Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Hunsperger EA, Yoksan S, Buchy P, Nguyen VC, Sekaran SD, Enria DA, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014 Oct;8(10):e3171.
    PMID: 25330157 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003171
    Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60-75% and specificity 71-80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38-71% and specificity 76-80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30-96%, with a specificity of 86-92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96-98% and specificity 78-91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88-94%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology*
  2. AbuBakar S, Azmi A, Mohamed-Saad N, Shafee N, Chee HY
    Malays J Pathol, 1997 Jun;19(1):41-51.
    PMID: 10879241
    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antibody responses of dengue fever (DF) patients to specific dengue virus proteins. Partially purified dengue 2 New Guinea C (NGC) strain virus was used as antigen. Under the present experimental protocols, it was observed that almost all DF patients' sera had detectable presence of antibodies which recognize the dengue 2 envelope (E) protein. The convalescent-phase sera especially had significant detectable IgG, IgM and IgE against the protein. In addition, IgGs specific against the NS1 dimer and PrM were also detected. Antibody against the core (C) protein, however, was not detectable in any of the DF patients' sera. The substantial presence of IgG against the PrM in the convalescent-phase sera, and the presence of IgE specific for the E, reflect the potential importance of these antibody responses in the pathogenesis of dengue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology*
  3. Kumarasamy V, Chua SK, Hassan Z, Wahab AH, Chem YK, Mohamad M, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2007 Jul;48(7):669-73.
    PMID: 17609831
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this report is to establish an accurate diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection early, in order to provide timely information for the management of patients and early public health control of dengue outbreak.
    METHODS: 224 serum samples from patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute dengue infection, which were subsequently confirmed by laboratory tests, were used to evaluate the performance of a commercially-available dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA kit.
    RESULTS: The dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA gave an overall sensitivity rate of 93.3 percent (209/224). The sensitivity rate was significantly higher in acute primary dengue (97.4 percent) than in acute secondary dengue (68.8 percent). In comparison, the virus isolation gave an overall positive isolation rate of 64.7 percent, with a positive rate of 70.8 percent and 28.1 percent, for acute primary dengue and acute secondary dengue, respectively. Molecular detection of dengue RNA by RT-PCR gave an overall positive detection rate of 63.4 percent, with a positive rate of 62.5 percent and 68.8 percent, for acute primary dengue and acute secondary dengue, respectively. Of the 224 acute serum samples from patients with laboratory-confirmed acute dengue infection, dengue IgM was detected in 88 specimens, comprising 68 acute primary dengue specimens and 20 acute secondary dengue specimens. NS1 antigen-capture ELISA kit gave an overall sensitivity rate of 88.6 percent in the presence of anti-dengue IgM and 96.3 percent in the absence of anti-dengue IgM.
    CONCLUSION: Of the 224 acute serum samples, the sample ages of 166 acute serum samples are known. The positive detection rate of dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA, on the whole, was higher than the other three established diagnostic test methods for laboratory diagnosis of acute dengue infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology
  4. Aw-Yong KL, Sam IC, Koh MT, Chan YF
    PLoS One, 2016;11(11):e0165659.
    PMID: 27806091 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165659
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Unlike other enteroviruses that cause HFMD, EV-A71 is more frequently associated with severe neurological complications and fatality. To date, no effective licensed antivirals are available to combat EV-A71 infection. Little is known about the immunogenicity of viral non-structural proteins in humans. Previous studies have mainly focused on characterization of epitopes of EV-A71 structural proteins by using immunized animal antisera. In this study, we have characterized human antibody responses against the structural and non-structural proteins of EV-A71. Each viral protein was cloned and expressed in either bacterial or mammalian systems, and tested with antisera by western blot. Results revealed that all structural proteins (VP1-4), and non-structural proteins 2A, 3C and 3D were targets of EV-A71 IgM, whereas EV-A71 IgG recognized all the structural and non-structural proteins. Sixty three synthetic peptides predicted to be immunogenic in silico were synthesized and used for the characterization of EV-A71 linear B-cell epitopes. In total, we identified 22 IgM and four IgG dominant epitopes. Synthetic peptide PEP27, corresponding to residues 142-156 of VP1, was identified as the EV-A71 IgM-specific immunodominant epitope. PEP23, mapped to VP1 41-55, was recognized as the EV-A71 IgG cross-reactive immunodominant epitope. The structural protein VP1 is the major immunodominant site targeted by anti-EV-A71 IgM and IgG antibodies, but epitopes against non-structural proteins were also detected. These data provide new understanding of the immune response to EV-A71 infection, which benefits the development of diagnostic tools, potential therapeutics and subunit vaccine candidates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology*
  5. Lau SM, Chua TH, Sulaiman WY, Joanne S, Lim YA, Sekaran SD, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2017 Mar 21;10(1):151.
    PMID: 28327173 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-017-2091-y
    BACKGROUND: Dengue remains a serious public health problem in Southeast Asia and has increased 37-fold in Malaysia compared to decades ago. New strategies are urgently needed for early detection and control of dengue epidemics.

    METHODS: We conducted a two year study in a high human density dengue-endemic urban area in Selangor, where Gravid Ovipositing Sticky (GOS) traps were set up to capture adult Aedes spp. mosquitoes. All Aedes mosquitoes were tested using the NS1 dengue antigen test kit. All dengue cases from the study site notified to the State Health Department were recorded. Weekly microclimatic temperature, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall were monitored.

    RESULTS: Aedes aegypti was the predominant mosquito (95.6%) caught in GOS traps and 23% (43/187 pools of 5 mosquitoes each) were found to be positive for dengue using the NS1 antigen kit. Confirmed cases of dengue were observed with a lag of one week after positive Ae. aegypti were detected. Aedes aegypti density as analysed by distributed lag non-linear models, will increase lag of 2-3 weeks for temperature increase from 28 to 30 °C; and lag of three weeks for increased rainfall.

    CONCLUSION: Proactive strategy is needed for dengue vector surveillance programme. One method would be to use the GOS trap which is simple to setup, cost effective (below USD 1 per trap) and environmental friendly (i.e. use recyclable plastic materials) to capture Ae. aegypti followed by a rapid method of detecting of dengue virus using the NS1 dengue antigen kit. Control measures should be initiated when positive mosquitoes are detected.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology
  6. Zainah S, Wahab AH, Mariam M, Fauziah MK, Khairul AH, Roslina I, et al.
    J Virol Methods, 2009 Feb;155(2):157-60.
    PMID: 19022293 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2008.10.016
    The performance of a commercial immunochromatography test for rapid detection of dengue NS1 antigen present in serum or plasma of patients was evaluated against a commercial dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA. The rapid immunochromatography test gave an overall sensitivity of 90.4% with a specificity of 99.5%. The sensitivity was highest for serum samples from which virus was isolated (96.3%) and lowest for those from which virus was not isolated and RT-PCR was negative (76.4%). The sensitivity was significantly higher for serum samples from patients with acute primary dengue (92.3%) than those from patients with acute secondary dengue (79.1%). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of this commercial immunochromatography test were 99.6% and 87.9% respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology
  7. Thayan R, Huat TL, See LL, Tan CP, Khairullah NS, Yusof R, et al.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2009 Apr;103(4):413-9.
    PMID: 19203772 DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.12.018
    Dengue infection is a major public health problem affecting millions of people living in tropical countries. With no suitable vaccines and specific antiviral drugs, treatment for dengue is usually symptomatic and supportive. Early diagnosis and recognition of severe disease is therefore crucial for better management of the patient. Two-dimension electrophoresis was used to identify disease-associated proteins that can be used for diagnosis and as drug targets for treatment. Two markers, identified by mass spectrometry analysis as alpha1-antitrypsin and NS1 proteins were found to be upregulated in dengue fever (DF; n=10) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF; n=10) patients compared with healthy individuals (n=8). Both alpha1-antitrypsin and NS1 proteins were overexpressed two-fold in DHF patients compared with DF patients. Our study suggests that alpha1-antitrypsin and NS1 protein could be used as biomarkers as early indicators of DHF risk among patients with suspected dengue infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology*
  8. Appanna R, Huat TL, See LL, Tan PL, Vadivelu J, Devi S
    Clin. Vaccine Immunol., 2007 Aug;14(8):969-77.
    PMID: 17567768
    Dengue virus infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical areas in the world. Attempts to develop effective vaccines have been hampered by the lack of understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and the absence of suitable experimental models for dengue viral infection. The magnitude of T-cell responses has been reported to correlate with dengue disease severity. Sixty Malaysian adults with dengue viral infections were investigated for their dengue virus-specific T-cell responses to 32 peptides antigens from the structural and nonstructural regions from a dengue virus isolate. Seventeen different peptides from the C, E, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5 regions were found to evoke significant responses in a gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay of samples from 13 selected patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). NS3 and predominantly NS3(422-431) were found to be important T-cell targets. The highest peaks of T-cell responses observed were in responses to NS3(422-431) and NS5(563-571) in DHF patients. We also found almost a sevenfold increase in T-cell response in three DHF patients compared to three DF patient responses to peptide NS3(422-431). A large number of patients' T cells also responded to the NS2B(97-106) region. The ELISPOT analyses also revealed high frequencies of T cells that recognize both serotype-specific and cross-reactive dengue virus antigens in patients with DHF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology*
  9. Bande F, Arshad SS, Bejo MH, Moeini H, Omar AR
    J Immunol Res, 2015;2015:424860.
    PMID: 25954763 DOI: 10.1155/2015/424860
    Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a widely distributed poultry disease that has huge economic impact on poultry industry. The continuous emergence of new IBV genotypes and lack of cross protection among different IBV genotypes have been an important challenge. Although live attenuated IB vaccines remarkably induce potent immune response, the potential risk of reversion to virulence, neutralization by the maternal antibodies, and recombination and mutation events are important concern on their usage. On the other hand, inactivated vaccines induce a weaker immune response and may require multiple dosing and/or the use of adjuvants that probably have potential safety risks and increased economic burdens. Consequently, alternative IB vaccines are widely sought. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology have resulted in experimental IB vaccines that show promise in antibody and T-cells responses, comparable to live attenuated vaccines. Recombinant DNA vaccines have also been enhanced to target multiple serotypes and their efficacy has been improved using delivery vectors, nanoadjuvants, and in ovo vaccination approaches. Although most recombinant IB DNA vaccines are yet to be licensed, it is expected that these types of vaccines may hold sway as future vaccines for inducing a cross protection against multiple IBV serotypes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology
  10. Kumari R, Guo Z, Kumar A, Wiens M, Gangappa S, Katz JM, et al.
    Antiviral Res, 2020 04;176:104747.
    PMID: 32092305 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104747
    Influenza virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) counteracts host antiviral innate immune responses by inhibiting Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) activation. However, whether NS1 also specifically regulates RIG-I transcription is unknown. Here, we identify a CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein beta (C/EBPβ) binding site in the RIG-I promoter as a repressor element, and show that NS1 promotes C/EBPβ phosphorylation and its recruitment to the RIG-I promoter as a C/EBPβ/NS1 complex. C/EBPβ overexpression and siRNA knockdown in human lung epithelial cells resulted in suppression and activation of RIG-I expression respectively, implying a negative regulatory role of C/EBPβ. Further, C/EBPβ phosphorylation, its interaction with NS1 and occupancy at the RIG-I promoter was associated with RIG-I transcriptional inhibition. These findings provide an important insight into the molecular mechanism by which influenza NS1 commandeers RIG-I transcriptional regulation and suppresses host antiviral responses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology*
  11. Chong HY, Leow CY, Abdul Majeed AB, Leow CH
    Virus Res, 2019 12;274:197770.
    PMID: 31626874 DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.197770
    Flaviviruses are group of single stranded RNA viruses that cause severe endemic infection and epidemics on a global scale. It presents a significant health impact worldwide and the viruses have the potential to emerge and outbreak in a non-endemic geographical region. Effective vaccines for prophylaxis are only available for several flaviviruses such as Yellow Fever virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Dengue Virus and Japanese Encephalitis Virus and there is no antiflaviviral agent being marketed. This review discusses the flavivirus genome, replication cycle, epidemiology, clinical presentation and pathogenesis upon infection. Effective humoral response is critical to confer protective immunity against flaviviruses. Hence, we have also highlighted the immune responses elicited upon infection, various diagnostic facilities available for flaviviral disease and monoclonal antibodies available to date against flavivirus infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology
  12. Soe HJ, Manikam R, Raju CS, Khan MA, Sekaran SD
    PLoS One, 2020;15(8):e0237141.
    PMID: 32764789 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0237141
    Severe dengue can be lethal caused by manifestations such as severe bleeding, fluid accumulation and organ impairment. This study aimed to investigate the role of dengue non-structural 1 (NS1) protein and host factors contributing to severe dengue. Electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing system was used to investigate the changes in barrier function of microvascular endothelial cells treated NS1 protein and serum samples from patients with different disease severity. Cytokines and metabolites profiles were assessed using a multiplex cytokine assay and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry respectively. The findings showed that NS1 was able to induce the loss of barrier function in microvascular endothelium in a dose dependent manner, however, the level of NS1 in serum samples did not correlate with the extent of vascular leakage induced. Further assessment of host factors revealed that cytokines such as CCL2, CCL5, CCL20 and CXCL1, as well as adhesion molecule ICAM-1, that are involved in leukocytes infiltration were expressed higher in dengue patients in comparison to healthy individuals. In addition, metabolomics study revealed the presence of deregulated metabolites involved in the phospholipid metabolism pathway in patients with severe manifestations. In conclusion, disease severity in dengue virus infection did not correlate directly with NS1 level, but instead with host factors that are involved in the regulation of junctional integrity and phospholipid metabolism. However, as the studied population was relatively small in this study, these exploratory findings should be confirmed by expanding the sample size using an independent cohort to further establish the significance of this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology
  13. Chong HY, Leow CY, Leow CH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Aug 31;185:485-493.
    PMID: 34174313 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.146
    Co-existence of Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) with highly homologous antigenic epitopes results in antibody-based serodiagnosis being inaccurate at detecting and distinguishing JEV from other flaviviruses. This often causes misdiagnosis and inefficient treatments of flavivirus infection. Generation of JEV NS1 protein remains a challenge as it is notably expressed in the form of inactive aggregates known as inclusion bodies using bacterial expression systems. This study evaluated two trxB and gor E. coli strains in producing soluble JEV NS1 via a cold-shock expression system. High yield of JEV NS1 inclusion bodies was produced using cold-shocked expression system. Subsequently, a simplified yet successful approach in generating soluble, active JEV NS1 protein through solubilization, purification and in vitro refolding of JEV NS1 protein from inclusion bodies was developed. A step-wise dialysis refolding approach was used to facilitate JEV NS1 refolding. The authenticity of the refolded JEV NS1 was confirmed by specific antibody binding on indirect ELISA commercial anti-NS1 antibodies which showed that the refolded JEV NS1 was highly immunoreactive. This presented approach is cost-effective, and negates the need for mammalian or insect cell expression systems in order to synthesize this JEV NS1 protein of important diagnostic and therapeutic relevance in Japanese Encephalitis disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology
  14. Abubakar S, Azila A, Suzana M, Chang LY
    Malays J Pathol, 2002 Jun;24(1):29-36.
    PMID: 16329553
    At least three major antigenic dengue 2 virus proteins were recognized by pooled dengue fever patients' sera in infected Aedes albopictus (C6/36) mosquito cells. Dengue virus envelope (E), premembrane (PrM) and non-structural protein 1 (NS 1) dimer were detected beginning on day 3 postinfection in both the cell membrane and cytosolic fractions. Using the patients' sera, the presence of antigenic intermediate core protein (C)-PrM and NS1-non-structural protein 2a (NS2a) in the cytoplasmic fraction of dengue 2 virus infected cells was revealed. The presence of a approximately 92 and approximately 84 kDa NS 1 dimer in the membrane (NS 1m) and cytosolic (NS 1c) fractions of C6/36 cells, respectively, was also recognized. Using individual patient's serum, it was further confirmed that all patients' sera contained antibodies that specifically recognized E, NS 1 and PrM present in the dengue 2 virus-infected cell membrane fractions, suggesting that these glycosylated virus proteins were the main antigenic proteins recognized in vivo. Detection of dengue 2 virus C antibody in some patients further suggested that C could be antigenic if presented in vivo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology
  15. Darwish NT, Sekaran SD, Alias Y, Khor SM
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2018 Feb 05;149:591-602.
    PMID: 29197806 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2017.11.064
    The sharp increase in incidence of dengue infection has necessitated the development of methods for the rapid diagnosis of this deadly disease. Here we report the design and development of a reliable, sensitive, and specific optical immunosensor for the detection of the dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) biomarker in clinical samples obtained during early stages of infection. The present optical NS1 immunosensor comprises a biosensing surface consisting of specific monoclonal NS1 antibody for immunofluorescence-based NS1 antigen determination using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated to IgG antibody. The linear range of the optical immunosensor was from 15-500ngmL-1, with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.92, high reproducibility (the relative standard deviation obtained was 2%), good stability for 21days at 4°C, and low detection limit (LOD) at 15ngmL-1. Furthermore, the optical immunosensor was capable of detecting NS1 analytes in plasma specimens from patients infected with the dengue virus, with low cross-reaction with plasma specimens containing the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Zika virus. No studies have been performed on the reproducibility and cross-reactivity regarding NS1 specificity, which is thus a limitation for optical NS1 immunosensors. In contrast, the present study addressed these limitations carefully where these two important experiments were conducted to showcase the robustness of our newly developed optical-based fluorescence immunosensor, which can be practically used for direct NS1 determination in any untreated clinical sample.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links