Jun 01;69 Suppl 2:S100-9.
    PMID: 25978476 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000623
    BACKGROUND: Women and girls who use and inject drugs are a critical population at risk of HIV. In this article, we review data on the epidemiology of drug use and injection among women globally and HIV prevalence among women and girls who use and inject drugs.

    RESULTS: Women and girls comprise one-third of people who use and inject drugs globally. There is substantial variation in HIV prevalence in this population, between and within countries. There is a pronounced lack of data examining HIV risk among particularly vulnerable subpopulations of women who use and inject drugs, including women who have sex with women, transgender women, racial and ethnic minority women, and young women. Women who use and inject drugs experience stigma and discrimination that affect access to services, and high levels of sexual risk exposures.

    CONCLUSIONS: There are significant gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology of drug use and injecting among women and girls and HIV risk and prevalence in this population. Women are frequently underrepresented in studies of drug use and HIV risk and prevalence among people who inject drugs, limiting our understanding of possible sex differences in this population. Most research originates from developed countries and may not be generalizable to other settings. A great deal of work is needed to improve understanding of HIV among particularly vulnerable subpopulations, such as transgender women who use drugs. Better data are critical to efforts to advocate for the needs of women and girls who use and inject drugs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology*
  2. Wodak A
    Dev Bull, 2000 Jun.
    PMID: 12179449
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous*
  3. Yoong KY, Cheong I
    Int J STD AIDS, 1997 Feb;8(2):118-23.
    PMID: 9061411
    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the clinical profile, haematological and biochemical changes, seroprevalence of common opportunistic pathogens, and AIDS-defining events in 49 Malaysian male drug addicts with HIV infection. Their mean age was 33.2 years, the majority had been injecting drugs for more than 5 years and 88% reporting sharing needles. Fatigue, weight loss and night sweats were common presenting symptoms and the most frequent physical findings were hepatomegaly (57%), lymphadenopathy (35%) and thrush (29%). Pulmonary infections were the commonest complications seen (61%) and of these, 13 had septic pulmonary emboli, 7 had bacterial pneumonias, 7 had pulmonary tuberculosis, and 4 had Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Eight patients had infective endocarditis and 5 had infected pseudoaneurysm in the groin. Anaemia (82%), leucocytosis (53%), hypoalbuminaemia (43%), hyperglobulinaemia (88%), elevated liver enzymes and hyponatraemia (57%) were frequent laboratory findings. The prevalence of HCV, HBV, cytomegalovirus and toxoplasma infection (by serology) were 100%, 12.2%, 72.7% and 59% respectively. All 7 patients with AIDS (4 P. carinii pneumonia, 2 extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and one oesophageal candidiasis) presented with their AIDS-defining illness, suggesting that HIV-infected intravenous drug user (IVDU) patients present late in the course of the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous*
  4. Duraisamy G, Zuridah H, Ariffin Y, Kek CS
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Sep;49(3):212-6.
    PMID: 7845268
    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is an RNA containing virus that requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) to supply the envelope proteins. HDV only infect man in the presence of HBV, either as a coinfection or as superinfection in HBV carriers. In the presence of hepatitis B infection, the HDV may cause more severe liver damage than that caused by the hepatitis B virus alone. HDV infection was studied in 44 HBsAg positive serum samples collected from male intravenous drug users sent for screening to the Blood Services Centre (BSC), Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) between 1990 and 1992. The majority (39) were in the 20 to 39 age group. The youngest was 19 years old and the oldest was 61 years old. There were 25 Malays, 13 Chinese, five Indians and one Albanian. Anti hepatitis delta antibody (Anti-HDV) was detected in 15 out of 44 (34%) of the drug addicts. These results shows an increased in delta infection in HBsAg positive intravenous drug addicts compared to the surveillance results in 1985 when no delta antibodies were detected, and the 1986 and 1989 surveillance which showed 17.8% and 20% delta antibody positivity respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology*
  5. Bruce RD, Govindasamy S, Sylla L, Haddad MS, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 2008;34(4):511-7.
    PMID: 18584580 DOI: 10.1080/00952990802122259
    Diversion of buprenorphine has been described in settings where it is legally prescribed and has become an increasing concern in Malaysia; it resulted in banning of buprenorphine in Singapore where unsubstantiated case reports suggested that buprenorphine injection was associated with particularly poor outcomes. We therefore conducted a case series of qualitative interviews with buprenorphine injectors in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to examine further the issues surrounding buprenorphine injection as well as the abuse of midazolam in combination with buprenorphine. Interviews with 19 men do not suggest significant adverse health consequences from buprenorphine injection alone and injectors have adapted diverted buprenorphine as a treatment modality. A subset of these injectors, however, combined buprenorphine and midazolam for euphoric effects with resultant symptoms of a possible pharmacological interaction. Prospective cohort studies, rather than hospital-derived samples, are needed to better understand the safety of buprenorphine injection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/mortality*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/prevention & control*
  6. Poshyachinda V
    Bull Narc, 1993;45(1):77-90.
    PMID: 8305908
    Opium has been produced and consumed since the nineteenth century in the areas of Asia currently referred to as the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle. In the 1970s and 1980s, most countries from Afghanistan to Japan experienced a heroin epidemic of varying degrees of severity. Opium and heroin abuse appeared to be more severe in countries and areas where those drugs were produced, an exception being Hong Kong, which has had a large population of heroin abusers for more than two decades. Drug injecting was far more common in countries of the Golden Triangle than in those of the Golden Crescent. In Myanmar and Thailand, for example, up to 90 per cent of chronic heroin abusers practised intravenous injection, which appeared to spread to heroin abusers in nearby territories such as the State of Manipur in India. Yunnan province in China, as well as Malaysia and Viet Nam. Amphetamine abuse was more frequent in Japan and the Republic of Korea for a number of years, while illicit production and consumption in the Philippines have recently shown significant increases. The injection of amphetamines was common only in the Republic of Korea. The prevalence of injecting among institutionalized methamphetamine abusers was reported at about 90 per cent. Most countries in Asia first reported cases of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the mid-1980s. An extremely rapid spead of the epidemic and high prevalence, at rates of from 30 to 90 per cent, of HIV infection among the sample of intravenous heroin abusers were observed in a few countries with a high prevalence of intravenous injecting, such as India (in the State of Manipur), Myanmar and Thailand. The rest had either few reported cases or none at all, even though needle-sharing was found to be common. Great caution should be exercised in interpreting prevalence because of vast differences in methods of assessment. Given the vulnerability of intravenous drug abusers to rapid transmission of HIV infection, the prevention of drug injecting is of paramount importance in arresting the spread of the epidemic. Efforts to contain drug abuse, though difficult, are a principal means of achieving that end.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/prevention & control
  7. Kamel AG, Maning N, Arulmainathan S, Murad S, Nasuruddin A, Lai KP
    PMID: 7667707
    A study conducted at the Tampin Drug Rehabilitation Center in Malaysia established a high prevalence (23%) of asymptomatic carriers of Cryptosporidium among exposed HIV positive intravenous drug users (IVDUs). A majority of them were young adults and among the ethnic groups, the Malay HIV positive inmates had the highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/rehabilitation
  8. Kasper P, Chalwatzis N, Duraisamy G, Ofenloch-Hähnle B, Faatz E
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 1997 Sep 20;13(14):1251-3.
    PMID: 9310293
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/blood; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/genetics*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/virology*
  9. Bazazi AR, Vijay A, Crawford FW, Heimer R, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    AIDS Care, 2018 Jan;30(1):59-64.
    PMID: 28803503 DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2017.1363852
    HIV testing services are the gateway into HIV treatment and are critical for monitoring the epidemic. HIV testing is recommended at least annually in high-risk populations, including people who inject drugs (PWID). In Malaysia, the HIV epidemic is concentrated among PWID, but their adherence to testing recommendations and the proportion of HIV-positive PWID who are aware of their status remain unknown. We recruited 460 PWID in Greater Kuala Lumpur using respondent-driven sampling and conducted HIV testing. We examined past testing behaviors, estimating testing frequency, correlates of testing in the past 12 months, and the proportion of those living with HIV who were aware of their status. Results showed that most PWID living with HIV (90.4%, 95% CI: 83.6%-95.9%) were aware of their status. Among those never previously diagnosed with HIV, few had accessed HIV testing in the past 12 months (14.3%, 95% CI: 11.1%-18.0%). Prison (57.0%) and compulsory drug detention centers (36.1%) were the primary locations where PWID reported ever being HIV tested, and the main correlate of recent testing in regression was recent criminal justice involvement. Although awareness of HIV status may be high among PWID living with HIV in Kuala Lumpur, testing occurs primarily in prisons and compulsory drug detention centers, where it is involuntary and linkage to care is limited. A shift in HIV testing policy is needed to align health and human rights objectives, replacing mandatory testing with voluntary testing in settings where individuals can be rapidly linked to HIV care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/diagnosis; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/psychology
  10. Kamarulzaman A, Saifuddeen SM
    Int J Drug Policy, 2010 Mar;21(2):115-8.
    PMID: 20006483 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.11.003
    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/prevention & control*
  11. Michalopoulos LM, Jiwatram-Negrón T, Choo MK, Kamarulzaman A, El-Bassel N
    BMC Public Health, 2016 06 02;16:464.
    PMID: 27250497 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3125-7
    BACKGROUND: Malaysian fishermen have been identified as a key-affected HIV population with HIV rates 10 times higher than national rates. A number of studies have identified that psychosocial and structural-level stressors increase HIV injection drug risk behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to examine psychosocial and structural-level stressors of injection drug use and HIV injection drug risk behaviors among Malaysian fishermen.

    METHODS: The study employs a cross-sectional design using respondent driven sampling methods. The sample includes 406 fishermen from Pahang state, Malaysia. Using multivariate logistic regressions, we examined the relationship between individual (depression), social (adverse interactions with the police), and structural (poverty-related) stressors and injection drug use and risky injection drug use (e.g.., receptive and non-receptive needle sharing, frontloading and back-loading, or sharing drugs from a common container).

    RESULTS: Participants below the poverty line had significantly lower odds of injection drug use (OR 0.52, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.99, p = 0.047) and risky injection drug use behavior (OR 0.48, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.93, p = 0.030). In addition, participants with an arrest history had higher odds of injection use (OR 19.58, 95 % CI: 9.81-39.10, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/psychology
  12. Sawitri AA, Blogg J, Angela R
    Drug Alcohol Rev, 2012 Sep;31(6):813-7.
    PMID: 22449011 DOI: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2012.00428.x
    A population estimation study was performed in 2009-2010 to understand the apparent decrease in people who inject drugs (PWID) attending needle syringe programs (NSPs) and to calculate the number of PWID in Bali for service planning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/diagnosis*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology*
  13. Brown SE, Wickersham JA, Pelletier AR, Marcus RM, Erenrich R, Kamarulzaman A, et al.
    J Ethn Subst Abuse, 2016 07 12;16(3):363-379.
    PMID: 27404914 DOI: 10.1080/15332640.2016.1196632
    Fishermen who inject drugs represent an understudied group at high risk for HIV in Malaysia. This study describes fishing, drug use, and attitudes toward medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorders. Thirty-four male ethnic Malay fishermen completed semistructured interviews analyzed by content analysis. Analysis revealed four themes surrounding opioids, which they called ubat ("medicine"): (a) the fishing lifestyle facilitating substance use, (b) previous unsuccessful attempts to quit, (c) categorizing substances as haram or halal, and (d) attitudes toward MAT. Fishermen's environment permits substance use, including injecting drugs on boats. Fishermen expressed more positive attitudes toward methadone and negative attitudes toward buprenorphine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/drug therapy; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/ethnology*
  14. Rehman IU, Khan TM
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2017 Nov;27(11):735.
    PMID: 29132493 DOI: 2758
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology
  15. Zelenev A, Long E, Bazazi AR, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Int J Drug Policy, 2016 11;37:98-106.
    PMID: 27639995 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.08.008
    BACKGROUND: HIV is primarily concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Malaysia, where currently HIV prevention and treatment coverage is inadequate. To improve the targeting of interventions, we examined HIV clustering and the role that social networks and geographical distance play in influencing HIV transmission among PWID.

    METHODS: Data were derived from a respondent-driven survey sample (RDS) collected during 2010 of 460 PWID in greater Kuala Lumpur. Analysis focused on socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural, and network information. Spatial probit models were developed based on a distinction between the influence of peers (individuals nominated through a recruitment network) and neighbours (residing a close distance to the individual). The models were expanded to account for the potential influence of the network formation.

    RESULTS: Recruitment patterns of HIV-infected PWID clustered both spatially and across the recruitment networks. In addition, HIV-infected PWID were more likely to have peers and neighbours who inject with clean needles were HIV-infected and lived nearby (<5km), more likely to have been previously incarcerated, less likely to use clean needles (26.8% vs 53.0% of the reported injections, p<0.01), and have fewer recent injection partners (2.4 vs 5.4, p<0.01). The association between the HIV status of peers and neighbours remained significantly correlated even after controlling for unobserved variation related to network formation and sero-sorting.

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between HIV status across networks and space in Kuala Lumpur underscores the importance of these factors for surveillance and prevention strategies, and this needs to be more closely integrated. RDS can be applied to identify injection network structures, and this provides an important mechanism for improving public health surveillance, accessing high-risk populations, and implementing risk-reduction interventions to slow HIV transmission.

    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/diagnosis; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/prevention & control; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/psychology
  16. Culbert GJ, Waluyo A, Iriyanti M, Muchransyah AP, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2015 Apr 01;149:71-9.
    PMID: 25659895 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.018
    BACKGROUND: In Indonesia, incarceration of people who inject drugs (PWID) and access to drugs in prison potentiate within-prison drug injection (WP-DI), a preventable and extremely high-risk behavior that may contribute substantially to HIV transmission in prison and communities to which prisoners are released.

    AIMS: This mixed method study examined the prevalence, correlates, and social context of WP-DI among HIV-infected male prisoners in Indonesia.

    METHODS: 102 randomly selected HIV-infected male prisoners completed semi-structured voice-recorded interviews about drug use changes after arrest, drug use cues within prison, and impact of WP-DI on HIV and addiction treatment. Logistic regression identified multivariate correlates of WP-DI and thematic analysis of interview transcripts used grounded-theory.

    RESULTS: Over half (56%) of participants reported previous WP-DI. Of those, 93% shared injection equipment in prison, and 78.6% estimated sharing needles with ≥ 10 other prisoners. Multivariate analyses independently correlated WP-DI with being incarcerated for drug offenses (AOR = 3.29, 95%CI = 1.30-8.31, p = 0.011) and daily drug injection before arrest (AOR = 5.23, 95%CI = 1.42-19.25, p = 0.013). Drug availability and proximity to drug users while incarcerated were associated with frequent drug craving and escalating drug use risk behaviors after arrest. Energetic heroin marketing and stigmatizing attitudes toward methadone contribute to WP-DI and impede addiction and HIV treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Frequent WP-DI and needle sharing among these HIV-infected Indonesian prison inmates indicate the need for structural interventions that reduce overcrowding, drug supply, and needle sharing, and improve detection and treatment of substance use disorders upon incarceration to minimize WP-DI and associated harm.

    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/psychology*
  17. Aceijas C, Stimson GV, Hickman M, Rhodes T, United Nations Reference Group on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care among IDU in Developing and Transitional Countries
    AIDS, 2004 Nov 19;18(17):2295-303.
    PMID: 15577542
    OBJECTIVE: To provide global estimates of the prevalence of injecting drug use (IDU) and HIV prevalence among IDU, in particular to provide estimates for developing and transitional countries.

    METHODS: Collation and review of existing estimates of IDU prevalence and HIV prevalence from published and unpublished documents for the period 1998-2003. The strength of evidence for the information was assessed based on the source and type of study.

    RESULTS: Estimates of IDU prevalence were available for 130 countries. The number of IDU worldwide was estimated as approximately 13.2 million. Over ten million (78%) live in developing and transitional countries (Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 3.1 million; South and South-east Asia, 3.3 million; East-Asia and Pacific, 2.3 million). Estimates of HIV prevalence were available for 78 countries. HIV prevalence among IDU of over 20% was reported for at least one site in 25 countries and territories: Belarus, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Serbia and Montenegro, Spain, Libya, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Puerto Rico, USA and Canada.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings update previous assessments of the number of countries with IDU and HIV-infected IDU, and the previous quantitative global estimates of the prevalence of IDU. However, gaps remain in the information and the strength of the evidence often was weak.

    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology*
  18. Polonsky M, Rozanova J, Azbel L, Bachireddy C, Izenberg J, Kiriazova T, et al.
    AIDS Behav, 2016 12;20(12):2950-2960.
    PMID: 27011378
    In this study, we use data from a survey conducted in Ukraine among 196 HIV-infected people who inject drugs, to explore attitudes toward drug addiction and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT), and intentions to change drug use during incarceration and after release from prison. Two groups were recruited: Group 1 (n = 99) was currently incarcerated and Group 2 (n = 97) had been recently released from prison. This paper's key finding is that MMT treatment and addiction recovery were predominantly viewed as mutually exclusive processes. Group comparisons showed that participants in Group 1 (pre-release) exhibited higher optimism about changing their drug use, were less likely to endorse methadone, and reported higher intention to recover from their addiction. Group 2 participants (post-release), however, reported higher rates of HIV stigma. Structural equation modeling revealed that in both groups, optimism about recovery and awareness of addiction mediated the effect of drug addiction severity on intentions to recover from their addiction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/psychology*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/rehabilitation*
  19. Amadora-Nolasco F, Alburo RE, Aguilar EJ, Trevathan WR
    Drug Alcohol Rev, 2002 Jun;21(2):137-43.
    PMID: 12188992
    Injecting drug users (IDU) represent a small fraction of the HIV and AIDS cases in the Philippines. To determine if these people are engaging in behaviors that put them at risk for HIV, interviews were conducted with 360 male IDUs in Cebu City, Philippines, from 1997 to 1999, as part of a national surveillance system. The interviews assessed knowledge about HIV transmission, sources of information about HIV/AIDS, perceived risks of contracting HIV, needle-sharing practices, condom use, self-reported signs and symptoms of STDs and number of sex partners. Although most of the men were able to recognize behaviors accurately that put them at risk for HIV, more than two-thirds claimed that they shared needles and almost two-thirds of those who were sexually active claimed that they never used condoms. Intervention strategies must be developed for this population if the nation is to avoid the dramatic increase in HIV infection among IDUs that has been witnessed in neighboring Southeast Asian nations such as Malaysia and Vietnam.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology*; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/psychology
  20. Wai BH, Singh S, Varma SL
    Addiction, 1996 Mar;91(3):435-8.
    PMID: 8867206
    One hundred and seventy-one drug-dependent females in a drug rehabilitation centre were studied to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among them. Twenty-four (14%) were positive on the Western Blot test. The presence of HIV infection was significantly correlated with syphilis (p < 0.03) and age (p < 0.001); 83% of those who were HIV positive were intravenous drug users. The need for harm reduction programmes to prevent spread of HIV infection among injecting drug users is stressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology; Substance Abuse, Intravenous/psychology
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