Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 180 in total

  1. Billah MM, Bhuiyan MKA, Islam MA, Das J, Hoque AR
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Mar;29(11):15347-15363.
    PMID: 34989993 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-18305-5
    Coastal wetlands including salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth. They are known for improving the quality of coastal water and provisioning coastal fisheries. However, this ecosystem is under potential threat due to urban coastal land reclamation, limited sediment supply, increased nutrient/eutrophication, and sea level rise. Therefore, restoration efforts to protect the degraded salt marsh habitat are considerably increasing worldwide. In this paper, we present an overview of salt marsh restoration techniques and success indicators. Published scientific literature in English language was collected by searching the most relevant keywords from popular search engines, namely, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Mendeley to get the information about salt marsh restoration techniques and success indicators. This study comprehensively reviewed data from 78 peer-reviewed papers. Results indicated that much of the salt marsh was restored through assisted abiotic strategies (e.g., recovery of tidal exchange, managed realignment, and sediment level amendment). A total of 214 indicators were found, spanning over six major ecological attributes such as structural diversity, ecosystem functions, physical conditions, species composition, external exchange, and absence of threat. Author keywords analysis revealed several hotspots for recent research (e.g., 16 s rRNA, fungi, microbial communities, carbon accumulation, and blue carbon). This paper proposes a model for restoring degraded salt marsh, as well as tracking their success. The information presented here will assist the marine ecosystem restoration practitioners in getting a comprehensive understanding of salt marsh restoration success evaluation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  2. Kemung HM, Tan LT, Chan KG, Ser HL, Law JW, Lee LH, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2020;2020:6402607.
    PMID: 32258133 DOI: 10.1155/2020/6402607
    The mangrove ecosystem of Malaysia remains yet to be fully explored for potential microbes that produce biologically active metabolites. In the present study, a mangrove-derived Streptomyces sp. strain MUSC 14 previously isolated from the state of Pahang, Malaysia Peninsula, was studied for its potential in producing antioxidant metabolites. The identity of Streptomyces sp. strain MUSC14 was consistent with the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the Streptomyces genus. The antioxidant potential of Streptomyces sp. strain MUSC 14 was determined through screening of its methanolic extract against sets of antioxidant assays. The results were indicative of Streptomyces sp. strain MUSC 14 displaying strong antioxidant activity against ABTS, DPPH free radicals and metal chelating activity of 62.71 ± 3.30%, 24.71 ± 2.22%, and 55.82 ± 2.35%, respectively. The result of ferric reducing activity measured in terms of dose was equivalent to 2.35-2.45 μg of positive control ascorbic acid. Furthermore, there was a high correlation between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activities with r = 0.979, r = 0.858, and r = 0.983 representing ABTS, DPPH, and metal chelation, respectively. Overall, the present study suggests that Streptomyces sp. strain MUSC 14 from mangrove forest soil has potential to produce antioxidant metabolites that can be further exploited for therapeutic application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  3. Lin CY, Turchyn AV, Krylov A, Antler G
    Geobiology, 2020 03;18(2):207-224.
    PMID: 31814266 DOI: 10.1111/gbi.12371
    We employ complementary field and laboratory-based incubation techniques to explore the geochemical environment where siderite concretions are actively forming and growing, including solid-phase analysis of the sediment, concretion, and associated pore fluid chemistry. These recently formed siderite concretions allow us to explore the geochemical processes that lead to the formation of this less common carbonate mineral. We conclude that there are two phases of siderite concretion growth within the sediment, as there are distinct changes in the carbon isotopic composition and mineralogy across the concretions. Incubated sediment samples allow us to explore the stability of siderite over a range of geochemical conditions. Our incubation results suggest that the formation of siderite can be very rapid (about two weeks or within 400 hr) when there is a substantial source of iron, either from microbial iron reduction or from steel material; however, a source of dissolved iron is not enough to induce siderite precipitation. We suggest that sufficient alkalinity is the limiting factor for siderite precipitation during microbial iron reduction while the lack of dissolved iron is the limiting factor for siderite formation if microbial sulfate reduction is the dominant microbial metabolism. We show that siderite can form via heated transformation (at temperature 100°C for 48 hr) of calcite and monohydrocalcite seeds in the presence of dissolved iron. Our transformation experiments suggest that the formation of siderite is promoted when carbonate seeds are present.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  4. Ismail N', Abdullah SRS, Idris M, Kurniawan SB, Effendi Halmi MI, Al Sbani NH, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2020 Aug 01;267:110643.
    PMID: 32421674 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110643
    Pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with Scirpus grossus, were used to investigate the effects of applying a three-rhizobacterial consortium (Bacillus cereus strain NII, Bacillus subtilis strain NII and Brevibacterium sp. strain NII) on the growth of S. grossus and also on the accumulation of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) in S. grossus. The experiment includes constructed wetlands with the addition of 2% of the consortium rhizobacteria and without the consortium rhizobacteria addition (acting as control). During each sampling day (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 42, 72 and 102), plant height, concentration of Fe and Al and sand microbial community were investigated. The results for the constructed wetland with the addition of consortium rhizobacteria showed the growth of S. grossus increased significantly at 26% and 29% for plant height and dry weight, respectively. While the accumulation of Fe and Al in S. grossus were enhanced about 48% and 19% respectively. To conclude, the addition of the rhizobacteria consortium has enhanced both the growth of S. grossus and the metal accumulation. These results suggesting that rhizobacteria has good potential to restore Fe and Al contaminated water in general and particularly for mining wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  5. Rahman ME, Bin Halmi MIE, Bin Abd Samad MY, Uddin MK, Mahmud K, Abd Shukor MY, et al.
    PMID: 33187288 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17228339
    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are affordable and reliable green technologies for the treatment of various types of wastewater. Compared to conventional treatment systems, CWs offer an environmentally friendly approach, are low cost, have fewer operational and maintenance requirements, and have a high potential for being applied in developing countries, particularly in small rural communities. However, the sustainable management and successful application of these systems remain a challenge. Therefore, after briefly providing basic information on wetlands and summarizing the classification and use of current CWs, this study aims to provide and inspire sustainable solutions for the performance and application of CWs by giving a comprehensive review of CWs' application and the recent development of their sustainable design, operation, and optimization for wastewater treatment. To accomplish this objective, thee design and management parameters of CWs, including macrophyte species, media types, water level, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and hydraulic loading rate (HLR), are discussed. Besides these, future research on improving the stability and sustainability of CWs are highlighted. This article provides a tool for researchers and decision-makers for using CWs to treat wastewater in a particular area. This paper presents an aid for informed analysis, decision-making, and communication. The review indicates that major advances in the design, operation, and optimization of CWs have greatly increased contaminant removal efficiencies, and the sustainable application of this treatment system has also been improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  6. Knox SH, Bansal S, McNicol G, Schafer K, Sturtevant C, Ueyama M, et al.
    Glob Chang Biol, 2021 08;27(15):3582-3604.
    PMID: 33914985 DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15661
    While wetlands are the largest natural source of methane (CH4 ) to the atmosphere, they represent a large source of uncertainty in the global CH4 budget due to the complex biogeochemical controls on CH4 dynamics. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first multi-site synthesis of how predictors of CH4 fluxes (FCH4) in freshwater wetlands vary across wetland types at diel, multiday (synoptic), and seasonal time scales. We used several statistical approaches (correlation analysis, generalized additive modeling, mutual information, and random forests) in a wavelet-based multi-resolution framework to assess the importance of environmental predictors, nonlinearities and lags on FCH4 across 23 eddy covariance sites. Seasonally, soil and air temperature were dominant predictors of FCH4 at sites with smaller seasonal variation in water table depth (WTD). In contrast, WTD was the dominant predictor for wetlands with smaller variations in temperature (e.g., seasonal tropical/subtropical wetlands). Changes in seasonal FCH4 lagged fluctuations in WTD by ~17 ± 11 days, and lagged air and soil temperature by median values of 8 ± 16 and 5 ± 15 days, respectively. Temperature and WTD were also dominant predictors at the multiday scale. Atmospheric pressure (PA) was another important multiday scale predictor for peat-dominated sites, with drops in PA coinciding with synchronous releases of CH4 . At the diel scale, synchronous relationships with latent heat flux and vapor pressure deficit suggest that physical processes controlling evaporation and boundary layer mixing exert similar controls on CH4 volatilization, and suggest the influence of pressurized ventilation in aerenchymatous vegetation. In addition, 1- to 4-h lagged relationships with ecosystem photosynthesis indicate recent carbon substrates, such as root exudates, may also control FCH4. By addressing issues of scale, asynchrony, and nonlinearity, this work improves understanding of the predictors and timing of wetland FCH4 that can inform future studies and models, and help constrain wetland CH4 emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  7. Nasruddin Hassan, Bushra Abdul Halim
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1155-1161.
    Satu model matematik dibina bagi menilai pengurusan aktiviti pelancongan rekreasi di Wetland Putrajaya. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah pengaturcaraan gol (PaG) dan perisian LINDO 6.1.untuk menyelesaikan masalah pelbagai objektif bagi memaksimumkan anggaran keuntungan aktiviti dan bilangan peserta yang terlibat. Tujuh aktiviti di Wetland Putrajaya yang terletak di bawah pengurusan Perbadanan Putrajaya telah dipilih sebagai kes kajian. Data dan maklumat rekod tahun 2008 dijadikan sebagai anggaran untuk kos dan bilangan peserta. Hasil kajian mendapati pihak Wetland Putrajaya boleh mencapai keuntungan lebih 40% daripada jumlah kos dan matlamat untuk memaksimumkan bilangan peserta bagi aktiviti yang terlibat juga tercapai.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands
  8. Nazrina Aziz
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1973-1977.
    There are two main reasons that motivate people to detect outliers; the first is the researchers' intention; see the example of Mr Haldum's cases in Barnett and Lewis. The second is the effect of outliers on analyses. This article does not differentiate between the various justifications for outlier detection. The aim was to advise the analyst about observations that are isolated from the other observations in the data set. In this article, we introduce the eigenstructure based angle for outlier detection. This method is simple and effective in dealing with masking and swamping problems. The method proposed is illustrated and compared with Mahalanobis distance by using several data sets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands
  9. Mokhtari M, Ghaffar MA, Usup G, Cob ZC
    PLoS One, 2015;10(1):e0117467.
    PMID: 25629519 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117467
    In tropical regions, different species of fiddler crabs coexist on the mangrove floor, which sometimes makes it difficult to define species-specific habitat by visual inspection. The aim of this study is to find key environmental parameters which affect the distribution of fiddler crabs and to determine the habitats in which each species was most abundant. Crabs were collected from 19 sites within the mudflats of Sepang-Lukut mangrove forest. Temperature, porewater salinity, organic matter, water content, carbon and nitrogen content, porosity, chlorophyll content, pH, redox potential, sediment texture and heavy metals were determined in each 1 m2 quadrate. Pearson correlation indicated that all sediment properties except pH and redox potential were correlated with sediment grain size. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that Uca paradussumieri was negatively correlated with salinity and redox potential. Sand dwelling species, Uca perplexa and Uca annulipes, were highly dependent on the abundance of 250 μm and 150 μm grain size particles in the sediment. Canonical Discriminative Analysis (CDA) indicated that variation in sediment grain size best explained where each crab species was most abundant. Moreover, U. paradussumieri commonly occupies muddy substrates of low shore, while U. forcipata lives under the shade of mangrove trees. U. annulipes and U. perplexa with the high number of spoon tipped setae on their second maxiliped are specialized to feed on the sandy sediments. U. rosea and U. triangularis are more common on muddy sediment with high sediment density. In conclusion, sediment grain size that influences most sediment properties acts as a main factor responsible for sediment heterogeneity. In this paper, the correlation between fiddler crab species and environmental parameters, as well as the interaction between sediment characteristics, was explained in order to define the important environmental factors in fiddler crab distributions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  10. Watanabe A, Moroi K, Sato H, Tsutsuki K, Maie N, Melling L, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2012 Aug;88(10):1265-8.
    PMID: 22564456 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.04.005
    Wetlands are an important source of DOM. However, the quantity and quality of wetlands' DOM from various climatic regions have not been studied comprehensively. The relationship between the concentrations of DOM (DOC), humic substances (HS) and non-humic substances (NHS) in wetland associated sloughs, streams and rivers, in cool temperate (Hokkaido, Japan), sub-tropical (Florida, USA), and tropical (Sarawak, Malaysia) regions was investigated. The DOC ranged from 1.0 to 15.6 mg CL(-1) in Hokkaido, 6.0-24.4 mg CL(-1) in Florida, and 18.9-75.3 mg CL(-1) in Sarawak, respectively. The relationship between DOC and HS concentrations for the whole sample set was regressed to a primary function with y-intercept of zero (P<0.005) and a slope value of 0.841. A similar correlation was observed between DOC and NHS concentrations, with a smaller slope value of 0.159. However, the correlation coefficient of the latter was much larger when the data was regressed to a logarithmic curve. These observations suggest the presence of a general tendency that the increased DOC in the river waters was mainly due to the increased supply of HS from wetland soils, whereas the rate of the increase in the NHS supply has an upper limit which may be controlled by primary productivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  11. Roucoux KH, Lawson IT, Baker TR, Del Castillo Torres D, Draper FC, Lähteenoja O, et al.
    Conserv Biol, 2017 12;31(6):1283-1292.
    PMID: 28272753 DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12925
    Large, intact areas of tropical peatland are highly threatened at a global scale by the expansion of commercial agriculture and other forms of economic development. Conserving peatlands on a landscape scale, with their hydrology intact, is of international conservation importance to preserve their distinctive biodiversity and ecosystem services and maintain their resilience to future environmental change. We explored threats to and opportunities for conserving remaining intact tropical peatlands; thus, we excluded peatlands of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive deforestation, drainage, and conversion to plantations means conservation in this region can protect only small fragments of the original ecosystem. We focused on a case study, the Pastaza-Marañón Foreland Basin (PMFB) in Peru, which is among the largest known intact tropical peatland landscapes in the world and is representative of peatland vulnerability. Maintenance of the hydrological conditions critical for carbon storage and ecosystem function of peatlands is, in the PMFB, primarily threatened by expansion of commercial agriculture linked to new transport infrastructure that is facilitating access to remote areas. There remain opportunities in the PMFB and elsewhere to develop alternative, more sustainable land-use practices. Although some of the peatlands in the PMFB fall within existing legally protected areas, this protection does not include the most carbon-dense (domed pole forest) areas. New carbon-based conservation instruments (e.g., REDD+, Green Climate Fund), developing markets for sustainable peatland products, transferring land title to local communities, and expanding protected areas offer pathways to increased protection for intact tropical peatlands in Amazonia and elsewhere, such as those in New Guinea and Central Africa which remain, for the moment, broadly beyond the frontier of commercial development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  12. Friess DA, Yando ES, Abuchahla GMO, Adams JB, Cannicci S, Canty SWJ, et al.
    Curr Biol, 2020 02 24;30(4):R153-R154.
    PMID: 32097637 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.12.054
    Friess et al. discuss the results of conservation efforts for mangrove forests in recent years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  13. Ahmad A, Sheikh Abdullah SR, Hasan HA, Othman AR, Ismail N'
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Jun 01;287:112271.
    PMID: 33706093 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112271
    The aquaculture industry has become increasingly important and is rapidly growing in terms of providing a protein food source for human consumption. With the increase in the global population, demand for aquaculture is high and is estimated to reach 62% of the total global production by 2030. In 2018, it was reported that the demand for aquaculture was 46% of the total production, and with the current positive trends, it may be possible to increase tremendously in the coming years. China is still one of the main players in global aquaculture production. Due to high demand, aquaculture production generates large volumes of effluent, posing a great danger to the environment. Aquaculture effluent comprises solid waste and dissolved constituents, including nutrients and contaminants of emerging concern, thereby bringing detrimental impacts such as eutrophication, chemical toxicity, and food insecurity. Waste can be removed through culture systems, constructed wetlands, biofloc, and other treatment technologies. Some methods have the potential to be applied as zero-waste discharge treatment. Thus, this article analyses the supply and demand for aquaculture products, the best practices adopted in the aquaculture industry, effluent characteristics, current issues, and effluent treatment technology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  14. Friess DA, Thompson BS, Brown B, Amir AA, Cameron C, Koldewey HJ, et al.
    Conserv Biol, 2016 10;30(5):933-49.
    PMID: 27341487 DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12784
    Many drivers of mangrove forest loss operate over large scales and are most effectively addressed by policy interventions. However, conflicting or unclear policy objectives exist at multiple tiers of government, resulting in contradictory management decisions. To address this, we considered four approaches that are being used increasingly or could be deployed in Southeast Asia to ensure sustainable livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. First, a stronger incorporation of mangroves into marine protected areas (that currently focus largely on reefs and fisheries) could resolve some policy conflicts and ensure that mangroves do not fall through a policy gap. Second, examples of community and government comanagement exist, but achieving comanagement at scale will be important in reconciling stakeholders and addressing conflicting policy objectives. Third, private-sector initiatives could protect mangroves through existing and novel mechanisms in degraded areas and areas under future threat. Finally, payments for ecosystem services (PES) hold great promise for mangrove conservation, with carbon PES schemes (known as blue carbon) attracting attention. Although barriers remain to the implementation of PES, the potential to implement them at multiple scales exists. Closing the gap between mangrove conservation policies and action is crucial to the improved protection and management of this imperiled coastal ecosystem and to the livelihoods that depend on them.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  15. Richards DR, Friess DA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2016 Jan 12;113(2):344-9.
    PMID: 26712025 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1510272113
    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  16. Zvonareva S, Kantor Y
    Zootaxa, 2016 Sep 12;4162(3):401-37.
    PMID: 27615983 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4162.3.1
    Gastropod molluscs are one of the most important components of mangrove ecosystem. Mangroves in Central Vietnam have a rather limited distribution due to peculiarities of the coastline morphology and presently their fauna remains understudied. Extensive surveys were conducted in both natural vegetation and artificial mangrove plantations in several localities in Nha Trang Bay from 2005 to 2015. In total 65 species of gastropod molluscs were found alive, 17 of which can be considered as predominantly mangrove-associated. An illustrated guide is provided, with short synonymies and data on ecology and distribution. The recorded molluscan diversity is compared with published data on mangrove gastropods in different regions of the Indo-Pacific. Total species number and the proportion of mangrove-associated species are similar to studied faunas in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand, but the diversity is much lower than that of the mangal fauna of the Philippines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  17. Evers S, Yule CM, Padfield R, O'Reilly P, Varkkey H
    Glob Chang Biol, 2017 Feb;23(2):534-549.
    PMID: 27399889 DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13422
    Pristine tropical peat swamp forests (PSFs) represent a unique wetland ecosystem of distinctive hydrology which support unique biodiversity and globally significant stores of soil carbon. Yet in Indonesia and Malaysia, home to 56% of the world's tropical peatland, they are subject to considerable developmental pressures, including widespread drainage to support agricultural needs. In this article, we review the ecology behind the functioning and ecosystem services provided by PSFs, with a particular focus on hydrological processes as well as the role of the forest itself in maintaining those services. Drawing on this, we review the suitability of current policy frameworks and consider the efficacy of their implementation. We suggest that policies in Malaysia and Indonesia are often based around the narrative of oil palm and other major monocrops as drivers of prosperity and development. However, we also argue that this narrative is also being supported by a priori claims concerning the possibility of sustainability of peat swamp exploitation via drainage-based agriculture through the adherence to best management practices. We discuss how this limits their efficacy, uptake and the political will towards enforcement. Further, we consider how both narratives (prosperity and sustainability) clearly exclude important considerations concerning the ecosystem value of tropical PSFs which are dependent on their unimpacted hydrology. Current research clearly shows that the actual debate should be focused not on how to develop drainage-based plantations sustainably, but on whether the sustainable conversion to drainage-based systems is possible at all.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  18. Wang Y, Zhao Y, Xu L, Wang W, Doherty L, Tang C, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2017 Jul;76(2):471-477.
    PMID: 28726712 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2017.190
    In the last 10 years, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been extensively studied worldwide to extract energy from wastewater via electricity generation. More recently, a merged technique of embedding MFC into a constructed wetland (CW) has been developed and appears to be increasingly investigated. The driving force to integrate these two technologies lies in the fact that CWs naturally possess a redox gradient (depending on flow direction and wetland depth), which is required by MFCs as anaerobic anode and aerobic cathode chambers. No doubt, the integration of MFC with a CW will upgrade the CW to allow it to be used for wastewater treatment and, simultaneously, electricity generation, making CWs more sustainable and environmentally friendly. Currently, published work shows that India, China, Ireland, Spain, Germany and Malaysia are involved in the development of this technology although it is in its infant stage and many technical issues are faced on system configuration, operation and maximisation of electricity production. This paper aims to provide an updated review and analysis of the CW-MFC development. Focuses are placed on the experience gained so far from different researchers in the literature and further research directions and proposals are discussed in great detail.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  19. Ruwaimana M, Satyanarayana B, Otero V, M Muslim A, Syafiq A M, Ibrahim S, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(7):e0200288.
    PMID: 30020959 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200288
    Satellite data and aerial photos have proved to be useful in efficient conservation and management of mangrove ecosystems. However, there have been only very few attempts to demonstrate the ability of drone images, and none so far to observe vegetation (species-level) mapping. The present study compares the utility of drone images (DJI-Phantom-2 with SJ4000 RGB and IR cameras, spatial resolution: 5cm) and satellite images (Pleiades-1B, spatial resolution: 50cm) for mangrove mapping-specifically in terms of image quality, efficiency and classification accuracy, at the Setiu Wetland in Malaysia. Both object- and pixel-based classification approaches were tested (QGIS v.2.12.3 with Orfeo Toolbox). The object-based classification (using a manual rule-set algorithm) of drone imagery with dominant land-cover features (i.e. water, land, Avicennia alba, Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata and Casuarina equisetifolia) provided the highest accuracy (overall accuracy (OA): 94.0±0.5% and specific producer accuracy (SPA): 97.0±9.3%) as compared to the Pleiades imagery (OA: 72.2±2.7% and SPA: 51.9±22.7%). In addition, the pixel-based classification (using a maximum likelihood algorithm) of drone imagery provided better accuracy (OA: 90.0±1.9% and SPA: 87.2±5.1%) compared to the Pleiades (OA: 82.8±3.5% and SPA: 80.4±14.3%). Nevertheless, the drone provided higher temporal resolution images, even on cloudy days, an exceptional benefit when working in a humid tropical climate. In terms of the user-costs, drone costs are much higher, but this becomes advantageous over satellite data for long-term monitoring of a small area. Due to the large data size of the drone imagery, its processing time was about ten times greater than that of the satellite image, and varied according to the various image processing techniques employed (in pixel-based classification, drone >50 hours, Pleiades <5 hours), constituting the main disadvantage of UAV remote sensing. However, the mangrove mapping based on the drone aerial photos provided unprecedented results for Setiu, and was proven to be a viable alternative to satellite-based monitoring/management of these ecosystems. The improvements of drone technology will help to make drone use even more competitive in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
  20. Oon YL, Ong SA, Ho LN, Wong YS, Dahalan FA, Oon YS, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2018 Oct;266:97-108.
    PMID: 29957296 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.06.035
    This study explored the influence of azo dye concentration, salinity (with and without aeration) and nitrate concentration on bioelectricity generation and treatment performance in the up-flow constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell (UFCW-MFC) system. The decolourisation efficiencies were up to 91% for 500 mg/L of Acid Red 18 (AR18). However, the power density declined with the increment in azo dye concentration. The results suggest that the combination of salinity and aeration at an optimum level improved the power performance. The highest power density achieved was 8.67 mW/m2. The increase of nitrate by 3-fold led to decrease in decolourisation and power density of the system. The findings revealed that the electron acceptors (AR18, nitrate and anode) competed at the anodic region for electrons and the electron transfer pathways would directly influence the treatment and power performance of UFCW-MFC. The planted UFCW-MFC significantly outweighed the plant-free control in power performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Wetlands*
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