Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Al Batran R, Al-Bayaty FH, Al-Obaidi MM
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:276329.
    PMID: 24151590 DOI: 10.1155/2013/276329
    Alveolar bone resorption is one of the most important facts in denture construction. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) causes alveolar bone resorption, and morphologic measurements are the most frequent methods to identify bone resorption in periodontal studies. This study has aimed at evaluating the effect of Andrographolide (AND) on alveolar bone resorption in rats induced by Pg. 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group and three experimental groups challenged orally with Pg ATCC 33277 five times a week supplemented with 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of AND for twelve weeks. Alveolar bones of the left and right sides of the mandible were assessed by a morphometric method. The bone level, that is, the distance from the alveolar bone crest to cementumenamel junction (CEJ), was measured using 6.1 : 1 zoom stereomicroscope and software. AND reduced the effect of Pg on alveolar bone resorption and decreased the serum levels of Hexanoyl-Lysine (HEL); furthermore the reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in AND treated groups (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly increased when compared with the Pg group (P < 0.05). We can conclude that AND suppresses alveolar bone resorption caused by Pg in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/drug therapy*; Alveolar Bone Loss/microbiology; Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology
  2. Rahman SA, Muhammad H, Haque S, Alam MK
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2019 Feb 01;20(2):173-178.
    PMID: 31058631
    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the peri-implant hard and soft tissues and implant stability and to assess the correlation of bone loss and peri-implant probing depth with implant stability.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with implants were included in this study and implants were assessed by resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Bone levels of the implants were assessed by measuring mesial and distal bone levels from the periapical radiograph, and soft tissue was assessed from probing depth using a periodontal probe. Implants were assessed for stability and probing depth at pre-loading, at 3 months and 6 months post-loading. RFA and probing depth were statistically compared from different time points. Correlation of probing depth and marginal bone loss with implant stability was also determined.

    RESULTS: The average change in implant stability quotient (ISQ) measurements from pre-loading to 6 months post-loading was found to be statistically significant (p <0.005). The average probing depth reduced from 1.767 mm at pre-loading to 1.671 mm at post-loading 3 months, and 1.600 mm at post-loading 6 months. At 6 months of function, radiographic examination yielded 0.786 mm mesial bone loss and 0.8 mm distal bone loss. It was found to be statistically significant (p <0.005) but within an acceptable range. No significant correlation was found between implant stability and bone loss; and implant stability and probing depth.

    CONCLUSION: The study revealed an increasing trend in implant stability values with the time that indicates successful osseointegration. Increasing mean values for mesial and distal bone loss were also found.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The success of dental implants is highly dependent on the quality of bone and implant-bone interface, i.e., osseointegration. The most important factors that influence the survival rate of an implant is initial stability. The present study found the changes in the peri-implant hard and soft tissues and implant stability. This article, while being a prospective study, may show the evidence of successful osseointegration by increasing trend in implant stability (RFA) values with time which can help to the clinician in the long-term management of implants.

    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss*
  3. Tan SJ, Baharin B, Nabil S, Mohd N, Zhu Y
    J Evid Based Dent Pract, 2021 Jun;21(2):101543.
    PMID: 34391557 DOI: 10.1016/j.jebdp.2021.101543
    OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively evaluate implant survival, clinical and biochemical parameters, as well as possible dose-response relationship with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with differing diabetic control.

    METHODOLOGY: Five electronic databases were searched for studies that compared implant outcomes in patients with differing HbA1c values. Research quality was evaluated using Risk of Bias in Nonrandomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. Narrative synthesis and meta-analysis were performed for survival rate, plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth, and marginal bone loss (MBL). Categorical dose-response meta-analysis (DRMA) was conducted according to length of follow-up.

    RESULTS: Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Prospective studies were mostly of moderate quality, but non-prospective papers had serious to critical risk of bias. Survival rate was high for the first 3 years (92.6%-100%) for patients with HbA1c less than 8%. Meta-analysis revealed worsening clinical parameters with increasing HbA1c. DRMA further established a significant dose-response relationship between glycemic control with BOP (10% more bleeding, 95% CI 0.05-0.16, P = .008) and MBL (0.05 mm more bone loss, 95% CI 0.01-0.09, P = .002) per HbA1c category, but no association with probing pocket depth. Osseointegration progressed at a slower rate, and inflammatory cytokines and bone biomarkers were adversely affected in patients with HbA1c above 8%.

    CONCLUSION: Moderate evidence suggests a high short-term survival but possible dose-response trend of worsening BOP and MBL in association with glycemic control. Clinically, HbA1c values must be considered for risk assessment before placement and throughout the lifespan of the implant placed in a patient with diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss*
  4. Alsrouji MS, Ahmad R, Ibrahim N, Kuntjoro W, Al-Harbi FA, Baba NZ
    J Prosthodont, 2019 Apr;28(4):373-378.
    PMID: 30875139 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.13047
    PURPOSE: Blood flow disturbance from functional pressure may lead to ischemia and accumulation of metabolites leading to residual ridge resorption (RRR) underneath complete dentures. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of mandibular complete denture (CD) and implant-retained overdenture (IRO) on blood flow disturbance in the opposing denture bearing-mucosa of maxillary CD and to compare the blood flow disturbance to RRR of the anterior maxilla.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The test group included 9 participants rehabilitated by maxillary CD opposing mandibular IRO, while the control group consisted of 4 participants with CDs. Blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) after denture removal for 0, 30, 60, and 90 minutes. RRR was quantified as reduction in bone volume a year post-treatment. The measurement of blood flow was then compared to the quantification of RRR.

    RESULTS: The mean blood flow measure for the IRO group was significantly lower than CD after immediate denture removal and 30 minutes later. After 60 minutes, the mean difference was not significant between groups, and at 90 minutes, the mean blood flow of both groups equalized to reach a steady state of 377 BPU. The mandibular IRO had reduced the initial blood flow measure in the opposing anterior maxilla mucosa to almost a quarter (103 BPU) of the steady state value (377 BPU) compared to the CD, which reduced it to only about one half (183 BPU), suggesting greater blood flow disturbance in the IRO group. This result is in tandem with the greater reduction of bone volume observed in the IRO group, which was 7.3 ± 1.3% after a year, almost three times higher than CD group at 2.6 ± 1.7%.

    CONCLUSION: IRO may cause significantly higher blood flow disturbance than CD and may have contributed to greater RRR in the anterior maxilla.

    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss*
  5. Saravanan P, Ramakrishnan T, Ambalavanan N, Emmadi P, John TL
    J Oral Implantol, 2013 Aug;39(4):455-62.
    PMID: 23964779 DOI: 10.1563/AAID-JOI-D-10-00211
    The purpose of the study was to evaluate radiologically the efficacy of guided bone regeneration using composite bone graft (autogenous bone graft and anorganic bovine bone graft [Bio-Oss]) along with resorbable collagen membrane (BioMend Extend) in the augmentation of Seibert's class I ridge defects in maxilla. Bone width was evaluated using computerized tomography at day 0 and at day 180 at 2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm from the crest. There was a statistically significant increase in bone width between day 0 and day 180 at 2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm from the crest. The results of the study demonstrated an increase in bone width of Seibert's class I ridge defects in the maxilla of the study patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/radiography*; Alveolar Bone Loss/surgery*
  6. Subramaniam K, Nah SH, Marks SC
    Lepr Rev, 1994 Jun;65(2):137-42.
    PMID: 7968186
    The loss of alveolar bone supporting the maxillary central incisors and the general periodontal conditions were evaluated after 14 years in the 12 patients remaining from an original group of 47 under treatment in Malaysia. Alveolar bone loss was minimal during this period even in the presence of periodontal inflammation. These data suggest that treatment protects patients with leprosy from alveolar bone loss and suggests that other skeletal deformities might respond similarly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology*; Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology
  7. Yusof Z, Porter SR, Greenman J, Scully C
    J Nihon Univ Sch Dent, 1995 Dec;37(4):197-200.
    PMID: 8820338
    Levels of serum IgG against Porphyromonas gingivalis cell sonicate were determined in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 25), rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP)(n = 25) and adult periodontitis (AP)(n = 15) and controls (HP)(n = 10) utilizing the ELISA technique. Comparison between groups showed no significant differences between the HP and RA groups and also between the RPP and AP groups. The increased levels of IgG in the RPP and AP groups were comparable. Significant differences in IgG levels were noted between HP and RPP (p<0.05) and between HP and AP (p<0.01). The differences between RA and RPP and between RA and AP were highly significant (p<0.0001). Thus it was revealed that the serum levels of IgG against P. gingivalis in RPP and AP patients were elevated, whereas the levels in RA patients were comparable to those in controls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/immunology; Alveolar Bone Loss/microbiology
  8. Ang MY, Dymock D, Tan JL, Thong MH, Tan QK, Wong GJ, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2013;1(6).
    PMID: 24309744 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.01025-13
    Parvimonas micra is an important oral microbe that has the ability to grow and proliferate within oral biofilms and is involved in periodontal disease, leading to gingival bleeding, gingival recession, alveolar bone loss, and tooth mobility. However, occasionally these normally oral pathogens can cause infections at other sites in the body. We present the genome sequence of Parvimonas micra strain A293, a smooth Parvimonas micra strain isolated from an abdominal abscess from a patient at Barts Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss
  9. Ang CY, Samsudin AR, Karima AM, Nizam A
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:149-50.
    PMID: 15468862
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and biological properties of a locally produced "Bovine Bone Sponge" for use in dentistry. Bovine bone sponge was prepared from local calf bone. Endotoxin level and surface properties were investigated. The pore size and water uptake ability were measured and results were compared with the commercial haemostatic agent. The material was tested for its haemostatic property and its inhibition of alveolar bone resorption in a sheep model following dental extraction. Results revealed a significant difference in haemostatic effect, and a shorter bleeding time and a lower rate of alveolar bone resorption in bovine bone sponge compare to a commercial haemostatic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/prevention & control
  10. Razali M, Palmer RM, Coward P, Wilson RF
    Br Dent J, 2005 Apr 23;198(8):495-8; discussion 485.
    PMID: 15849588
    Smoking has been associated with increased risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to compare the periodontal disease severity of adult heavy smokers and never-smokers referred for assessment and treatment of chronic periodontitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/complications
  11. Shankargouda SB, Sidhu P, Kardalkar S, Desai PM
    J Prosthodont, 2017 Feb;26(2):168-171.
    PMID: 26479878 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12385
    Residual ridge resorption is a rapid, progressive, irreversible, and inevitable process of bone resorption. Long-standing teeth and implants have been shown to have maintained the bone around them without resorption. Thus, overdenture therapy has been proven to be beneficial in situations where few remaining teeth are present. In addition to the various advantages seen with tooth-supported telescopic overdentures, a few shortcomings can also be expected, including unseating of the overdenture, increased bulk of the prosthesis, secondary caries, etc. The precise transfer of the secondary telescopic copings to maintain the spatial relationship, without any micromovement, remains the most critical step in ensuring the success of the tooth-supported telescopic prosthesis. Thus, a simple and innovative technique of splinting the secondary copings was devised to prevent distortion and micromovement and maintain its spatial relationship.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/physiopathology
  12. Vohra F, Al-Kheraif AA, Ab Ghani SM, Abu Hassan MI, Alnassar T, Javed F
    J Prosthet Dent, 2015 Sep;114(3):351-7.
    PMID: 26047803 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2015.03.016
    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Zirconia implants have been used for oral rehabilitation; however, evidence of their ability to maintain crestal bone and periimplant soft tissue health is not clear.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate crestal bone loss (CBL) around zirconia dental implants and clinical periimplant inflammatory parameters.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: The focus question addressed was, "Do zirconia implants maintain crestal bone levels and periimplant soft tissue health?" Databases were searched for articles from 1977 through September 2014 with different combinations of the following MeSH terms: "dental implants," "zirconium," "alveolar bone loss," "periodontal attachment loss," "periodontal pocket," "periodontal index." Letters to the editor, case reports, commentaries, review articles, and articles published in languages other than English were excluded.

    RESULTS: Thirteen clinical studies were included. In 8 of the studies, the CBL around zirconia implants was comparable between baseline and follow-up. In the other 5 studies, the CBL around zirconia implants was significantly higher at follow-up. Among the studies that used titanium implants as controls, 2 studies showed significantly higher CBL around zirconia implants, and in 1 study, the CBL around zirconia and titanium implants was comparable. The reported implant survival rates for zirconia implants ranged between 67.6% and 100%. Eleven studies selectively reported the periimplant inflammatory parameters.

    CONCLUSIONS: Because of the variations in study design and methodology, it was difficult to reach a consensus regarding the efficacy of zirconia implants in maintaining crestal bone levels and periimplant soft tissue health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss*
  13. Yusof ZA
    J. Periodontol., 1990 Dec;61(12):751-4.
    PMID: 2269916
    The objective of this report was to determine the radiographic patterns of alveolar bone loss in early-onset periodontitis (EOP) cases in a selected Malaysian population. The radiographs of 55 cases of EOP patients were examined and the radiographic patterns were classified as follows: Type I: bone destruction on first molars and/or incisors only; Type II: bone destruction on first molars and/or incisors and several additional teeth (less than 14 teeth); Type III: generalized bone destruction (greater than 14 teeth), but with involvement noticeably more extensive on the first molars and/or incisors; Type IV: generalized bone destruction (greater than 14 teeth), but with no more bone loss on the first molars and/or incisors than on other involved teeth. Sex, age, and missing teeth were also recorded. Out of 55 cases, 47 cases, 22 males and 25 females, were classified into the types mentioned above; the remaining 8 cases were excluded due to too many missing teeth. It was found that 7 (14.9%) were Type I; 12 (25.5%) were Type II; 7 (14.9%) were Type III; and 21 (44.7%) were Type IV. There was a predominance of first molar/incisor involvement in Types I, II, and III with the maxillary first molars most frequently involved followed by the mandibular central incisors. Type I occurred in the younger age group and Types II, III, and IV mainly in the older age group. It was concluded that EOP in this patient sample resembled that of western society.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/radiography*
  14. Alsrouji MS, Ahmad R, Abdul Razak NH, Shuib S, Kuntjoro W, Baba NZ
    J Prosthodont, 2019 Feb;28(2):e764-e770.
    PMID: 30044033 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12954
    PURPOSE: To relate the principal stress, strain, and total deformation in the premaxilla region beneath a complete denture to the pattern of premaxilla bone resorption when opposed by a conventional complete denture (CD) or by a two-implant-retained overdenture (IOD) using finite element analysis (FEA).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional solid models of the maxilla, mucosa, and denture of a selected edentulous patient were created using Mimics and CATIA software. The FEA model was created and duplicated in ANSYS 16.0 to perform two simulations for the IOD and the CD models. The values of maximum stress and strain and total deformation were obtained and compared to the outcomes of premaxilla resorption from a parallel clinical study.

    RESULTS: The maximum principal stress in the premaxilla in the IOD model ranged from 0.019 to 0.336 MPa, while it ranged from 0.011 to 0.193 MPa in the CD model. The maximum principal strain in the IOD model was 1.75 times greater than that in the CD model. Total deformation was 1.8 times higher in the IOD model. Greater bone resorption was observed in regions of higher stress, which were on the occlusal and buccal sides of the premaxilla residual ridge.

    CONCLUSION: Stress, strain, and total deformation values present in the premaxilla area beneath a CD were approximately two times greater in a comparison between an opposing mandibular two-IOD and an opposing mandibular CD. The results were consistent with a parallel clinical study in which the rate of premaxilla bone resorption was almost three times greater in the IOD group.

    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology*
  15. Alsrouji MS, Ahmad R, Rajali A, Mustafa NWNA, Ibrahim N, Baba NZ
    J Prosthodont, 2019 Feb;28(2):131-137.
    PMID: 30427557 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12999
    PURPOSE: To compare the residual ridge resorption (RRR) of the anterior maxillary bone beneath complete dentures when opposed by mandibular complete dentures (CD) and implant-retained overdentures (IRO).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 patients were rehabilitated with maxillary CD opposing mandibular IRO, and 4 patients were prescribed with conventional CD. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of the maxilla were acquired before and 1 year post-treatment and converted into 3D models using Mimics research software. RRR was quantified by measuring the changes in bone volume following superimpositioning and sectioning of these models at the anterior maxillary region. Subsequently, the sectioned 3D models of the anterior maxilla were exported to 3-Matic software to reveal the predominant region and depth of RRR.

    RESULTS: The mean reduction in bone volume of the anterior maxilla in the CD group was 2.60% (SD = 1.71%, range = -4.89 % to -0.92%, median = -2.30%), while the mean reduction in the IRO group was almost three times higher at 7.25% (SD = 3.16%, range = -13.25 to -1.50, median = -7.15%). The predominant areas of RRR were on the buccal and occlusal ridge of the anterior maxilla.

    CONCLUSION: Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that an IRO caused significantly higher RRR of the anterior maxilla than a CD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology*
  16. Mustafa H, Cheng CH, Radzi R, Fong LS, Mustapha NM, Dyary HO
    Pol J Vet Sci, 2021 Sep;24(3):365-373.
    PMID: 34730299 DOI: 10.24425/pjvs.2021.138727
    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent, chronic immune-inflammatory disease of the periodontium that results in the periodontium and alveolar bone loss's progressive destruction. In this study, the induction of periodontal disease via retentive ligature, lipopolysaccharide, and their combination at three different times were compared in a rat model. Seventy-two Sprague Dawley rats were distributed into four treatment groups: 1) control group with no treatment; 2) application of 4/0 nylon ligature around second maxillary molars; 3) combination of ligature and LPS injection (ligature-LPS); 4) intragingival injection of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) to the palatal mucosa of the second maxillary molars. Six rats were sacrificed from each group after 7, 14, and 30 days of periodontal disease induction. Alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, number of inflammatory cells, and blood vessels were evaluated histologically. A micro-CT scan was used as a parameter to know the rate of alveolar bone loss. Parametric data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction with a significance set at 5%. Non-parametric data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, followed by multiple comparisons with Bonferroni correction. The histological results revealed significant destructive changes in the periodontal tissues and alveolar bone following the ligature and ligature-LPS induction techniques. These changes were evident as early as seven days, maintained until 14 days post-treatment, and declined with time. The ligature technique was effective in inducing acute periodontal disease. The LPS injection technique did not induce alveolar bone loss, and its combination to ligature added insignificant effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology
  17. Al Qabbani A, Al Kawas S, A Razak NH, Al Bayatti SW, Enezei HH, Samsudin AR, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2018 Mar;29(2):e203-e209.
    PMID: 29303859 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004263
    INTRODUCTION: Alveolar bone is critical in supporting natural teeth, dental implants as well as a removable and fixed prosthesis. Alveolar bone volume diminishes when its associated natural tooth is lost.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of bovine bone granules on alveolar bone socket augmentation for ridge preservation following atraumatic tooth extraction.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty medically fit patients (12 males and 8 females aged between 18 and 40 years) who needed noncomplicated tooth extraction of 1 mandibular premolar tooth were divided randomly and equally into 2 groups. In control group I, the empty extraction socket was left untreated and allowed to heal in a conventional way. In group II, the empty extraction socket wound was filled with lyophilized bovine bone xenograft granules 0.25 to 1 mm of size, 1 mL/vial. A resorbable pericardium membrane was placed to cover the defect. Clinical and 3-dimensional radiological assessments were performed at day 0, 3 months, and 9 months postoperative.

    RESULTS: There were no clinical differences in general wound healing between the groups. Comparisons within the groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption of 1.49 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.63-2.35) at 3 months, and further resorption of 1.84 mm (P ≤ 0.05) at 9 months in the control group. No significant changes of bone resorption were observed in group II during the same time interval. Comparison between groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption at 3 and 9 months (2.40 and 2.88 mm, respectively).

    CONCLUSION: The use of lyophilized demineralized bovine bone granules in socket preservation to fill in the extraction socket seems essential in preserving the alveolar bone dimension as it showed excellent soft and hard tissue healing. This study concludes that the alveolar bone socket exhibited a dynamic process of resorption from the first day of tooth extraction. Evidence shows the possibility of using bovine bone granules routinely in socket volume preservation techniques following tooth extraction.

    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/prevention & control*
  18. Al-Juboori MJ, AbdulRahaman SB, Hassan A
    Implant Dent, 2013 Aug;22(4):351-5.
    PMID: 23811720 DOI: 10.1097/ID.0b013e318296583d
    To detect the correlation between crestal bone resorption and implant stability during healing period using resonance frequency analysis (RFA).
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss/classification*; Alveolar Bone Loss/radiography
  19. AL-Bayaty, F.H., Omar Emad Ibrahim, William, C., Khairuddin, N.A.
    Compendium of Oral Science, 2018;5(1):26-36.
    Objective: This retrospective study aims to evaluate the possible effects of antihypertensive drugs on alveolar bone loss in patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods: 50 patients on antihypertensive drugs selected as the experimental group and 50 patients with chronic periodontitis with no known systemic illnesses as control group were randomly selected as the study samples. Orthopantomographs were obtained, calibration and assessment of alveolar bone loss was performed by using the computer software program available in the faculty, through radiographic linear measurement procedure. Premolars, first and second molars of both maxilla and mandible were measured from the most apical point to the cementoenamel junction for mesial and distal aspects in the form of millimetres and percentile of the root length. Data was statistically analyzed using independent t-test and Analysis of Covariance in SPSS Version 23 with significance at P-value, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss
  20. Al-Bayaty, F.H., Al-Tay, B.O., Al-Kushali, S.S., Mahmmod, L.
    ASM Science Journal, 2009;3(1):45-50.
    A study was undertaken to estimate the histological changes of gingival enlargement induced by
    Cyclosporin A (CsA) and Nifedipine, separately and in combination. Twelve adult rabbits were divided equally into four main groups. The first group received 10 mg/kg/day Nifedipine, the second received 10 mg/kg/day CsA, and the third received a combination of 10 mg/kg /day Nifedipine and CsA by gastric feeding. The fourth was regarded as a control group. Animals were given the drugs from day 1 of the experiment until day 70. They were then sacrificed for histological purposes. Results showed increase in the thickness of the epithelium with keratosis and acanthosis, and also increased vascularity. Collagen fibres and fibroblasts at different rates in the three histological groups were observed. Significant alveolar bone resorption with increased marrow spaces filled with fatty tissue were found in the CsA group. Non-significant changes in the alveolar bone of the Nifedipine group while subsequent bone resorption and bone deposition were seen in the combination group. These changes could be due to the effect of both drugs. Significant changes in the gingiva and the alveolar bone were shown in the three experimental groups compared with the control group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alveolar Bone Loss
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