Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 109 in total

  1. Hussain RMF, Kim HK, Khurshid M, Akhtar MT, Linthorst HJM
    Metabolomics, 2018 01 31;14(3):25.
    PMID: 30830336 DOI: 10.1007/s11306-018-1317-0
    INTRODUCTION: WRKY proteins belong to a plant-specific class of transcription factors. Seventy-four WKRY genes have been identified in Arabidopsis and many WRKY proteins are known to be involved in responses to stress, especially to biotic stress. They may act either as transcriptional activators or as repressors of genes that play roles in the stress response. A number of studies have proposed the connection of Arabidopsis WRKY transcription factors in induced pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, although no direct evidence has been presented for specific WRKY-PR promoter interactions.

    OBJECTIVE: We previously identified AtWRKY50 as a transcriptional activator of SAR gene PR1. Although PR1 accumulates to high levels in plants after attack by pathogens, its function is still elusive. Here we investigated the effects of overexpression of several WRKY proteins, including AtWRKY50, on the metabolome of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    METHODS: The influence of overexpression of WRKY proteins on the metabolites of Arabidopsis was investigated by using an NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomic approach. The 1H NMR data was analysed using the multivariate data analysis methods, such as principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and partial least square-discriminant analysis.

    RESULTS: The results showed that the metabolome of transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtWRKY50 was different from wild type Arabidopsis and transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing other WRKY genes. Amongst other metabolites, sinapic acid and 1-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucose especially appeared to be the most prominent discriminating metabolites, accumulating to levels 2 to 3 times higher in the AtWRKY50 overexpressor lines.

    CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a possible involvement of AtWRKY50 in secondary metabolite production in Arabidopsis, in particular of hydroxycinnamates such as sinapic acid and 1-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucose.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism*
  2. Hasanpourghadi M, Pandurangan AK, Mustafa MR
    Pharmacol Res, 2018 02;128:376-388.
    PMID: 28923544 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.09.009
    Carcinogenesis, a multi-step phenomenon, characterized by alterations at genetic level and affecting the main intracellular pathways controlling cell growth and development. There are growing number of evidences linking oncogenes to the induction of malignancies, especially breast cancer. Modulations of oncogenes lead to gain-of-function signals in the cells and contribute to the tumorigenic phenotype. These signals yield a large number of proteins that cause cell growth and inhibit apoptosis. Transcription factors such as STAT, p53, NF-κB, c-JUN and FOXM1, are proteins that are conserved among species, accumulate in the nucleus, bind to DNA and regulate the specific genes targets. Oncogenic transcription factors resulting from the mutation or overexpression following aberrant gene expression relay the signals in the nucleus and disrupt the transcription pattern. Activation of oncogenic transcription factors is associated with control of cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and cell differentiation. Among different cancer types, breast cancer is one of top ten cancers worldwide. There are different subtypes of breast cancer cell-lines such as non-aggressive MCF-7 and aggressive and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, which are identified with distinct molecular profile and different levels of oncogenic transcription factor. For instance, MDA-MB-231 carries mutated and overexpressed p53 with its abnormal, uncontrolled downstream signalling pathway that account for resistance to several anticancer drugs compared to MCF-7 cells with wild-type p53. Appropriate enough, inhibition of oncogenic transcription factors has become a potential target in discovery and development of anti-tumour drugs against breast cancer. Plants produce diverse amount of organic metabolites. Universally, these metabolites with biological activities are known as "natural products". The chemical structure and function of natural products have been studied since 1850s. Investigating these properties leaded to recognition of their molecular effects as anticancer drugs. Numerous natural products extracted from plants, fruits, mushrooms and mycelia, show potential inhibitory effects against several oncogenic transcription factors in breast cancer. Natural compounds that target oncogenic transcription factors have increased the number of candidate therapeutic agents. This review summarizes the current findings of natural products in targeting specific oncogenic transcription factors in breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism*
  3. Khairul-Anuar MA, Mazumdar P, Othman RY, Harikrishna JA
    Ann Bot, 2022 Sep 26;130(4):579-594.
    PMID: 35980362 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcac103
    BACKGROUND: Flower pigment and shape are determined by the coordinated expression of a set of structural genes during flower development. R2R3-MYB transcription factors are known regulators of structural gene expression. The current study focused on two members of this large family of transcription factors that were predicted to have roles in pigment biosynthesis and organ shape development in orchids.

    METHODS: Phylogenetic analysis was used to identify candidate Dendrobium catenatum R2R3-MYB (DcaMYB) sequences associated with pigment and cell shape development. Gene silencing of candidate DhMYBs in Dendrobium hybrid by direct application of dsRNA to developing flowers was followed by observation of gene expression level and flower phenotypes. Silencing of the structural gene chalcone synthase was used as a comparative control.

    KEY RESULTS: Ten candidate flower-associated DcaMYBs were identified. Flowers treated with dsRNA of DhMYB22 and DhMYB60 sequences were less pigmented and had relatively low expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (F3'H and DFR), lower total anthocyanin concentration and markedly lower levels of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Petals of DhMYB22-treated flowers and sepals of DhMYB60-treated flowers showed the greatest colour difference relative to the same organs in untreated flowers. DhMYB22-treated flowers had relatively narrow and constricted lips, while DhMYB60-treated flowers had narrow and constricted sepals. No significant difference in shape was observed for DhCHS-treated or untreated flowers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that DhMYB22 and DhMYB60 regulate pigment intensity and floral organ shape in Dendrobium. This is a first report of MYB regulation of floral organ shape in orchids.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism
  4. Ng CH, Akhter A, Yurko N, Burgener JM, Rosonina E, Manley JL
    Nat Commun, 2015 Mar 13;6:6610.
    PMID: 25766875 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7610
    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is implicated in various cellular activities, including transcriptional regulation. We previously showed that the yeast activator Gcn4 becomes sumoylated during activation, facilitating its eventual promoter eviction and transcriptional shut off. Here we show that the corepressor Tup1 is sumoylated, at two specific lysines, under various stress conditions. Mutation of these sites has no effect on Tup1 recruitment or RNAP II promoter occupancy immediately following induction. However, Tup1 levels subsequently decrease, while RNAP II and transcription increase in Tup1 mutant cells. Consistent with this, a Tup1 mutant displaying increased sumoylation led to reduced transcription. We also show that coordinated sumoylation of Gcn4 and Tup1 enhances Gcn4 promoter eviction and that multiple Tup1-interacting proteins become sumoylated after stress. Together, our studies provide evidence that coordinated sumoylation of Gcn4, Tup1 and likely other factors dampens activated transcription by stabilizing Tup1 binding and stimulating Gcn4 and RNAP II removal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism; Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/metabolism*
  5. Lee HN, Mostovoy Y, Hsu TY, Chang AH, Brem RB
    G3 (Bethesda), 2013 Dec 09;3(12):2187-94.
    PMID: 24142925 DOI: 10.1534/g3.113.008011
    Comparative genomic studies have reported widespread variation in levels of gene expression within and between species. Using these data to infer organism-level trait divergence has proven to be a key challenge in the field. We have used a wild Malaysian population of S. cerevisiae as a test bed in the search to predict and validate trait differences based on observations of regulatory variation. Malaysian yeast, when cultured in standard medium, activated regulatory programs that protect cells from the toxic effects of high iron. Malaysian yeast also showed a hyperactive regulatory response during culture in the presence of excess iron and had a unique growth defect in conditions of high iron. Molecular validation experiments pinpointed the iron metabolism factors AFT1, CCC1, and YAP5 as contributors to these molecular and cellular phenotypes; in genome-scale sequence analyses, a suite of iron toxicity response genes showed evidence for rapid protein evolution in Malaysian yeast. Our findings support a model in which iron metabolism has diverged in Malaysian yeast as a consequence of a change in selective pressure, with Malaysian alleles shifting the dynamic range of iron response to low-iron concentrations and weakening resistance to extreme iron toxicity. By dissecting the iron scarcity specialist behavior of Malaysian yeast, our work highlights the power of expression divergence as a signpost for biologically and evolutionarily relevant variation at the organismal level. Interpreting the phenotypic relevance of gene expression variation is one of the primary challenges of modern genomics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism; Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/metabolism
  6. Wei K, Sutherland H, Camilleri E, Haupt LM, Griffiths LR, Gan SH
    Mol Biol Rep, 2014 Dec;41(12):8285-92.
    PMID: 25213548 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-014-3729-x
    Computational epigenetics is a new area of research focused on exploring how DNA methylation patterns affect transcription factor binding that affect gene expression patterns. The aim of this study was to produce a new protocol for the detection of DNA methylation patterns using computational analysis which can be further confirmed by bisulfite PCR with serial pyrosequencing. The upstream regulatory element and pre-initiation complex relative to CpG islets within the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene were determined via computational analysis and online databases. The 1,104 bp long CpG island located near to or at the alternative promoter site of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene was identified. The CpG plot indicated that CpG islets A and B, within the island, contained 62 and 75 % GC content CpG ratios of 0.70 and 0.80-0.95, respectively. Further exploration of the CpG islets A and B indicates that the transcription start sites were GGC which were absent from the TATA boxes. In addition, although six PROSITE motifs were identified in CpG B, no motifs were detected in CpG A. A number of cis-regulatory elements were found in different regions within the CpGs A and B. Transcription factors were predicted to bind to CpGs A and B with varying affinities depending on the DNA methylation status. In addition, transcription factor binding may influence the expression patterns of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene by recruiting chromatin condensation inducing factors. These results have significant implications for the understanding of the architecture of transcription factor binding at CpG islets as well as DNA methylation patterns that affect chromatin structure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism
  7. Kumarasamy V, Kuppusamy UR, Samudi C, Kumar S
    Parasitol Res, 2013 Oct;112(10):3551-5.
    PMID: 23933809 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-013-3538-5
    Blastocystis sp. is a commonly found intestinal microorganism and was reported to cause many nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. Various subtypes have been previously reported, and the pathogenicity of different subtypes of Blastocystis is unclear and remains as a controversial issue. A recent study has shown that the Blastocystis antigen isolated from an unknown subtype could facilitate the proliferation of colon cancer cells. Current study was conducted to compare the effect of solubilized antigen isolated from five different subtypes of Blastocystis on colon cancer cells, HCT116. A statistically significant proliferation of these cells was observed when exposed to 1.0 μg/ml solubilized antigen isolated from subtype 3 Blastocystis (37.22%, p < 0.05). Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the upregulation of Th2 cytokines especially transforming growth factor beta in subtype 3-treated cancer cells (p < 0.01, 3.71-fold difference). Of interest, subtype 3 Blastocystis antigen also caused a significantly higher upregulation of cathepsin B (subtypes 1 and 2, p < 0.01; subtypes 4 and 5, p < 0.001; 6.71-fold difference) which lead to the postulation that it may enhance the exacerbation of existing colon cancer cells by weakening the cellular immune response. The dysregulation of IFN-γ and p53 expression also suggest Blastocystis as a proponent of carcinogenesis. Therefore, it is very likely for subtype 3 Blastocystis to have higher pathogenic potential as it caused an increased propagation of cancer cells and substantial amount of inflammatory reaction compared to other subtypes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism
  8. Chen M, Zhang B, Li C, Kulaveerasingam H, Chew FT, Yu H
    Plant Physiol., 2015 Sep;169(1):391-402.
    PMID: 26152712 DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.00943
    Seed storage reserves mainly consist of starch, triacylglycerols, and storage proteins. They not only provide energy for seed germination and seedling establishment, but also supply essential dietary nutrients for human beings and animals. So far, the regulatory networks that govern the accumulation of seed storage reserves in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an important role in mediating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The dry weight of ttg1-1 embryos significantly increases compared with that of wild-type embryos, which is accompanied by an increase in the contents of starch, total protein, and fatty acids in ttg1-1 seeds. FUSCA3 (FUS3), a master regulator of seed maturation, binds directly to the TTG1 genomic region and suppresses TTG1 expression in developing seeds. TTG1 negatively regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins partially through transcriptional repression of 2S3, a gene encoding a 2S albumin precursor. TTG1 also indirectly suppresses the expression of genes involved in either seed development or synthesis/modification of fatty acids in developing seeds. In addition, we demonstrate that the maternal allele of the TTG1 gene suppresses the accumulation of storage proteins and fatty acids in seeds. Our results suggest that TTG1 is a direct target of FUS3 in the framework of the regulatory hierarchy controlling seed filling and regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins and fatty acids during the seed maturation process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism
  9. Pucker B, Pandey A, Weisshaar B, Stracke R
    PLoS One, 2020;15(10):e0239275.
    PMID: 33021974 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239275
    The R2R3-MYB genes comprise one of the largest transcription factor gene families in plants, playing regulatory roles in plant-specific developmental processes, defense responses and metabolite accumulation. To date MYB family genes have not yet been comprehensively identified in the major staple fruit crop banana. In this study, we present a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of the MYB genes from Musa acuminata DH-Pahang (A genome). A total of 285 R2R3-MYB genes as well as genes encoding three other classes of MYB proteins containing multiple MYB repeats were identified and characterised with respect to structure and chromosomal organisation. Organ- and development-specific expression patterns were determined from RNA-Seq data. For 280 M. acuminata MYB genes for which expression was found in at least one of the analysed samples, a variety of expression patterns were detected. The M. acuminata R2R3-MYB genes were functionally categorised, leading to the identification of seven clades containing only M. acuminata R2R3-MYBs. The encoded proteins may have specialised functions that were acquired or expanded in Musa during genome evolution. This functional classification and expression analysis of the MYB gene family in banana establishes a solid foundation for future comprehensive functional analysis of MaMYBs and can be utilized in banana improvement programmes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism
  10. Loh SC, Othman AS, Veera Singham G
    Sci Rep, 2019 10 04;9(1):14296.
    PMID: 31586098 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-50800-1
    Hevea brasiliensis remains the primary crop commercially exploited to obtain latex, which is produced from the articulated secondary laticifer. Here, we described the transcriptional events related to jasmonic acid (JA)- and linolenic acid (LA)-induced secondary laticifer differentiation (SLD) in H. brasiliensis clone RRIM 600 based on RNA-seq approach. Histochemical approach proved that JA- and LA-treated samples resulted in SLD in H. brasiliensis when compared to ethephon and untreated control. RNA-seq data resulted in 86,614 unigenes, of which 2,664 genes were differentially expressed in JA and LA-induced secondary laticifer harvested from H. brasiliensis bark samples. Among these, 450 genes were unique to JA and LA as they were not differentially expressed in ethephon-treated samples compared with the untreated samples. Most transcription factors from the JA- and LA-specific dataset were classified under MYB, APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF), and basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene families that were involved in tissue developmental pathways, and we proposed that Bel5-GA2 oxidase 1-KNOTTED-like homeobox complex are likely involved in JA- and LA-induced SLD in H. brasiliensis. We also discovered alternative spliced transcripts, putative novel transcripts, and cis-natural antisense transcript pairs related to SLD event. This study has advanced understanding on the transcriptional regulatory network of SLD in H. brasiliensis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism*
  11. Sarpan N, Taranenko E, Ooi SE, Low EL, Espinoza A, Tatarinova TV, et al.
    Plant Cell Rep, 2020 Sep;39(9):1219-1233.
    PMID: 32591850 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-020-02561-9
    KEY MESSAGE: Several hypomethylated sites within the Karma region of EgDEF1 and hotspot regions in chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 5 may be associated with mantling. One of the main challenges faced by the oil palm industry is fruit abnormalities, such as the "mantled" phenotype that can lead to reduced yields. This clonal abnormality is an epigenetic phenomenon and has been linked to the hypomethylation of a transposable element within the EgDEF1 gene. To understand the epigenome changes in clones, methylomes of clonal oil palms were compared to methylomes of seedling-derived oil palms. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data from seedlings, normal, and mantled clones were analyzed to determine and compare the context-specific DNA methylomes. In seedlings, coding and regulatory regions are generally hypomethylated while introns and repeats are extensively methylated. Genes with a low number of guanines and cytosines in the third position of codons (GC3-poor genes) were increasingly methylated towards their 3' region, while GC3-rich genes remain demethylated, similar to patterns in other eukaryotic species. Predicted promoter regions were generally hypomethylated in seedlings. In clones, CG, CHG, and CHH methylation levels generally decreased in functionally important regions, such as promoters, 5' UTRs, and coding regions. Although random regions were found to be hypomethylated in clonal genomes, hypomethylation of certain hotspot regions may be associated with the clonal mantling phenotype. Our findings, therefore, suggest other hypomethylated CHG sites within the Karma of EgDEF1 and hypomethylated hotspot regions in chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 5, are associated with mantling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism
  12. Liew LC, Gailhouste L, Tan GC, Yamamoto Y, Takeshita F, Nakagama H, et al.
    Stem Cells, 2020 04;38(4):504-515.
    PMID: 31828873 DOI: 10.1002/stem.3136
    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) during mouse early development, especially in endoderm germ layer formation, is largely unknown. Here, via miRNA profiling during endoderm differentiation, we discovered that miR-124a negatively regulates endoderm lineage commitment in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). To further investigate the functional role of miR-124a in early stages of differentiation, transfection of embryoid bodies with miR-124a mimic was performed. We showed that overexpression of miR-124a inhibits endoderm differentiation in vitro through targeting the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Sox17 and Gata6, revealing the existence of interplay between miR-124a and the Sox17/Gata6 transcription factors in hepato-specific gene regulation. In addition, we presented a feasible in vivo system that utilizes teratoma and gene expression profiling from microarray to quantitatively evaluate the functional role of miRNA in lineage specification. We demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-124a in teratomas by intratumor delivery of miR-124a mimic and Atelocollagen, significantly suppressed endoderm and mesoderm lineage differentiation while augmenting the differentiation into ectoderm lineage. Collectively, our findings suggest that miR-124a plays a significant role in mESCs lineage commitment.
    Matched MeSH terms: SOXF Transcription Factors/metabolism*
  13. Heng BC, Zhang X, Aubel D, Bai Y, Li X, Wei Y, et al.
    Cell Mol Life Sci, 2021 Jan;78(2):497-512.
    PMID: 32748155 DOI: 10.1007/s00018-020-03579-8
    YAP and TAZ are ubiquitously expressed homologous proteins originally identified as penultimate effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway, which plays a key role in maintaining mammalian tissue/organ size. Presently, it is known that YAP/TAZ also interact with various non-Hippo signaling pathways, and have diverse roles in multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, tissue regeneration, cell lineage fate determination, tumorigenesis, and mechanosensing. In this review, we first examine the various microenvironmental cues and signaling pathways that regulate YAP/TAZ activation, through the Hippo and non-Hippo signaling pathways. This is followed by a brief summary of the interactions of YAP/TAZ with TEAD1-4 and a diverse array of other non-TEAD transcription factors. Finally, we offer a critical perspective on how increasing knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of YAP/TAZ signaling might open the door to novel therapeutic applications in the interrelated fields of biomaterials, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and synthetic biology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism*
  14. Daneshvar N, Abdullah R, Shamsabadi FT, How CW, Mh MA, Mehrbod P
    Cell Biol Int, 2013 May;37(5):415-9.
    PMID: 23504853 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10051
    Nanotechnology has provided new technological opportunities, which could help in challenges confronting stem cell research. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers, a new class of macromolecular polymers with high molecular uniformity, narrow molecular distribution specific size and shape and highly functionalised terminal surface have been extensively explored for biomedical application. PAMAM dendrimers are also nanospherical, hyperbranched and monodispersive molecules exhibiting exclusive properties which make them potential carriers for drug and gene delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism
  15. Angelopoulou E, Paudel YN, Piperi C
    J Mol Med (Berl), 2020 11;98(11):1525-1546.
    PMID: 32978667 DOI: 10.1007/s00109-020-01984-x
    Despite extensive research, gliomas are associated with high morbidity and mortality, mainly attributed to the rapid growth rate, excessive invasiveness, and molecular heterogeneity, as well as regenerative potential of cancer stem cells. Therefore, elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the identification of potential molecular diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are of paramount importance. HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is a well-studied long noncoding RNA, playing an emerging role in tumorigenesis of several human cancers. A growing amount of preclinical and clinical evidence highlights the pro-oncogenic role of HOTAIR in gliomas, mainly attributed to the enhancement of proliferation and migration, as well as inhibition of apoptosis. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that HOTAIR modulates the activity of specific transcription factors, such as MXI1, E2F1, ATF5, and ASCL1, and regulates the expression of cell cycle-associated genes along with related signaling pathways, like the Wnt/β-catenin axis. Moreover, it can interact with specific miRNAs, including miR-326, miR-141, miR-148b-3p, miR-15b, and miR-126-5p. Of importance, HOTAIR has been demonstrated to enhance angiogenesis and affect the permeability of the blood-tumor barrier, thus modulating the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Herein, we provide evidence on the functional role of HOTAIR in gliomas and discuss the benefits of its targeting as a novel approach toward glioma treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism
  16. Martí Ruiz MC, Hubbard KE, Gardner MJ, Jung HJ, Aubry S, Hotta CT, et al.
    Nat Plants, 2018 09;4(9):690-698.
    PMID: 30127410 DOI: 10.1038/s41477-018-0224-8
    In the last decade, the view of circadian oscillators has expanded from transcriptional feedback to incorporate post-transcriptional, post-translational, metabolic processes and ionic signalling. In plants and animals, there are circadian oscillations in the concentration of cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt), though their purpose has not been fully characterized. We investigated whether circadian oscillations of [Ca2+]cyt regulate the circadian oscillator of Arabidopsis thaliana. We report that in Arabidopsis, [Ca2+]cyt circadian oscillations can regulate circadian clock function through the Ca2+-dependent action of CALMODULIN-LIKE24 (CML24). Genetic analyses demonstrate a linkage between CML24 and the circadian oscillator, through pathways involving the circadian oscillator gene TIMING OF CAB2 EXPRESSION1 (TOC1).
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism
  17. Amini S, Rosli K, Abu-Bakar MF, Alias H, Mat-Isa MN, Juhari MA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2019;14(12):e0226338.
    PMID: 31851702 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226338
    Rafflesia possesses unique biological features and known primarily for producing the world's largest and existing as a single flower. However, to date, little is known about key regulators participating in Rafflesia flower development. In order to further understand the molecular mechanism that regulates Rafflesia cantleyi flower development, RNA-seq data from three developmental stages of floral bud, representing the floral organ primordia initiation, floral organ differentiation, and floral bud outgrowth, were analysed. A total of 89,890 transcripts were assembled of which up to 35% could be annotated based on homology search. Advanced transcriptome analysis using K-mean clustering on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was able to identify 12 expression clusters that reflect major trends and key transitional states, which correlate to specific developmental stages. Through this, comparative gene expression analysis of different floral bud stages identified various transcription factors related to flower development. The members of WRKY, NAC, bHLH, and MYB families are the most represented among the DEGs, suggesting their important function in flower development. Furthermore, pathway enrichment analysis also revealed DEGs that are involved in various phytohormone signal transduction events such as auxin and auxin transport, cytokinin and gibberellin biosynthesis. Results of this study imply that transcription factors and phytohormone signalling pathways play major role in Rafflesia floral bud development. This study provides an invaluable resource for molecular studies of the flower development process in Rafflesia and other plant species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism*
  18. Yoong LF, Lim HK, Tran H, Lackner S, Zheng Z, Hong P, et al.
    Neuron, 2020 05 06;106(3):452-467.e8.
    PMID: 32155441 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2020.02.002
    Dendrite arbor pattern determines the functional characteristics of a neuron. It is founded on primary branch structure, defined through cell intrinsic and transcription-factor-encoded mechanisms. Developing arbors have extensive acentrosomal microtubule dynamics, and here, we report an unexpected role for the atypical actin motor Myo6 in creating primary branch structure by specifying the position, polarity, and targeting of these events. We carried out in vivo time-lapse imaging of Drosophila adult sensory neuron differentiation, integrating machine-learning-based quantification of arbor patterning with molecular-level tracking of cytoskeletal remodeling. This revealed that Myo6 and the transcription factor Knot regulate transient surges of microtubule polymerization at dendrite tips; they drive retrograde extension of an actin filament array that specifies anterograde microtubule polymerization and guides these microtubules to subdivide the tip into multiple branches. Primary branches delineate functional compartments; this tunable branching mechanism is key to define and diversify dendrite arbor compartmentalization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism
  19. Jagadeeshan S, Prasad M, Badarni M, Ben-Lulu T, Liju VB, Mathukkada S, et al.
    Cancer Res, 2023 Apr 04;83(7):1031-1047.
    PMID: 36753744 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-22-2586
    The survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) diagnosed with cervical lymph node (cLN) or distant metastasis is low. Genomic alterations in the HRAS oncogene are associated with advanced tumor stage and metastasis in HNC. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which mutated HRAS (HRASmut) facilitates HNC metastasis could lead to improved treatment options for patients. Here, we examined metastasis driven by mutant HRAS in vitro and in vivo using HRASmut human HNC cell lines, patient-derived xenografts, and a novel HRASmut syngeneic model. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations indicated that HRASmut was sufficient to drive invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Targeted proteomic analysis showed that HRASmut promoted AXL expression via suppressing the Hippo pathway and stabilizing YAP1 activity. Pharmacological blockade of HRAS signaling with the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib activated the Hippo pathway and reduced the nuclear export of YAP1, thus suppressing YAP1-mediated AXL expression and metastasis. AXL was required for HRASmut cells to migrate and invade in vitro and to form regional cLN and lung metastases in vivo. In addition, AXL-depleted HRASmut tumors displayed reduced lymphatic and vascular angiogenesis in the primary tumor. Tipifarnib treatment also regulated AXL expression and attenuated VEGFA and VEGFC expression, thus regulating tumor-induced vascular formation and metastasis. Our results indicate that YAP1 and AXL are crucial factors for HRASmut-induced metastasis and that tipifarnib treatment can limit the metastasis of HNC tumors with HRAS mutations by enhancing YAP1 cytoplasmic sequestration and downregulating AXL expression.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Mutant HRAS drives metastasis of head and neck cancer by switching off the Hippo pathway to activate the YAP1-AXL axis and to stimulate lymphovascular angiogenesis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/metabolism
  20. Paul A, Ismail MN, Tang TH, Ng SK
    Mol Biol Rep, 2023 Apr;50(4):3909-3917.
    PMID: 36662450 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-023-08253-3
    BACKGROUND: IRF9 is a transcription factor that mediates the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) through the Janus kinase-Signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. The JAK-STAT pathway is regulated through phosphorylation reactions, in which all components of the pathway are known to be phosphorylated except IRF9. The enigma surrounding IRF9 regulation by a phosphorylation event is intriguing. As IRF9 plays a major role in establishing an antiviral state in host cells, the topic of IRF9 regulation warrants deeper investigation.

    METHODS: Initially, total lysates of 2fTGH and U2A cells (transfected with recombinant IRF9) were filter-selected and concentrated using phosphoprotein enrichment assay. The phosphoprotein state of IRF9 was further confirmed using Phos-tag™ assay. All protein expression was determined using Western blotting. Tandem mass spectrometry was conducted on immunoprecipitated IRF9 to identify the phosphorylated amino acids. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis was performed and the effects of mutated IRF9 on relevant ISGs (i.e., USP18 and Mx1) was evaluated using qPCR.

    RESULTS: IRF9 is phosphorylated at S252 and S253 under IFNβ-induced condition and R242 under non-induced condition. Site-directed mutagenesis of S252 and S253 to either alanine or aspartic acid has a modest effect on the upregulation of USP18 gene-a negative regulator of type I interferon (IFN) response-but not Mx1 gene.

    CONCLUSION: Our preliminary study shows that IRF9 is phosphorylated and possibly regulates USP18 gene expression. However, further in vivo studies are needed to determine the significance of IRF9 phosphorylation.

    Matched MeSH terms: STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism
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