The authors describe the organization and results of an epidemiologic training program which formed part of a W.H.O. sponsored course in public health dentistry held in Malaysia in May-June 1975. Twenty-two participants from 16 countries took part. They had a wide variety of qualifications and training; only four had had previous experience in the conduct of an oral health survey. The method and criteria that were proposed for inclusion in the second edition of Oral Health Surveys - Basic Methods were tested in two calibration exercises and one field trial. The usefulness of most of the recommendations was confirmed. The main problem areas concern dentofacial anomalies, intense gingivitis and advanced periodontal involvement. A successful feature of the study was the practicability for public health planning of assessing requirements for treatment.
WHOQOL-100, a 100 items quality of life assessment by WHO is too lengthy to be applicable in researches where the quality of life is one of the many variables of interest. The abbreviated version with 26 items is more acceptable by subjects, especially those with illness. The generic and the abbreviated Malay version were given to subjects who were healthy and with illness. Results showed that the domain scores produced by WHOQOL-BREF correlate highly with that of WHOQOL-100. WHOQOL-BREF domain scores demonstrated good discriminant validity, construct validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The study indicates that WHOQOL-BREF in its brevity offers a valid and reliable assessment of quality of life.
A modified micromethod for measuring urine iodine was successfully established and validated. The micromethod showed good correlation with the method used by several World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative laboratories (y = 0.9342x + 4.6213; r = 0.962; p = 0.01; n = 50). The micromethod also showed good agreement when compared to the reference WHO method. The sensitivity of the assay was 13.809 ug/L (n = 8) and mean recoveries were 114, 103 and 106% at concentrations of 30, 40 and 50 ug/L (n = 3) respectively. At iodine concentrations of 51 +/- 15.5, 108 +/- 32.4 and 149 +/- 38.6 ug/L, intra-assay coefficient of variations (CVs) were 13%, 7% and 5% respectively (n = 20), and inter-assay CVs were 10%, 15% and 7% respectively (n = 10). The assay showed good linearity plot (y = 1.0407x + 60.451; r = 0.993; n = 3).
The importance of traditional healing in low- and middle-income countries cannot be underestimated. It is generally perceived as part of the prevailing belief system and traditional healers are often seen as the primary agents for psychosocial problems in these countries; estimates of their service share range from 45% to 60% (World Health Organization, 1992). The World Health Organization (2000) estimated that 80% of people living in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries depend on traditional medicine for their health needs.
Dealing with malaria in the last 60 years is seen by the author in the perspective of his own experience. His malaria work, which began in 1941, covered the study of the habits of the mosquitoes dwelling in the savanna country of Eastern Colombia and the effect on malaria transmission of the newly introduced DDT residual spraying. The success of the campaign he later directed in Sarawak and Brunei contributed to the launching by WHO of its global malaria eradication campaign. Further successful work in Uganda showed the possibility of effective control and even eradication in highland country but left unsolved the problem of how to interrupt transmission of holoendemic malaria in Africa. The author's work with WHO in the Middle East showed to what extent social and economic conditions could influence the course of a malaria campaign. This was also the experience in America, both in Colombia in the author's early work and later in Mexico during an evaluation of the national malaria programme. Development of insecticide resistance was also encountered in his career and the refractoriness of the European vectors was also observed in his work as a malariologist.
Matched MeSH terms: World Health Organization/history
A workshop on National Plans of Action for Nutrition: Constraints, Key Elements for Success, and Future Plans was convened and organized by the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific in collaboration with the Institute for Medical Research Malaysia and co-sponsored with FAO and UNICEF from 25-29 October 1999. It was attended by representatives of 25 countries in the region and resource persons, representatives from WHO and other international agencies. The objectives of the workshop were to review the progress of countries in developing, implementing and monitoring national plans of action for nutrition (NPANs) in the Western Pacific Region and to identify constraints and key elements of success in these efforts. Most of the countries have NPANs, either approved and implemented or awaiting official endorsement. The Plan formulation is usually multisectotal, involving several government ministries, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies. Often official adoption or endorsement of the Plan comes from the head of state and cabinet or the minister of health, one to six years from the start of its formulation. The NPAN has stimulated support for the development and implementation of nutrition projects and activities, with comparatively greater involvement of and more support from government ministries, UN agencies and non-governmental agencies compared to local communities, bilateral and private sectors and research and academic institutions. Monitoring and evaluation are important components of NPANs. They are, however, not given high priority and often not built into the plan. The role of an intersectoral coordinating body is considered crucial to a country's nutrition program. Most countries have an intersectoral structure or coordinating body to ensure the proper implementation, monitoring and evaluation of their NPANs. The workshop identified the constraints and key elements of success in each of the four stages of the NPAN process: development, operationalization, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. Constraints to the NPAN process relate to the political and socioeconomic environment, resource scarcity, control and management processes, and factors related to sustainability. The group's review of NPAN identified successful NPANs as those based on recent, adequate and good quality information on the nutritional situation of the country, and on the selection of strategies, priorities and interventions that are relevant to the country and backed up by adequate resources. Continued high level political commitment, a multisectoral approach, and adequate participation of local communities are other key elements for success. The participants agreed on future actions and support needed from various sources for the further development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of their NPANs. The recommendations for future actions were categorized into actions pertaining to countries with working NPAN, actions for countries without working NPAN and actions relevant to all countries. There was also a set of suggested actions at the regional level, such as holding of regular regional NPAN evaluation meetings, inclusion of NPAN on the agenda of regional fora by the regional organizations, and strengthening of regional nutrition networks.
As reported by the World Health Organisation (2014), Malaysia is the fattest country among the Southeast Asia. Among others, obesity is a leading contributor of non-communicable diseases (e.g., type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer). This article aims to review the exiting weight management programmes targeting overweight and obesity in Malaysia from 2005 to 2015. The findings from this review could be useful for future intervention efforts in an attempt to address such issues in Malaysia.
The indoor and outdoor radon concentrations in Cameron Highlands (Peninsular Malaysia) and Ranau (East Malaysia) were measured. The measurements were carried out using passive method based on CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) (for indoor measurements in Cameron Highlands) and active method using continuous radon/thoron progeny monitor (for indoor and outdoor measurements in Ranau and outdoor measurements in Cameron Highlands). The mean indoor radon concentrations in Cameron Highlands and Ranau were 50 Bqm-3 and 1.5 Bqm-3, respectively. The mean indoor radon concentration in Cameron Highlands was slightly higher compare to the world average. The maximum value recorded was 97 Bqm-3 which is almost similar to WHO reference level. The mean outdoor radon concentrations in Cameron Highlands and Ranau were 7.4 Bqm-3and 1.7 Bqm-3, respectively. The outdoor concentrations were low and comparable to world outdoor average.
Abstract-Progress toward universal health coverage (UHC) requires making difficult trade-offs. In this journal, Dr. Margaret Chan, the World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General, has endorsed the principles for making such decisions put forward by the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and UHC. These principles include maximizing population health, priority for the worse off, and shielding people from health-related financial risks. But how should one apply these principles in particular cases, and how should one adjudicate between them when their demands conflict? This article by some members of the Consultative Group and a diverse group of health policy professionals addresses these questions. It considers three stylized versions of actual policy dilemmas. Each of these cases pertains to one of the three key dimensions of progress toward UHC: which services to cover first, which populations to prioritize for coverage, and how to move from out-of-pocket expenditures to prepayment with pooling of funds. Our cases are simplified to highlight common trade-offs. Though we make specific recommendations, our primary aim is to demonstrate both the form and substance of the reasoning involved in striking a fair balance between competing interests on the road to UHC.
Ketidaksuburan idiopati dalam kalangan lelaki telah dikaitkan dengan kesan psikostres. Walaupun begitu, hubungan langsung antara psikostres dan ketaknormalan kualiti semen masih samar. Maka, kajian ini dijalankan untuk menentukan kesan psikostres terhadap kualiti semen terutama kesan berdasarkan residu sitoplasma dan kerosakan DNA sperma. Dalam kajian ini, responden lelaki berumur antara 25-45 tahun dipilih secara rawak dalam kalangan pesakit yang mendapatkan rawatan di Pusat Kesuburan Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara (LPPKN). Seramai 331 responden akhirnya telah dipilih daripada 628 responden selepas mengambil kira faktor penolakan. Setiap responden perlu menjawab borang keizinan dan soal selidik GHQ-12 bagi penentuan tahap stres sebelum pengambilan sampel semen mengikut piawaian WHO (2010). Tahap stres diukur berdasarkan keadaan semasa responden dalam tempoh 3-4 minggu sebelum kajian. Analisis semen, pewarnaan papanicolau dan asai komet neutral digunakan untuk penentuan kualiti semen dan kerosakan DNA sperma. Keputusan menunjukkan tidak terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara psikostres dan ketaknormalan residu sitoplasma (U=895.50, p=0.08). Namun begitu, psikostres memberi kesan kepada peratus morfologi normal (U=6317.50, p<0.05) dan kerosakan DNA sperma (U=1047.00, p<0.01). Kesimpulannya, psikostres kronik boleh menjejaskan kualiti semen dan kerosakan DNA sperma serta mempengaruhi kesuburan.