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  1. Yap SP, Julianto T, Wong JW, Yuen KH
    J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl, 1999 Dec 10;735(2):279-83.
    PMID: 10670741
    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method using fluorescence detection was developed for the determination of vitamin E especially delta-, gamma- and alpha-tocotrienols in human plasma. The method entailed direct injection of plasma sample after deproteinization using a 3:2 mixture of acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran. The mobile phase comprised 0.5% (v/v) of distilled water in methanol. Analyses were run at a flow-rate of 1.5 ml/min with the detector operating at an excitation wavelength of 296 nm and emission wavelength of 330 nm. This method is specific and sensitive, with a quantification limit of approximately 40, 34 and 16 ng/ml for alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienol, respectively. The mean absolute recovery values were about 98% while the within-day and between-day relative standard deviation and percent error values of the assay method were all less than 12.0% for alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienol. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 40-2500, 30-4000 and 16-1000 ng/ml for alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienol, respectively. Application of the method in a bioavailability study for determination of the above compounds was also demonstrated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood*
  2. Julianto T, Yuen KH, Noor AM
    J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl, 1999 Sep 10;732(1):227-31.
    PMID: 10517240
    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method using UV detection was developed for the determination of alpha-tocopherol in human plasma. The method entailed direct injection of the plasma sample after deproteinization using acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran (3:2). The mobile phase comprised methanol-tetrahydrofuran (94:6) and analysis was run at a flow-rate of 1.5 ml/min with the detector operating at 292 nm. A Crestpak C18S (5 microm, 250 mm x 4.6 mm ID) was used for the chromatographic separation. The method had a mean recovery of 93%, while the within-day and between-day coefficients of variation and percentage errors were all less than 7%. The speed, specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility of this method make it particularly suitable for routine determination of alpha-tocopherol in human plasma. Moreover, only a small sample plasma volume (100 microl) is required for the analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood*
  3. Fairus S, Nor RM, Cheng HM, Sundram K
    Nutr J, 2012;11:5.
    PMID: 22252050 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-5
    Tocotrienols (T3) and tocopherols (T), both members of the natural vitamin E family have unique biological functions in humans. T3 are detected in circulating human plasma and lipoproteins, although at concentrations significantly lower than α-tocopherol (α-T). T3, especially α-T3 is known to be neuropotective at nanomolar concentrations and this study evaluated the postprandial fate of T3 and α-T in plasma and lipoproteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood
  4. Julianto T, Yuen KH, Noor AM
    Int J Pharm, 2000 Apr 25;200(1):53-7.
    PMID: 10845685
    A single dose study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of a novel self-emulsifying vitamin E preparation, in comparison with that of a commercial product, Natopherol, available as soft gelatin capsules under fasted condition. The self-emulsifying preparation achieved a faster rate and higher extent of absorption. A statistically significant difference was observed between the values of the two preparations in the parameters AUC, Cmax and Tmax. Moreover, the 90% confidence interval of the logarithmic transformed AUC values of the self-emulsifying preparation over those of the soft gelatin capsule product was found to be between 2.1 and 4.1, suggesting an increase in bioavailability of between 210 and 410%. As for Cmax, the 90% confidence interval was between 2.1 and 3.0. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between the t(1/2) values estimated from the plasma concentration versus time data of the two preparations. The values are also comparable to those reported in the literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood
  5. Ng TK, Chong YH
    Med J Malaysia, 1975 Mar;30(3):169-74.
    PMID: 169458
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood*
  6. Hughes K, Ong CN
    J Epidemiol Community Health, 1998 Mar;52(3):181-5.
    PMID: 9616423
    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that the higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Indians (South Asians) compared with Malays and Chinese is partly because of differences in antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E, and selenium) and pro-oxidants (iron).
    DESIGN: Cross sectional study of the general population.
    SETTING: Singapore.
    PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 941 persons aged 30 to 69 years.
    MAIN RESULTS: There were moderate correlations between vitamin A and vitamin E, and between these vitamins and selenium. Mean plasma vitamins A and E were similar by ethnic group. Vitamin A concentration for Indians were (men 0.66 and women 0.51 mg/l), Malays (men 0.67 and women 0.54 mg/l), and Chinese (men 0.68 and women 0.52 mg/l). Vitamin E concentrations for Indians were (men 12.9 and women 12.8 mg/l), Malays (men 13.6 and women 13.3 mg/l), and Chinese (men 12.6 and women 12.6 mg/l). In contrast, mean plasma vitamin C concentrations were lower in Indians (men 5.7 and women 6.9 mg/l) and Malays (men 5.1 and women 6.4 mg/l) than Chinese (men 6.3 and women 8.4 mg/l). Mean serum selenium was lower in Indians (men 117 and women 115 micrograms/l) than Malays (men 122 and women 122 micrograms/l) and Chinese (men 126 and women 119 micrograms/l). Mean serum ferritin was much lower in Indians (men 132 and women 50 micrograms/l) than Malays (men 175 and women 85 micrograms/l) and Chinese (men 236 and women 92 micrograms/l).
    MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Lower vitamin C and selenium in Indians, particularly in combination, could play a part in their increased risk of CHD. Vitamins A and E, and ferritin (iron) have no such role. Lower vitamin C in Indians and Malays is probably because of its destruction by more prolonged cooking. In Indians, lower selenium is probably because of a lower dietary intake and the much lower ferritin to a lower dietary intake of iron and its binding by phytates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood*
  7. Foo LC, Roshidah I, Aimy MB
    Thromb. Haemost., 1991 Mar 4;65(3):317-9.
    PMID: 2048056 DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1648142
    Platelet aggregation to collagen, and productions of 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1-alpha and thromboxane B2 during aggregation were measured after an overnight fast, involving both food and cigarettes, in 19 clinically healthy habitual smokers (10 or more cigarettes/day) and 23 non-smokers receiving the same diet. The subjects (all males; ages = 21-30 years) were residents of a school hostel. Mean platelet aggregation was significantly lower in smokers than non-smokers (23.2 ohms vs 31.5 ohms, p less than 0.005). Non-smokers had significantly higher mean concentration of 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1-alpha than smokers (109.8 pmol/l vs 92.3 pmol/l, p less than 0.05). The level of thromboxane B2 did not differ significantly between the two groups. These observations suggest that the role of smoking as a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease is unlikely to be related to a direct enhancement of aggregation. On the contrary, the observations seem to suggest that habitual smoking may directly reduce platelet aggregability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood
  8. Rasool AH, Rehman A, Wan Yusuf WN, Rahman AR
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2003 Dec;41(12):587-92.
    PMID: 14692708
    INTRODUCTION: Arterial stiffness is emerging as a useful index of vascular health. Postmenopausal women have been shown to have stiffer arteries. Hormone replacement therapy and soy isoflavones improve arterial stiffness in these women. The aim of this study is to establish whether vitamin E improves arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women after 10 weeks of supplementation.

    METHODS: Twenty postmenopausal women with a mean age of 54.59 +/- 1.22 years participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. All women received 400 IU of tocopherol daily for 10 weeks or a placebo capsule, before being crossed over for treatment. At intervals of 5 weeks, subjects attended sessions where measurements of arterial stiffness, blood pressure and plasma vitamin E level were taken. Pulse wave velocity measurement, using the automated Complior machine, was used as an index of arterial stiffness.

    RESULTS: Plasma vitamin E level was 30.38 +/- 1.56 micromol/l at baseline, after treatment it was 59.01 +/- 3.30 micromol/l and 31.17 +/- 1.37 micromol/l with vitamin E and placebo, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in pulse wave velocity after 10-week treatment with placebo and vitamin E (9.14 +/- 0.29 versus 9.04 +/- 0.29 m/s, respectively). Similarly, no difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was seen between placebo and vitamin E at the end of 10 weeks.

    CONCLUSION: Supplementary vitamin E for 10 weeks at 400 IU daily has no effect on arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood
  9. Rasool AH, Rahman AR, Yuen KH, Wong AR
    Arch Pharm Res, 2008 Sep;31(9):1212-7.
    PMID: 18806966 DOI: 10.1007/s12272-001-1291-5
    The tocotrienol vitamin E has potent antioxidant property, however absorption is low due to high lipid solubility. A self emulsifying preparation of tocotrienol rich vitamin E (SF-TRE) had been reported to increase their bioavailability. This randomized, placebo controlled, blinded end point clinical study aimed to determine the effects of 50, 100 and 200 mg daily of SF-TRE and placebo for two months on arterial compliance and vitamin E blood levels. Assessment of arterial compliance by carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI), plasma vitamin E, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were taken before and after 2 months' treatment in 36 healthy males. Un-supplemented tocotrienol levels were low, after treatment, all SF-TRE treated groups had significantly higher plasma alpha, delta and delta tocotrienol concentrations compared to placebo. Augmentation index change from baseline to end of treatment for groups placebo, 50, 100, and 200 mg were 2.22+/-1.54, -6.59+/-2.84, -8.72+/-3.77, and -6.27+/-2.67% respectively (p=0.049, 0.049, and 0.047 respectively). Groups 100 and 200 mg showed significant improvement after treatment with pulse wave velocity reductions of 0.77 m/s and 0.65 m/s respectively (p=0.007 and p=0.002). There was no effect of SF-TRE on serum lipids. We conclude that there was a trend towards improvement in arterial compliance with 2 months' of SF-TRE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood*
  10. Sharhar S, Normah H, Fatimah A, Fadilah RN, Rohi GA, Amin I, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2008 Apr-Jun;9(2):343-49.
    PMID: 18712988
    A case control study was carried out to investigate associations between breast cancer risk, antioxidant status and oxidative stress among women in Klang Valley and Selangor. A total of 57 newly diagnosed cases aged 30 to 66 years old participated and were matched for age and ethnicity with 139 controls with no diagnosis of cancer or other chronic diseases. An interview based questionnaire designed to collect information on demographic and socioeconomic status, as well as reproductive, medical and dietary history was used. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist and hip circumference were made and a 10 ml fasting venous blood sample was taken for glucose testing and analysis of plasma vitamin antioxidants and malondialdehyde. Hair and toenail samples were taken for selenium analysis. Results showed that the mean intake of vitamin A, vitamin E and selenium among cases (606.8 +/- 334.8 microg/d, 6.1 +/- 2.4 g/d, 56.9 +/- 16.2 microg/d) was lower than controls (724.7 +/- 414 microg/day, 6.9 +/- 3.0 g/d, 60.8 +/- 17.5 microg/d, respectively) (p<0.05 for all parameters). A similar trend was noted for plasma vitamin A and E and also selenium in hair and toenails. Poor antioxidant status as indicated by low plasma vitamin A (<284.3 microg/l or <366.3 microg/l) increased risk of breast cancer by approximately two fold, whilst low plasma vitamin E (<2.5 mg/dl, <2.8 mg/dl and <3.1 mg/dl) increased the risk by two to three fold [Adjusted OR 2.97 (95% CI 1.38-3.48), 2.32 (95% CI 1.07-2.41) and 2.12 (95% CI 1.00-4.21)]. Cases had a greater level of malondialdehyde 4.4 +/- 1.1 mmol/g protein), an indicator of oxidative stress, as compared to controls (3.2 +/- 1.7 mmol/g protein) (p<0.05). A high level of MDA (> or = 4.8 mmol/g protein) was associated with breast cancer [Adjusted OR 6.82 (95% CI 1.95-23.9)]. It is concluded that a poor antioxidant status and high oxidative stress are associated with breast cancer risk. Thus, it is essential for Malaysian women to obtain a good antioxidant status by consuming a diet rich in vitamins A and E as well as selenium and adopt healthy behaviour to reduce oxidative stress in order to prevent breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood
  11. Radhakrishnan AK, Lee AL, Wong PF, Kaur J, Aung H, Nesaretnam K
    Br J Nutr, 2009 Mar;101(6):810-5.
    PMID: 18702848 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114508039998
    Vitamin E is divided into two subgroups; tocopherols and tocotrienols. Both have protective roles in biological systems. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of short-term supplementation at 200 mg/d of either alpha-tocopherol or a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil on immune modulation and plasma vitamin E levels in normal healthy Asian volunteers. In a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted, fifty-three healthy volunteers aged 20-50 years were recruited based on the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were randomly assigned into three groups, i.e. two experimental groups that received daily supplementation at 200 mg of either alpha-tocopherol or the TRF, and the control group that received a placebo. Blood was drawn on days 0, 28 and 56 for several laboratory analyses. Differences in the production of IL-4 or interferon-gamma by concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes isolated from these volunteers were not significant (P>0.05). There were no significant differences observed in immune parameters between the healthy volunteers who received daily supplementation with either alpha-tocopherol or the TRF. As these observations were made in the absence of any immunogenic challenge, we feel it would be of benefit to study if there would be any differences observed when an immunogenic challenge such as vaccination were introduced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood
  12. Pirabbasi E, Najafiyan M, Cheraghi M, Shahar S, Abdul Manaf Z, Rajab N, et al.
    Glob J Health Sci, 2013 Jan;5(1):70-8.
    PMID: 23283038 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v5n1p70
    Imbalance between antioxidant and oxidative stress is a major risk factor for pathogenesis of some chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to determine antioxidant and oxidative stress status, and also theirs association with respiratory function of male COPD patients to find the antioxidant predictors' factors. A total of 149 subjects were involved in a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at two medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results of the study showed that plasma vitamin C was low in most of the subjects (86.6%). Total antioxidant capacity was the lowest in COPD stage IV compare to other stages (p < 0.05). Level of plasma vitamin A (p= 0.012) and vitamin C (p= 0.007) were low in malnourished subjects. The predictors for total antioxidant capacity were forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted and intake of ?-carotene (R2= 0.104, p= 0.002). Number of cigarette (pack/ year) and smoking index (number/ year) were not associated with total antioxidant capacity of this COPD population. Plasma oxidative stress as assessed plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO) was only positively correlated with plasma glutathione (p= 0.002). It might be a need to evaluate antioxidant status especially in older COPD patients to treat antioxidant deficiency which is leading to prevent COPD progression.
    Study site: Outpatient clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM) and Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood
  13. Shahar S, Lee LK, Rajab N, Lim CL, Harun NA, Noh MF, et al.
    Nutr Neurosci, 2013 Jan;16(1):6-12.
    PMID: 23321337 DOI: 10.1179/1476830512Y.0000000013
    The influence of nutritional parameters and genetic susceptibility on poor cognitive impairment has been documented; however, the association between lipid-soluble vitamins with genetic susceptibility on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has not yet been studied extensively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood*
  14. Hughes K, New AL, Lee BL, Ong CN
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1998 Mar;27(2):149-53.
    PMID: 9663300
    The National University of Singapore Heart Study measured cardiovascular risk factors, including selected plasma vitamins, on a random sample of the general population aged 30 to 69 years. Plasma vitamins A and E were normal and similar by ethnic group. Mean plasma vitamin A levels were: Chinese (males 0.68 and females 0.52 mg/L), Malays (males 0.67 and females 0.54 mg/L), and Indians (males 0.66 and females 0.51 mg/L). Mean plasma vitamin E levels were: Chinese (males 12.6 and females 12.6 mg/L), Malays (males 13.6 and females 13.3 mg/L), and Indians (males 12.9 and females 12.8 mg/L). No person had plasma vitamin A deficiency (< 0.01 mg/L) and only 0.1% had vitamin E deficiency (< 5.0 mg/L). In contrast, plasma vitamin C was on the low side and higher in Chinese than Malays and Indians. Mean plasma vitamin C levels were: Chinese (males 6.3 and females 8.4 mg/L), Malays (males 5.1 and females 6.4 mg/L), and Indians (males 5.7 and females 6.9 mg/L). Likewise, the proportions with plasma vitamin C deficiency (< 2.0 mg/L) were lower in Chinese (males 14.4 and females 0.7%), than Malays (males 19.7 and females 7.2%), and Indians (males 17.8 and females 11.0%). Relatively low levels of plasma vitamin C may contribute to the high rates of coronary heart disease and cancer in Singapore. In particular, lower plasma vitamin C in Malays and Indians than Chinese may contribute to their higher rates of coronary heart disease. However, plasma vitamin C does not seem to be involved in the higher rates of cancer in Chinese than Malays and Indians. The findings suggest a relatively low intake of fresh fruits and a higher intake is recommended. Also, food sources of vitamin C may be destroyed by the high cooking temperatures of local cuisines, especially the Malay and Indian ones.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood*
  15. Razip NNM, Gopalsamy B, Abdul Mutalib MS, Chang SK, Abdullah MMJA, Azlan A, et al.
    Nutrients, 2021 Jul 01;13(7).
    PMID: 34371798 DOI: 10.3390/nu13072288
    An overview of vitamins D3 and E suggests micronutrient deficiency contributes to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A case-control study was conducted to determine the status of plasma vitamins D3 and E isomers amongst diabetic Malaysians. Two groups were recruited for participation, one comprising fifty diabetic subjects (DM) and one comprising fifty non-diabetic (non-DM) subjects, in order to assess their plasma vitamin D3, calcium and vitamin E status. Glycaemic status (haemoglobin A1c, HbA1c; fasting blood glucose, FBG; C-Peptide) and lipid profiles (total cholesterol, TC; triglycerides, TG; low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C; high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HDL-C) were assessed, followed by anthropometric measurements. The Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to elucidate the association between levels of plasma vitamins D3 and E and T2DM. The vitamin D3 deficiency group (<20 ng/mL) showed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with glycaemic status (HbA1c and FBG) and lipid profiles (HDL-C, LDL and TC). Spearman's correlation demonstrated that vitamin D3 status is strongly correlated with HDL levels (p < 0.05). Similarly, plasma total vitamin E levels >4.9 μg/mL revealed significantly different FBG, HbA1c, C-Peptide, LDL, HDL and TC levels across both groups. Moreover, family history, smoking, waist circumference and HbA1c levels demonstrated a significant association (p < 0.05) with levels of vitamins D and E but not FBG and lipid profiles. This could be because the pre-diabetic status among the non-DM group influenced the outcomes of this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood*
  16. Goon JA, Nor Azman NHE, Abdul Ghani SM, Hamid Z, Wan Ngah WZ
    Clin Nutr ESPEN, 2017 10;21:1-12.
    PMID: 30014863 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2017.07.004
    Vitamin E is a fat-soluble compound and powerful antioxidant that have been shown to protect the cell membranes against damage caused by free radicals. Human vitamin E supplementation studies are usually limited to α-tocopherol but currently tocotrienols are also available. This study aims to compare the effects of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) with α-tocopherol (α-TF) supplementation on oxidative stress in healthy male and female older adults aged 50-55 years old. A total of 71 subjects both male and female aged between 50 and 55 years were divided into groups receiving placebo (n = 23), α-TF (n = 24) and TRF (n = 24) for six months. Blood was taken at baseline (month 0), 3 months and 6 months osf supplementation for determination of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl, total DNA damage, vitamin D concentration and vitamin E isomers. α-TF supplementation reduced plasma MDA and protein carbonyl in female subjects after 3 and 6 months. TRF supplementation reduced MDA levels in both males and females as early as 3 months while DNA damage was reduced in females only at 6 months. Supplementation with α-TF and TRF increased plasma vitamin D concentration in both males and females after 6 months, but vitamin D concentration in male subjects were significantly higher compared to female subjects in TRF group. Vitamin E isomer determination showed α-TF, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol were increased in both male and female subjects. In conclusion, TRF supplementation effects were different from α-TF in reducing oxidative stress markers and vitamin D levels with a more pronounced effect in female subjects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood
  17. George E, Wong HB, Jamaluddin M, Huisman TH
    Singapore Med J, 1993 Jun;34(3):241-4.
    PMID: 8266182
    Following complete DNA characterisation patients with Hb H disease were assigned into two groups: deletional (alpha +/alpha o) and non deletional (HbCS/alpha o). Earlier studies have indicated that the group with (HbCS/alpha o) has more severe clinical problems. The serum malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels, a secondary product of lipid peroxidation were within the normal range, though significantly higher levels of MDA were seen in the non-deletional type of Hb H disease when compared with the deletional type. Markedly low vitamin E levels were also seen in the former group. There were no significant differences in clinical severity may be attributed to an interplay of the accelerated destruction of damaged mature red blood cells secondary to the oxidative denaturation of Hb H and inclusion precipitation; higher levels of Hb H and more inclusion precipitation were seen in the group with (HbCS/alpha o). Low levels of vitamin E in the (HbCS/alpha o) group being due to its consumption in the neutralisation of free radicals formed with the oxidation of globin chains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood*
  18. Yap SP, Yuen KH
    Int J Pharm, 2004 Aug 20;281(1-2):67-78.
    PMID: 15288344
    A single dose comparative bioavailability study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of tocotrienols from two self-emulsifying formulations, one of which produced an emulsion that readily lipolysed under in vitro condition (SES-A), while the other produced a finer dispersion with negligible lipolysis (SES-B) in comparison with that of a non-self-emulsifying formulation in soya oil. The study was conducted according to a three-way crossover design using six healthy human volunteers. Statistically significant differences were observed between the logarithmic transformed peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) values of both SES-A and -B compared to NSES-C indicating that SES-A and -B achieved a higher extent of absorption compared to NSES-C. Moreover, the 90% confidence interval of the AUC(0-infinity) values of both SES-A and -B over those of NSES-C were between 2-3 suggesting an increase in bioavailability of about two-three times compared to NSES-C. Both SES-A and -B also achieved a faster onset of absorption. However, both SES-A and -B had comparable bioavailability, despite the fact that SES-B was able to form emulsions with smaller droplet size. Thus, it appeared that both droplet sizes as well as the rate and extent of lipolysis of the emulsion products formed were important for enhancing the bioavailability of the tocotrienols from the self-emulsifying systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood
  19. Che HL, Kanthimathi MS, Loganathan R, Yuen KH, Tan AT, Selvaduray KR, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2017 01;71(1):107-114.
    PMID: 27759074 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.200
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence shows that tocotrienols potentially reverse various chronic disease progressions caused by the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single-dose supplementation of gamma and delta tocotrienols (γδ-T3, 1:4 ratio) compared with those in placebo on the insulinemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic responses in metabolic syndrome subjects.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty metabolic syndrome subjects (15 men and 15 women) were recruited to a randomized, double-blinded and crossover study. The subjects were administered a single dose of 200 mg or 400 mg γδ-T3 emulsions or placebo incorporated into a glass of strawberry-flavored milkshake, consumed together with a high-fat muffin. Blood samples were collected at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min after meal intake.

    RESULTS: Plasma vitamin E levels reflected the absorption of γδ-T3 after treatments. Postprandial changes in serum C-peptide, serum insulin, plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acid and adiponectin did not differ between treatments, with women displaying delayed increase in the aforementioned markers. No significant difference between treatments was observed for plasma cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and thrombogenic markers (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and D-dimer).

    CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of a single dose of γδ-T3 did not change the insulinemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic responses in metabolic syndrome subjects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/blood
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