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  1. Alam MZ
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:216-7.
    PMID: 15468895
    Studies on the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions by adsorption on sewage treatment plant biosolids (BS) as low-cost adsorbent were carried out with an aim to obtain information on treating phenol-containing wastewater from different industries. A series of experiments were undertaken in a batch adsorption technique to access the effect of the process variables i.e. initial phenol concentration, contact time, initial pH and adsorbent dose. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of BS in aqueous solution increased with the decrease in initial concentration and pH, and increase in contact time and dose of adsorbent. The experimental results were fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to describe the biosorption processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics*
  2. Keshavarzifard M, Zakaria MP, Hwai TS
    Environ Geochem Health, 2017 Jun;39(3):591-610.
    PMID: 27216263 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-016-9835-z
    The bioaccumulation and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were characterized in sediment and Paphia undulata (short-neck clam) from six mudflat areas in the west coasts of Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations of total PAHs varied from 357.1 to 6257.1 and 179.9 ± 7.6 to 1657.5 ± 53.9 ng g -1 dry weight in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. PAHs can be classified as moderate to very high level of pollution in sediments and moderate to high level of pollution in short-neck clams. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs and principal component analysis indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources with significant dominance of pyrogenic source. The first PAHs biota-sediment accumulation factors and relative biota-sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. Evaluation of PAH levels in sediments and short-neck clams indicates that short-neck clam could be introduced as a good biomonitor in mudflats. The results also demonstrated that under environmental conditions, the sedimentary load of hydrocarbons appears to be one of the factors controlling their bioavailability to biota.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics*
  3. Shuhaimi-Othman M, Yakub N, Umirah NS, Abas A
    Toxicol Ind Health, 2011 Nov;27(10):879-86.
    PMID: 21402654 DOI: 10.1177/0748233711399318
    Fourth instars larvae of freshwater midge Chironomus javanus (Diptera, Chironomidae) were exposed for a 4-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) were calculated. LC(50) increased with the decrease in mean exposure times, for all metals. LC(50)s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al and Mn were 0.17, 0.06, 5.57, 0.72, 5.32, 0.62, 1.43 and 5.27 mg/L, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in C. javanus increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cd was the most toxic to C. javanus, followed by Cu, Fe, Pb, Al, Mn, Zn and Ni (Cd > Cu > Fe > Pb > Al > Mn > Zn > Ni). Comparison of LC(50) values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater midges reveals that C. javanus is equally or more sensitive to metals than most other tested dipteran.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics
  4. Shuhaimi-Othman M, Yakub N, Ramle NA, Abas A
    Toxicol Ind Health, 2011 Jul;27(6):523-30.
    PMID: 21343224 DOI: 10.1177/0748233710391993
    Adult Macrobrachium lanchesteri were exposed for a 4-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT₅₀) and concentrations (LC₅₀) were calculated. At the end of the 4-day period, live prawns were used to determine bioconcentration of the metals. LT₅₀ and LC₅₀ increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. LC₅₀s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 32.3, 7.0, 525.1 and 35.0 µg/L, respectively. Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb bioconcentration in M. lanchesteri increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cd was the most toxic to M. lanchesteri, followed by Pb, Cu and Zn. Comparison of LC₅₀ values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater crustacean organisms reveals that M. lanchesteri is equally or more sensitive to heavy metals than most other tested crustaceans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics
  5. Kamaruzzaman BY, Ong MC, Zaleha K, Shahbudin S
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Sep 15;11(18):2249-53.
    PMID: 19137835
    Muscle and feather in tissue of 40 juveniles and 40 adult green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (L.) collected from Muar Estuary, Johor were analyzed for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentration using a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In this study, the average concentration of Cu was 8.96 microg g(-1) dry weights, Cd with 0.58 microg g(-1) dry weight, Pb averaging 2.28 microg g(-1) dry weights and Zn averaged to 86.73 microg g(-1) dry weight. The highest accumulation of metal studied was found in feather sample compared to the muscle. The positive relationship of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn with P. virdis length suggesting that the accumulation of these metals were formed in the mussel. In all cases, metal levels found were lower than the guideline of international standards of reference and the examined bivalve were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics
  6. Lim PE, Lee CK, Din Z
    Sci Total Environ, 1998 May 14;216(1-2):147-57.
    PMID: 9618930
    A study on the kinetics of accumulation and depuration of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd by the oysters (Crassostrea iredalei and Crassostrea belcheri) cultured at two locations in the Merbok Estuary, Malaysia was conducted. A first-order kinetic model was employed to fit the experimental data in order to estimate the rate constants for uptake and elimination processes and to predict the bioconcentration factors (BCF). Among the four metals studied, only the Zn accumulation process could not be modelled using first-order kinetics. The elimination rate constants estimated from depuration data for C. iredalei are found to be much greater than those from accumulation data. The results suggest that the values of kinetic parameters and BCFs derived under conditions of both aqueous and dietary exposure are probably more site- than species-specific.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics*
  7. Lau S, Mohamed M, Yen AT, Su'ut S
    Sci Total Environ, 1998 Jun 18;214:113-21.
    PMID: 9646520
    Heavy metals in the aquatic environment have to date come mainly from naturally occurring geochemical materials. However, this has been enhanced by human activity such as gold mining in the case of heavy metal pollution in Sg Sarawak Kanan. The high suspended solid loads in the river have quite efficiently removed most soluble metals from the water and trapped them in the bottom sediment. Three freshwater mollusc species were collected at the point source of the heavy metal pollutants and analysed for the heavy metal contents in their tissues and shells. Two of the mollusc species (Brotia costula and Melanoides tuberculata) are purely freshwater species while the Clithon sp. nr retropictus is able to survive in fresh and brackish water environments. The Brotia costula and the Clithon sp. are the edible species which are sold in the market. Accumulation of As, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn in all the three mollusc species were determined and the level of As in the tissues of Brotia costula and the Clithon sp. was much higher than the permissible level for human consumption. The mollusc species also demonstrated different preferences for the uptake of different metals. Variations in the heavy metal contents in the shell and tissues of the same species were also observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics*
  8. Yap CK, Noorhaidah A, Azlan A, Nor Azwady AA, Ismail A, Ismail AR, et al.
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2009 Feb;72(2):496-506.
    PMID: 18243309 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.12.005
    The distributions of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the selected soft tissues (foot, cephalic tentacle, mantle, muscle, gill, digestive caecum, and remaining soft tissues) and shells of the mud-flat snail Telescopium telescopium were determined in snails from eight geographical sites in the south-western intertidal area of Peninsular Malaysia. Generally, the digestive caecum compared with other selected soft tissues, accumulated higher concentration of Zn (214.35+/-14.56 microg/g dry weight), indicating that the digestive caecum has higher affinity for the essential Zn to bind to metallothionein. The shell demonstrated higher concentrations of Pb (41.23+/-1.20 microg/g dry weight) when compared to the selected soft tissues except gill from Kuala Sg. Ayam (95.76+/-5.32 microg/g dry weight). The use of different soft tissues also can solve the problem of defecation to reduce error in interpreting the bioavailability of heavy metals in the intertidal area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics
  9. Yap CK, Ismail A, Tan SG, Omar H
    Environ Int, 2002 Apr;28(1-2):117-26.
    PMID: 12046948
    Total concentrations and speciation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in surface sediment samples were correlated with the respective metal measured in the total soft tissue of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, collected from water off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The aim of this study is to relate the possible differences in the accumulation patterns of the heavy metals in P. viridis to those in the surface sediment. The sequential extraction technique was employed to fractionate the sediment into 'freely leachable and exchangeable' (EFLE), 'acid-reducible,' 'oxidisable-organic' and 'resistant' fractions. The results showed that significant (P .05) was found between Zn in P viridis and all the sediment geochemical fractions of Zn and total Zn in the sediment. This indicated that Zn was possibly regulated from the soft tissue of P. viridis. The present results supported the use of P viridis as a suitable biomonitoring agent for Cd, Cu and Pb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics
  10. A A, R N, K P, Bing CH, R R
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2018 Aug;133:655-663.
    PMID: 30041362 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.06.033
    The concentrations of nine trace metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, and Pb) were measured in different tissues of two pelagic and five demersal fish species collected from the Miri coast, Sarawak. The sequence of accumulation of trace metals in different tissues were: liver > gill > gonad > muscle. Zn (301.00 μg g-1) and Cd (0.10 μg g-1) was the maximum and minimum accumulated elements. According to the Hazard Index calculation, none of the elements will pose any adverse health effects to humans for both ingestion rates (normal and habitual fish consumers) proposed by USEPA, except for Pb and Cd in certain fish species. On the basis of the results, the level of elements in the edible muscle tissues of all the analyzed fish species from the Miri coast are below the maximum permissible limits of Malaysian and International seafood guideline values and safe for consumers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics*
  11. Karami A, Syed MA, Christianus A, Willett KL, Mazzeo JR, Courtenay SC
    J Hazard Mater, 2012 Jul 15;223-224:84-93.
    PMID: 22608400 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.04.051
    In this study we sought to optimize recovery of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) from the bile of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) injected with 10mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Fractions of pooled bile were hydrolyzed, combined with ten volumes of methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, or acetone, centrifuged and supernatants were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection (HPLC/FL). As well, to test whether FACs were being lost in solids from the centrifugation, pellets were resuspended, hydrolyzed and mixed with six volumes of the organic solvent that produced best FAC recovery from the supernatant, and subjected to HPLC/FL. Highest FAC concentrations were obtained with 2000μl and 1250μl acetone for supernatants and resuspended pellets respectively. FACs concentrations were negatively correlated with biliary protein content but were unaffected by addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) followed by no incubation indicating that the presence of proteins in the biliary mixture does not simply interfere with detection of FACs. In another experiment, efficiency of acetone addition was compared to two different liquid-liquid extractions (L-LEs). Acetone additions provided significantly higher biliary FACs than the L-LE methods. The new two-stage bile preparation with acetone is an efficient, inexpensive and easily performed method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics
  12. Murakami M, Adachi N, Saha M, Morita C, Takada H
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 2011 Nov;61(4):631-41.
    PMID: 21424221 DOI: 10.1007/s00244-011-9660-4
    Perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in Asian freshwater fish species were analyzed to investigate tissue distribution, temporal trends, extent of pollution, and level of PFS exposure through food intake. Freshwater fish species, namely carp, snakehead, and catfish, were collected in Japan, Vietnam, India, Malaysia, and Thailand, and 10 PFSs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate, were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. PFSs in carp in Tokyo were more concentrated in kidneys (Σ10 PFSs = 257 ± 95 ng/g wet weight [ww]) and livers (119 ± 36 ng/g ww) than in ovaries (43 ± 2 ng/g ww) and muscles (24 ± 17 ng/g ww). Concentrations of PFOS and its precursor, perfluorooctane sulfonamide, in livers of carp and in waters in Tokyo showed a dramatic decrease during the last decade, probably because of 3 M's phasing-out of the manufacture of perfluorooctanesulfonyl-fluoride-based products in 2000. In contrast, continuing contamination by long-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) with ≥ 9 fluorinated carbons was seen in multiple media, suggesting that these compounds continue to be emitted. PFS concentrations in freshwater fish species in tropical Asian countries were generally lower than those in developed countries, such as Japan, e.g., for PFOS in muscle, Vietnam < 0.05-0.3 ng/g ww; India < 0.05-0.2 ng/g ww; Malaysia < 0.05-0.2 ng/g ww; Thailand < 0.05 ng/g ww; and Japan (Tokyo) = 5.1-22 ng/g ww. Daily intake of short-chain PFCAs with ≤ 8 fluorinated carbons from freshwater fish species in Japan was approximately one order of magnitude lower than that from drinking water, whereas daily intake of PFOS and long-chain PFCAs with ≥ 9 fluorinated carbons from freshwater fish species was comparable with or greater than that from drinking water. Because the risk posed by exposure to these compounds through intake of fish species is a matter of concern, we recommend the continued monitoring of PFS levels in Asian developing countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics*
  13. Isobe T, Takada H, Kanai M, Tsutsumi S, Isobe KO, Boonyatumanond R, et al.
    Environ Monit Assess, 2007 Dec;135(1-3):423-40.
    PMID: 17370135
    A comprehensive monitoring survey for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) utilizing mussels as sentinel organisms was conducted in South and Southeast Asia as a part of the Asian Mussel Watch project. Green mussel (Perna viridis) samples collected from a total of 48 locations in India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and the Philippines during 1994-1999 were analyzed for PAHs, EDCs including nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP) and bisphenol A (BPA), and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) as molecular markers for sewage. Concentrations of NP ranged from 18 to 643 ng/g-dry tissue. The highest levels of NP in Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Indonesia were comparable to those observed in Tokyo Bay. Elevated concentrations of EDCs were not observed in Vietnam and Cambodia, probably due to the lower extent of industrialization in these regions. No consistent relationship between concentrations of phenolic EDCs and LABs were found, suggesting that sewage is not a major source of EDCs. Concentrations of PAHs ranged from 11 to 1,133 ng/g-dry, which were categorized as "low to moderate" levels of pollution. The ratio of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P ratio) was >1.0 in 20 out of 25 locations, indicating extensive input of petrogenic PAHs. This study provides a bench-mark for data on the distribution of anthropogenic contaminants in this region, which is essential in evaluating temporal and spatial variation and effect of future regulatory measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics
  14. Baki MA, Shojib MFH, Sehrin S, Chakraborty S, Choudhury TR, Bristy MS, et al.
    Environ Geochem Health, 2020 Feb;42(2):531-543.
    PMID: 31376046 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-019-00386-4
    This study aimed to assess the effects of major ecotoxic heavy metals accumulated in the Buriganga and Turag River systems on the liver, kidney, intestine, and muscle of common edible fish species Puntius ticto, Heteropneustes fossilis, and Channa punctatus and determine the associated health risks. K was the predominant and reported as a major element. A large concentration of Zn was detected in diverse organs of the three edible fishes compared with other metals. Overall, trace metal analysis indicated that all organs (especially the liver and kidney) were under extreme threat because the maximum permissible limit set by different international health organizations was exceeded. The target hazard quotient and target cancer risk due to the trace metal content were the largest for P. ticto. Thus, excessive intake of P. ticto from the rivers Buriganga and Turag could result in chronic risks associated with long-term exposure to contaminants. Histopathological investigations revealed the first detectable indicators of infection and findings of long-term injury in cells, tissues, and organs. Histopathological changes in various tissue structures of fish functioned as key pointers of connection to pollutants, and definite infections and lesion types were established based on biotic pointers of toxic/carcinogenic effects. The analysis of histopathological alterations is a controlling integrative device used to assess pollutants in the environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics
  15. Krishnamoorthy R, Govindan B, Banat F, Sagadevan V, Purushothaman M, Show PL
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2019 Jul;128(1):88-97.
    PMID: 30679113 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2018.12.011
    Phosphoric acid impregnated activated carbon from date pits (DPAC) was prepared through single step activation. Prepared DPAC was studied for its structural, elemental, chemical, surface and crystal nature. Adsorption ability of the DPAC was assessed through divalent lead ions separation studies. Effect of adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH, operating temperature and initial feed concentration on lead removal by DPAC was studied. Maximum Pb(II) adsorption capacity of 101.35 mg/g was attained for a contact time of 30 min and pH of 6 at 30°C. Increase in initial feed concentration enhanced the adsorption ability of DPAC and the rise in adsorbent dosage resulted in improved Pb(II) removal efficiency. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the lead adsorption on DPAC was exothermic and instantaneous in nature. Kinetic and equilibrium studies confirmed the suitability of pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm for divalent lead ions binding on DPAC. Reusability studies showed that HCl was the effective regeneration medium and the DPAC could be reused for a maximum of 4 times with slight reduction in Pb(II) removal efficiency (<10%). Results indicated the promising use of date pits biomass as a low cost and efficient starting material to prepare activated carbon for divalent lead ions removal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacokinetics
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