A total of 9599 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) were collected from 60 centres in 13 countries in the Asia-Pacific region from 2010-2013. These isolates comprised Enterobacteriaceae species (mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae and Morganella morganii) and non-fermentative GNB species (predominantly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii). In vitro susceptibilities were determined by the agar dilution method and susceptibility profiles were determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive breakpoints recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2015. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) amongst E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca isolates was determined by the double-disk synergy test. China, Vietnam, India, Thailand and the Philippines had the highest rates of GNB species producing ESBLs and the highest rates of cephalosporin resistance. ESBL production and hospital-acquired infection (isolates obtained ≥48h after admission) significantly compromised the susceptibility of isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and most β-lactams, with the exception of imipenem and ertapenem. However, >87% of ESBL-producing E. coli strains were susceptible to amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam, indicating that these antibiotics might be appropriate alternatives for treating UTIs due to ESBL-producing E. coli. Fluoroquinolones were shown to be inappropriate as empirical therapy for UTIs. Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, continuous monitoring of evolutionary trends in the susceptibility profiles of GNB causing UTIs in Asia is crucial.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT), which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%). The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors.
The results of radiological investigations performed on 81 children with urinary tract infection (UTI) were reviewed. Investigations included 91 voiding cystourethrograms (VCU), 59 intravenous urograms (IVU) and 36 ultrasonograms (US). The aim was to study the local spectrum of renal tract abnormalities in childhood UTI and to compare the diagnostic yield of combining US and VCU against IVU and VCU. Renal tract abnormalities were detected in 37%. Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) was the commonest, detected in 26%, with renal scarring found in 9% of refluxing units. Ultrasound should replace IVU in the initial diagnostic work-up of these children.
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection affecting children and therefore, prompt recognition and accurate antimicrobial management are vital to prevent kidney damage. This study aims to determine the bacterial pathogens and their patterns of antimicrobial resistance in children presenting with UTI.
METHODS: A retrospective study of 721 cases, involving children between the ages of 1-day old to 13 years old with culture-proven UTI in Selayang Hospital, Malaysia between January 2007 and December 2011. The bacterial pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns in the total population, prophylaxis and no prophylaxis groups were studied.
RESULTS: The 3 most common organisms isolated in the total population were E.Coli (41.6%), Klebsiella spp. (21.2%) and Enterococcus spp. (11.0%). With regards to the antibiotic resistance, E.Coli resistance rates to ampicillin, cefuroxime and gentamicin were 67.7%, 15.3% and 7.3% respectively. Ampicillin-resistance was also highest in Klebsiella spp. (84.3%), Enterococcus spp. (15.5%) and Proteus spp. (55.5%).
CONCLUSION: E.coli remains to be the leading bacterial pathogen causing UTI in children, with ampicillin-resistance occurring in more than half of these cases. Therefore, accurate choice of antibiotics is important to ensure optimal outcome. In our study, cefuroxime and gentamicin have lower antibiotic resistance rates and can be used in the treatment of UTI in children.
Antibiotic resistance of urinary tract pathogens has increased worldwide. The purpose of this study is to provide information regarding local resistance pattern of urinary pathogens to the commonly used antibiotics. One hundred and seventeen cases of community-acquired urinary tract infections were studied. The most common group of patients was the uncomplicated acute cystitis in women. E. coli was the most common isolate. Overall, antimicrobial susceptibility test on the organisms isolated showed a resistance of 63.0% to ampicillin, 40.1% to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (S-T), 14.3% to pipemidic acid, 8.6% to norfloxacin, 3.8% to cephalexin, 3.7% to amoxicillin-clavulanate, 1.0% to cefuroxime, and 1.0% to fosfomycin. Three out of five patients on ampicillin as well as two out of five patients on S-T were likely to be inadequately treated.
To determine the proportion of albicans and non-albicans candiduria in a hospital setting and to ascertain if fluconazole is still suitable as empirical antifungal therapy based on antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida species.
Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS), as the name implies produces purplish discoloration of the urine. It is commonly observed among elderly women with constipation, and individuals with long term catheter in the setting of urinary tract infection (UTI). From the literature research, there were no publications on PUBS in Malaysia; however we believe that it is underreported. We present a unique case of this rare condition occurring in a 68-year-old man, a nursing home resident on long term urinary catheter. The urine cleared after hydration, antibiotic therapy and replacement of the catheter.